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Browsing by Subject "lääkehoidon arviointi"

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  • Mäkinen, Heljä (2022)
    Municipal case management is an activity that assesses various functional capacity indicators, utilizing the elderly’s state of health and coping in everyday life. The goal of case management is to refer clients to suitable services, such as home care or a doctor's visit. The problems related to drug treatments are only superficially reviewed. The involvement of a pharmacist in the assessment of case management would provide an opportunity to address the problems of pharmacotherapy and to provide adequate support for the implementation of pharmacotherapy. In this thesis, a remote service of a pharmacist was piloted for new clients over the age of 65 living at home as part of case management. Pharmacist reviewed medications remotely using medication risk management checklist LOTTA. The study examined the suitability of the LOTTA for medication reviews and the problems associated with medications of the elderly participating in case management. In addition, the suitability of pharmacovigilance assessments as a remote service as part of a comprehensive assessment of functional capacity and coping with everyday life was examined. The research material was collected at the case management unit of the city of Turku. The study involved 50 volunteer Finnish-speaking customers over the age of 65, for whom were assessed for a case management at Turku's case management unit. In addition to the assessment of normal case management, two pharmacists with comprehensive medication review qualifications reviewed medications using the medication risk management checklist LOTTA. Subjects were interviewed by telephone. If the pharmacist estimates that the subject will benefit from a multi-professional comprehensive medication review, the physician and pharmacist collaborated to conduct a review using a videophone application. Subjects background information, responses, observations made by pharmacists, and actions taken by physicians were recorded on an electronic form and analyzed. The mean age of the study participants (n = 50) was 82 years (range 67–98). Of these, 36 were women (72%) and 14 were men (28%). Most subjects were multidrug-treated (average medication 10.3, range 3–28). Each subject had at least one drug can be used with consideration for use in the elderly, as defined in the Fimea Drug 75 + database (Class C). 30% of subjects did not have a medication list and 34% reported lack of regular medication monitoring. 96% of the subjects had experienced a symptom on the LOTTA list that repeatedly interferes with their lives. The most common of these were problems such as constipation (54%). Pharmacists proposed changes for medication for 96 % of subjects. The most common proposed change was a change in the time of dosing (46%). Pharmacists estimated that 14 (28%) subjects would benefit from a multi-professional comprehensive medication review. In these cases, pharmacists made an average of 8.1 proposed changes for the physician, and the physician made an average of 6.9 changes for each subject. The most common challenges in coping with medication were symptom, which may be due to adverse drug reactions, a lack of follow-up to medication, and the absence of a treating physician. The results suggest that medication should be reviewed during the case management. The LOTTA list made it possible to identify and address the pharmacological problems of the elderly. The participation of a pharmacist in the assessment of the need for a multi-professional service remotely was possible, but it must be further developed. More research is needed on the benefits of multi-professional case management with a larger sample size.
  • Valve, Kiia (2021)
    Background and objectives: Pharmaceutical services provided by community pharmacies have the potential to improve medication safety and support the implementation of rational pharmacotherapy. The pharmaceutical services are internationally an underused resource to support functioning of social and health care services. The literature review of this Master’s thesis provides an overview of pharmaceutical services, - their funding and remuneration. The primary objective of the empirical study was to create an overview of the development of the pharmaceutical services in Finnish community pharmacies in 2010-2020. The secondary objective was to study differences in the service provision between Finnish provinces. Materials and methods: The study was carried out as a retrospective descriptive survey study annually conducted by the Association of Finnish Pharmacies. Åland was excluded from the provincial review so that individual pharmacies could not be identified. The data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The number of pharmacies providing pharmaceutical services annually and the annual number of customers using these services were counted at the national level. At the provincial level, the corresponding data for the prescribing review, medication review, comprehensive medication review and assessment of inhalation technique were analyzed for the years 2017-2020. Results and conclusions: The most common service with the highest number of customers was automated dose dispensing. The second most common service was prescription review. As a whole, the provision of services and the number of customers had increased during the study period in Finnish community pharmacies. Manual dose dispensing was a diminishing service. Differences were found between provinces in the prevalence of services and in the number of customers. It was possible to identify provinces with lower service provision activity, such as Lapland. The service provision prevalence and number of customers varied widely within provinces. The number of customers for a certain service in an individual pharmacy had a large effect on the provincial average, thus, the average number of customers in the provinces does not reflect the provinces' success in implementation of services. Pharmaceutical services, with the exception of the automated dose dispensing, are not well implemented.
  • Hannula, Sara (2011)
    Pharmaceutical services refer to services in community pharmacies which are based on knowledge and skills of the pharmaceutical personnel. Pharmaceutical services can be divided into basic and special services. Pharmaceutical basic services relate to community pharmacy's legislative functions, while pharmaceutical special services try more proactively contribute to consumers' health.. Automated dose dispensing is pharmaceutical special service. Dose dispensing means that the patient's medication are packed in disposable bags corresponding to the dose that he or she needs to take during the course of one day. When a new patient starts to use the automated dose dispensing service, his medication is reviewed to assure there would not be severe interactions or unnecessary drugs The drugs suitability to the service and the timing of the medication is noted when the service is started. Automated dose dispensing service produces a medication list of customer's medication. The survey studied the level of the checks made to patient's medication and how can the medication history be explaned. In the survey were also interested in the level of review that was done to patient's medication. Information of patient's medication was also collected with a questionnaire. Background information showed how well the results of the survey can be generalized to pharmacies offering services and customers using the service. The questionnaire was sent to all pharmacies that ordered automated dose dispensing as contract manufacturing from Espoonlahti Pharmacy in September 2010. In the semi structured questionnaire was multiple choice and open-ended questions. Response rate in this study was 45. Background information showed that questionnaires were returned from pharmacies all around the Finland and all sizes of pharmacies. Mostly the patients starting the automated dose dispensing service are aged, homecare patients, nursing home residents or service home residents. Medication cards are used in collecting the information of patient's medication, but information to the medication card can be updated from other sources too. Medication review to patient's medication is made usually in multi-professional cooperation. Changes made to patient's medication are mainly caused by generic substitutions, selection of the dispensing machine or avoidance to halving. Medications have only few interactions that lead into discontinuing use of some medicine. Checking the medication has only little effect on the amount of drugs used by the patient. New patients starting the automated dose dispensing service have on the average 11 medicines in use, from which 7 medicines are taken to automated dose dispensing. The most widely used ATC groups are cardiovascular and nervous system medicines. Each new patient uses an average of three preparations in both groups before and after the initiation of automated dose dispensing service.
  • Lias, Noora (2021)
    Medication reviews can be used to assess the appropriateness of a patient’s medication and to identify and resolve clinically significant drug-related problems. Medication reviews have been highlighted in several health and medicines policy documents as ways to improve medication safety in older adults. Collaborative practices and their development are key strategies in promoting the coordinated care of patients. Medication reviews have been previously defined from a multi-professional perspective but no definition based on multi-professional consensus has been established. The aim of this study was to harmonize the definition of medication review from a multi-professional perspective to suit various healthcare contexts in Finland. The goal was to create a shared understanding for physicians, nurses, pharmacists, information management professionals for their collaboration in reviewing medications. Furthermore, the aim was to define the tasks and responsibilities of different professional groups in collaborative medication reviews in order to support its implementation. The study was conducted as a 3-round survey using the Delphi method. The Delphi method is a qualitative consensus method based on the views of experts aiming at reaching consensus on the studied subject. The Delphi rounds were conducted as electronic surveys in September-December 2020. Expert panelists assessed the proposed definition of a collaborative medication review and the tasks and responsibilities of health care professionals involved in conducting it. The expert panel consisted of 41 participants: 12 physicians, 13 pharmacists, 10 nurses, and 6 information management professionals. The results of the study were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Consensus was reached on the definition of medication review from a multi-professional perspective, while no consensus was reached on most of the responsibilities and tasks of different healthcare professionals involved. Most challenging was to define patient groups benefiting from medication reviews and the situations in which medication reviews should be performed. Therefore, further research is needed to define the division of responsibilities between care team members, for example by defining separately the responsibilities and tasks in different healthcare contexts. This is the most comprehensive attempt taken in Finland to define medication review as a concept from a multi-professional perspective. The results of the study imply to the development and harmonizing of medication review practices and standardizing patient data documentation. The expected outcomes relate to enhanced patient and medication safety, improved coordination in medication management with integrated medication reviews.
  • Lindholm, Tanja (2021)
    Medication reviews have been highlighted as one of the most important strategies for improving medication safety and medication management especially in older adults. Current electronic health records document and communicate e-prescriptions but their medication use related patient information content should be extended to cover e.g. medication review documentation. The documentation should be in structured format to be useful in clinical practice and evidence-informed decision-making. The aim of this study was to identify medication review related patient information and other patient data that should be in a structured form in electronic health record systems (EHRs) at a national and organizational level. The aim was also to determine which medication review related patient information should be documented in electronic health record systems. The study was conducted as 3-round survey using the Delphi-method. The Delphi method is a qualitative consensus method based on the views of experts aiming at reaching consensus of the experts on the studied subject. The Delphi rounds were conducted as electronic surveys in September-December 2020. Expert panelists assessed which medication-related patient data and other data generated by healthcare providers should be documented in a structured form in EHRs and in which national digital data system services (Kanta and My Kanta Pages) the medication review related patient information should be accessible and by whom. The expert panel consisted of 41 participants: 12 physicians, 13 pharmacists, 10 nurses, and 6 information management professionals. The results of the study were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Consensus was reached on a total of 108 medication review related patient information topics that should be documented in a structured form in EHRs and that should be available for medication reviews through EHRs. Of the topics, 39 related to medication reviews in general, 25 to adverse drug reaction symptoms, 11 to the burden of adverse drug effects, 12 to laboratory tests and other test results, 12 to medication adherence and 9 to the use of intoxicants. Structuring the data was considered as important or important to some extent in most of the presented medication review related information topics. Especially, the documentation of renal function was rated by the expert panelists as a crucial piece of information to be structured. Medication adherence information and information related to the use of intoxicants were rated as less important to be documented in a structured form than other topics. Consensus was also reached on the accessibility of medication review documentation in the Kanta and My Kanta services. The expert panel of this study had a common and strong view that data related to medication reviews should be structured in EHRs. The expert panel reached a strong consensus that almost all of the data presented in the study should be structured. Based on this Delphi study, the expert panel identified the benefits of structuring and standardized recording. Because not all data can be structured at once, further prioritization of the data identified in this study is still needed. The practical implementation of the structured information could be accomplished in the form of a checklist. The study addresses a very current problem related to the shortcomings of medication information management and overall medication management.
  • Vanhanen, Saara (2015)
    Different kind of medication reviews have been developed in different countries. In Finland comprehensive medication review was developed in the late 2000th. Only few researches of medication review exist in Finland. In other countries more studies on the subject have been done. This Master's thesis's aim in the literature review was to examine what kind of outcome measurements were used in medication review studies and what kind of results were obtained from these measurements. In many medication review studies different kind of drug related parameters were used to evaluate the effectiveness of medication review. These parameters are Drug Related Problems (DRP), Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) and different kind of criteria's for potentially inappropriate medication for elderly. Medication reviews have showed a positive effect on these parameters. To the health-related quality of life medication reviews have not shown any statistical effect. Physical performance meters have not been used a lot in medication review studies. And results have been controversial. Omahoitosuunnitelma 2100 (OMA21) research project, that examines the effectiveness of the comprehensive medication review in Finnish health care, could potentially due to its long follow-up time produce results also from the quality of life and physical performance instruments. In the Master's thesis's experimental part the aim was to evaluate unity of the medication reviews in OMA21 research project. For four intervention patients in the OMA21 research project parallel medication reviews were done. From these reviews were examined how many of the problems found in the reviews were the same with different reviewers. There was a lot of dispersion in the problems found in the reviews. Only 17.5 % of the 40 different problems found in the reviews were the same with all the reviewers. From 12 patients medication reviews drug related problems were categorized by PCNE classification V6.2. 69 drug related problems were found from the medication reviews. Most common problem was the treatment effectiveness (P1) (37.7 %). For the problems 92 potential causes were found and the most common of them was drug selection (C1) (39.1 %). The aim was also examine whether Evidence-Based Medicine electronic Decision Support (EBMeDS) tool, developed by Duodecim Medical Publications Ltd, could be useful in the OMA21 research project. It was shown that EBMeDS have limited advantage if patients' information has not been reported right in the electronic health records. Only 30 % of the examined drugs had indication. In the future if the patients' information was reported right in the electronic health records the EBMeDS tools could be useful help in medication reviews, because EBMeDS contains many electronic databases that are often used in medication reviews.P50O48
  • Rantanen, Ilona (2023)
    Väestön ikääntyessä sairastavuus lisääntyy ja käytettyjen lääkkeiden määrä kasvaa altistaen lääkkeiden haitta- ja yhteisvaikutuksille. Iäkkäiden suuri sairastavuus, monilääkitys ja lääkkeiden aiheuttamat haitat voivat kasaantuessaan huonontaa elämänlaatua ja toimintakykyä. Lääkehoidon arviointien avulla voidaan tunnistaa ja ratkaista monilääkittyjen iäkkäiden lääkitysongelmia. Jos potilaan lääkehoidon kokonaisuutta ei arvioida säännöllisesti, lääkkeitä voidaan määrätä lisää perusteettomasti, mikä voi johtaa lääkkeiden kasautumiseen ja estettävissä olevien haittojen lisääntymiseen. Tämän tutkimuksen aineisto perustuu Lohjan kaupungin kotihoidossa vuosina 2015-2017 toteutettuun interventiotutkimukseen. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli analysoida pseudonymisoiduissa lääkehoidon arviointiraporteissa (n=43) tunnistettuja lääkitysongelmia (drug-related problems, DRPs) 65 vuotta täyttäneillä PCNE-luokittelujärjestelmän avulla. Lisäksi tavoitteena oli tarkistaa erilaisten lääkehoidon tietokantojen ja työkalujen avulla olivatko farmasistien muutosehdotukset ja huomiot valideja ja hoitosuositusten mukaisia. Lisäksi tutkittiin, mihin ATC- pääryhmiin ja edelleen lääkeaineisiin muutosehdotukset kohdistuivat sekä miten ne toteutuivat. Muutosehdotuksille ja huomioille (n=167) yleisimmin koodattu PCNE-luokituksen mukainen ongelma (P) oli P2.1 “Lääkkeen haittatapahtuma (mahdollinen)” (65,3 % n=109). Yleisin koodattu syy (C) oli C1.1 “Epätarkoituksenmukainen lääke suhteessa suosituksiin” (34,1 %). Ehdotuksista toteutui seurannassa 37,7 % (n=63), joissa yleisimmät interventiot olivat I3.5 ”Lääkkeen lopetus tai tauotus” (n=27) ja I3.2 ”Annosmuutos” (n=23). Yleisimmin muutosehdotukset ja huomiot kohdistuivat hermostoon vaikuttaviin lääkkeisiin (43,7 %), ruuansulatuselinten sairauksien ja aineenvaihduntasairauksien lääkkeisiin (26,3 %) ja sydän- ja verisuonisairauksien lääkkeisiin (15,0 %). Muutosehdotuksista ja huomioista 37,1 % (n=62) liittyi Fimean Lääke 75+ -tietokannan mukaan iäkkäille varauksin soveltuviin (ns. C-luokka) ja 23,9 % (n=41) iäkkäillä vältettäviin lääkeaineisiin (ns. D-luokka). C-luokan lääkeaineisiin liittyneistä ehdotuksista toteutui 27,4 % ja D-luokan lääkeaineisiin liittyneistä ehdotuksista toteutui 37,5 %. Farmasistin muutosehdotuksista ja huomioista valideja oli 98,2 % (n=164/167). Farmasistien osaamista tulisikin hyödyntää enemmän lääkitysongelmien ratkomisessa, mikä tukisi lääkärien sekä muiden sosiaali- ja terveydenhuollon ammattilaisten työtä.
  • Toivonen, Salla (2023)
    The lack of up-to-date medication information in healthcare electronic information systems, the transfer of medication information with the patient, and the overall management of medication are key challenges in health care. The number of cancer patients in Finland will increase in the future due to the aging of the population, early detection of cancer, improvement in cancer prognosis and the development of cancer treatments. The development creates a need for operating models that improve medication safety. Medication safety of cancer patients can be improved with clinical pharmacy services, such as medication reconciliation and medication review. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the medication charts and identify the drug related problems and risks related to home medications among patients with newly diagnosed cancer in the Oncologic Outpatient Clinic of Turku University Central Hospital. This was a retrospective register-based study carried out as an operational development project to obtain information about the current operational model of pharmacist-led medication reconciliation and to further develop it. The theoretical starting point for the study was the theory of human error, according to which factors endangering patient safety can be prevented by using system-based safety defences. In the study, almost every (93 %, 69/74) patient's medication information differed from the hospital's information. A total of 392 discrepancies related to medication information and an average of 5,3 discrepancies per patient were observed in the data (range 0-15 discrepancies). High alert medications accounted for 14 % (n=53/392) of all discrepancies. It took an average of 19 minutes per patient to confirm a medication reconciliation (range 5-48 minutes). During medication reconciliation the pharmacist recorded observations for the doctor in 15 (20 %, n=15/74) patients. In the retrospectively performed medication review, a total of 183 possible drug related problems or risks related to patients’ home medications were observed in 31 (84 %, n=31/37) patients. Pharmacist-led medication reconciliation proved to be a fast and effective way to find out the patient's overall medication. In the future, the operating model should be developed to detect drug related problems, and risks related to patients’ home medications. In situations of limited resources, the clinical pharmacy services should be targeted to patients with the highest risk to drug related problems.
  • Kähkönen, Asta (2017)
    According to international studies, medication records are often incomplete in hospitals' patient information system. Medication reconciliation is an effective method to prevent medication errors and improve medication safety. A medication review is a useful tool in the assessment of drug-related problems (DRPs). DRPs can cause severe patient harm and even cause death. Approximately one third of Finnish people are diagnosed with cancer during their lifetime. About 16 000 patients receive cancer treatments in the Helsinki University Central Hospital Cancer Centre (HUCHCC). There are no clinical pharmacy services in the division of the solid tumors of HUCHCC. Internationally clinical pharmacy services in oncology are patient oriented and often include medication reconciliations and reviews. The clinical pharmacy services have increased patient safety also in the oncological specialty. The aim of this study was to find out the accuracy of the medication charts and identify the DRPs among 70-80-year-old patients with 6 or more medicines in uro-oncological outpatient clinic of HUCHCC. Accuracy of the medication charts was assessed by pharmacist-led medication reconciliation with patient interview. Information concerning patient's medication was also searched from the national electronical prescription centre and from the records of previous hospital visits. DRPs, such as drug-drug interactions, adverse drug reactions and overlapping medications, were identified with the pharmacist-led medication review. Special attention was paid to renal insuffiency, high-alert medications and potentially inappropriate medication for patients over 75 years old. Pharmacist discussed the DRPs with the oncology specialist. The theoretical framework of this study was the theory of human error, where patient safety hazards can be prevented by using safety defences such as medication reconciliation and medication review. Altogether 30 patients with urological cancer were included in this study. On average, they were 74.3 years old and used 12.4 medications. On average, there were 6.8 discrepancies per patient in the hospital medication chart. Only one patient had the accurate medication chart. The discrepancies were most commonly related to paracetamol (n = 10), vitamin-D (n = 9) and the combination of calcium and vitamin-D (n = 8). The most common discrepancies of high-alert medications were related to enoxaparin (n=6) and oxycodone (n=6). Of the potentially inappropriate medications for over 75 years old, the most common discrepancies were related magnesium (n=8) and metoclopramide (n=5). In the medication review process, 4 acute and 44 non-acute DRPs were identified with 22 patients (2,2 per patient). 60 % of these were regarded clinically relevant and lead to actions by the oncology specialist. Reconsidering the need or efficacy of the medication was recommended 19 times and inappropriate dose or medication with renal insufficiency were identified six times in medication reviews. DRPs were usually related to non-oncological medications such as pantoprazol (n=8), the combination of calcium and vitamin-D (n=4) ja bisoprolol (n=3). The medication reconciliation process should be developed in the urology-oncology outpatient clinic. Multiprofessional medication review can be used to detect and resolve DRPs of patients with urological cancer. The results of this study can be exploited when clinical pharmacy services will be created and developed in HUCHCC.