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Browsing by department "Kotitalous- ja käsityötieteiden laitos"

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  • Lahti, Virpi (2007)
    In this research the technical functionality, quality and demands made on endurance runners' running suits in winter conditions were studied. The aim was also to find out how smart clothing and wearable technology are adopted in endurance runners' practise. Referring to previous studies the subject was approached in the theoretical part by studying the profile of endurance running, sports wear and the technology to wear as well as the smart clothing from the point of view of endurance running. The basis of subject was the interest of smart materials and the connection between technical structures and functionality. In the science of handicrafts smart clothing is rarely researched which made it even more interesting for the author. This research was carried out by the principles of the usability research. Usability means the suitability of product to its intended meaning. In the research both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Researched persons were active competitive long-distance runners and also the long-distance runners doing it as a hobby, 35 male and 12 female runners. User information was gathered by the internet forms which mainly was based on the multiple choices but also included few open questions. Gathered information was considered by using both quantitative and content analysing methods. The functional long-distance running practice suit in winter conditions consisted of layered look which considered the possibilities of functional and smart materials. The Practise suit was humid transformable, easy care and light also comfortable to wear. These suits were hoped to be more functional than the current ones. The future running suit was described to not to feel or notice during running. It will not be too tight or sweltering. The functional abilities of clothing materials were believed to be developed further more. Even if the new technical materials are adopted for the running suits the technology to wear is not even though half of the researched runners used pulse indicators. The runners hoped the technology to wear to change more invisible and easier to use. Some of the runners wished the technology to wear to be integrated straight to the clothes which would reduce the number of devices carried with while running. The rare use of Polar Adidas AdiStar Fusion practise system and some other similar systems for endurance running was surprising. According to the results the smart clothing would not make a big brake through in the near future. In the point of view of the researched persons developing of clothing materials was a good and necessary thing, but integrating too much technology to the hobby smears the main purpose of sports and focuses wrongly on the metres and others minors .
  • Lahti, Satu (2010)
    The objective of the present study was to increase knowledge about the atelier culture of recent history, especially about the ways in which atelier clothes were made. I look at the ways of dress-making in the production of a renowned atelier, Salon Kaarlo Forsman. I also give a general outline of the atelier. The studying method I used was triangulation, which is a typical approach in case studies of recent history. My data include 23 dresses by the Salon Forsman, theme interviews of four of the Salon workers and one mannequin, data from my research work, as well as press material and archives. The basis of the analysis of these materials was a theme frame that I had put together with the help of pre-understanding. I then completed and defined the theme frame on the basis of the analysis of the data. I also analyzed the dresses in the fashion photos in the press material. Salon Kaarlo Forsman represents a certain cultural period, the years 1937-1986, and a place where a woman could have individual clothes made for her, from hats to fur coats. The atelier was particularly known for embroidery with beads, draping, and fantastic cuttings designed by the owner, fashion designer Kaarlo Forsman. I draw an outline of the work and practices of the atelier, but also that of Kaarlo Forsman's life work, as he had a great influence on the sewing methods atelier clothes. Mr. Forsman was able to stretch the first period of modern fashion well into the third period by refusing new, labor-saving methods and sticking to individually designer clothes to the end of his enterprise. The crucial practices in the atelier that I present in this study are fitting, designing, finishing and sewing, as well as beading and the decoration of dresses. I compare the activity, practices and dress-making methods in the Forsman atelier to that of Haute Couture in Paris, which served as model for Finnish fashion houses. I point out the similarities and differences.
  • Maijala, Seija (2001)
    The objective of the study was to understand individuality in Muslim women's dress. The research problems were, how individuality forms and appears in their dress. To answer these questions interviews were made with nine Muslim women who live in Finland. The interviews were analysed with the phenomenologically oriented content analysis method. The research report proceeds in a dialogue between theory and the analysis. In this study individuality in dress was studied as a process. Factors affecting to this process were considered: the individual, the set of identities, personality, self, religion, culture and social relationships. An essential part of the process was searching for a positive experience of self. The experience meant intuitive self-identification and satisfaction with the mirror reflection for the women. Individuality was the result of searching for the positive experience of self-identification, because for each woman different kinds of dress gave a feeling of suitability for the self. For example, for some Muslim women head covering is a way to express the self. They experience this as the right way for the good Muslim woman. For others head covering can mean the loss of positive self experience. Individuality in dress appeared in various ways. Some women cover their whole body including their head in public. Some women do not cover their head and some dress even in tight and revealing clothes. There are also Muslim women who cover their faces, they are not included in this study. Individuality appears also within groups that dress similarly. Individuality appeared with different kind of clothes, hairstyles, make-up, choices, details and colour. However, individuality is not only the noticeable differences in dress, but how each Muslim woman belongs to this reality and expresses herself within dress. This means that in this study individuality in dress is seen in a way that many Finns would not consider as individuality.
  • Hakala, Pirjo (2003)
    The aim of the study was to find out, how the craftsmen of textile of the archipelago reach for ecological sustainability. In addition, what does the ecological orientation mean for the craftsman and how to understand ecological handicrafts. Both the product and the creator serve as a narrator. To answer these questions interviews were made with nine craftsmen who live in the Archipelago. The interviews were analysed with content analysis method. The research report proceeds in a dialogue between theory and the analysis. The relationship between the sustainable development and the handicrafts of archipelago was observed as the theoretical basis of the research. By investing in cultural, social, financial and industrial sustainability the fundamental aim of ecological sustainability is possible to attain. Values, skills and knowledge of a craftsman have an influence on the various sectors of the development. The operational environment of the craftsmen is the archipelago, its nature and the culture created by man. One objective was to work out, how the archipelago and its notion played a part in their way of working and telling about their products. Ecology in the handicrafts of the archipelago appeared in various ways. Cultural and social sustainability materialized better than economical and industrial sustainability. Education seemed to be the best way to get intermediate goals on the way to the sustainable development. Handicrafts was seen as a part of the culture of archipelago and the networks in a sparsely populated area is experienced as an important thing. The ecological acting is commonly connected to the material of handicraft and its methods of production. Values take shape, when the craftsman talked about his family and told his story about growing into the craftsmanship. Striving for ecological sustainability in handicrafts aroused also mixed feelings. Craftsmanship is lifeblood on the market, which is ruled by the global market economy. Does it mean that striving for ecological sustainability is an attempt to reach for truth?
  • Kasurinen, Jaana (2001)
    The purpose of this research is to deepen the understanding of the culture of the veil among Somali women in Finland. The research deals with ethnicity, identity, easing the immigrant's readjustment with the help of one's own culture, and the connection between the religion of Islam and the veil. The veil will be studied from both the historical and religious point of view. The research will also familiarize the reader with the dress code for women in the Koran. The empirical part of the research is carried out as a qualitative study with the help of content analysis, with emphasis in phenomenology. The aim of the phenomenological research method is to reach a person's experience world, and to search for common contents from individual experiences. The material for this study has been collected by interviewing ten Somali women. Some of the women wear veils, some do not. It can be said, on the ground of this research, that the decision about taking on the veil is made by the women themselves. The main cause for wearing the veil is to indicate religiousness. As other motives we can see a search for security, enhancing of solidarity, individual interpretation of the instructions of the religion, covering the ethnic dress while outside, protecting men from the beauty of women, and wearing the veil in the mosque or while praying. As a latent motive we can point out the resisting of Western culture. Not wearing the veil can be justified by the women's need for independence, the veil being unpractical, the want of modernity, the alternation of different ways of dressing, the adaptation of the new culture, abandoning one's own culture, and abandoning the external emphasizing of the religion. Also the veil is not part of the Somali culture; it is a habit adapted from elsewhere.
  • Kauppinen, Eila (2009)
    Aims: The older the youngsters are, the more important role hobbies and leisure time activities have in their life. That is why various activities organized by the non-profit organizations have an important role concerning the development of food habits of youngsters. This study has three main themes. The themes and their respective study questions are: 1. The youngsters' conceptions on healthy eating and food choice: What kind of food do youngsters consider as healthy? How do they see their own eating habits from this point of view? 2. The youngsters and the significance of everyday food-related information: How do the youngsters perceive the role of different actors and these actors' role regarding their own food habits and food choice? 3. The possibilities of the organizations that work with youngsters to improve their food habits: What kind of role do the non-profit organizations have on the youngsters' food habits and healthy food choice? Methods: This study comprises of two types of data. First, a quantitative internet-based survey (N=582) was used to collect data on the 9th graders conceptions and understandings. The data was analyzed with the SPSS-program. Means, cross-tabulations, Pearson's correlations and t-test were calculated from the data. The qualitative data was collected using interviews. The respondents were 12 experts from non-profit organizations. The interviews were analyzed with the qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusions: The non-profit organizations studied have good possibilities to communicate with youngsters through their hobbies. As part of their activities these organizations are able to influence on health-promoting lifestyle and food habits of youngsters. In order to reach more youngsters, these organizations should actively act e.g. in virtual societies of youngsters. Youngsters will participate when activities are voluntary and exhilarating. From the point of food habits doing, learning and identifying are the most important factors to engage the young. Also the models of peers and adults are important. Non-profit organizations should offer youngsters activities but these organizations should also influence on society.
  • Nordberg, Marjut (2008)
    The aim of this study was to find out how the technique of knotless netting is perceived by the craftsperson of the twenty first century. In this study the craftspeople are represented by the researcher herself, seven craftspeople and teachers (3) teaching knotless netting as well as their students (21). The main interests of this study are the mental pictures and relationship to knotless netting that craftspeople have in the twenty first century. Points of focus are also the specific characteristics of knotless netting, as well as experimenting with new and different materials. The aim of these experiments has been to find new and unusual uses for knotless netting. Preserving knotless netting as a craft and technique are also questions dealt with in this study. The methodology of this study is a qualitative and phenomenographic study of several cases. The data collected are interviews of the teachers, observations in two knotless netting courses, questionnaires answered by the students in these courses and experimental samples made by the author and evaluated by other craftspeople. These samples were made during the years 2005-2008. The interviews, questionnaires and evaluations were conducted under winter and spring 2008. The reference literature is comprised from publications in several different fields. In this study ethnography is the most dominant field of reference due to the fact that knotless netting is so strongly linked to history and antiquity. In the past the technique of knotless netting has been passed down from generation to generation in whatever form the teacher has known. There are many different ways of stitching and binding in knotless netting. This technique is closely connected to traditional knotless netting mittens even today. Nowadays knotless knitting is taught in craft schools, evening classes and in other recreational courses. The concrete understanding of knotless netting by means of two-dimensional instructions is challenging. Craftspeople often require somebody to actually demonstrate the correct way to make the stitches and hold the work before they can proceed with the technique. The way knotless netting is perceived by craftspeople is linked to their backgrounds and preconstructed mental images concerning the technique. An etnographer approaches knotless netting in a different way from a crafts-scientist or a person in an evening class wishing to master the technique. The attitude of the teacher is passed on to students and also affects the way the student perceives knotless netting and its possibilities as a technique. A craftsperson has mixed feelings toward knotted netting. On the other hand the surfaces produced by this rare technique are intriguing but the costs due to the slow manufacturing process are seen as an encumbrance.
  • Hyrsky, Kaisa (1999)
    The aim of this study is to survey the meaning of craftmanship in goldsmith occupation. The image of craftmanship is built theoretically as well as researcher's own practical experience. The study describes a dialogue between self-employed goldsmith's everyday work and trade union's opinion. Suomen Kultaseppien Liitto (The Goldsmith Association of Finland) was chosen for the trade union, because it is the biggest, the oldest and the most influential on the occupational area. The research data are volumes 1995 - 1998 of occupational membership journal of Suomen Kultaseppien Liitto. The data analyzed with Adapted Content Analysis and Grounded Theory. The professional occupation of goldsmiths, the role of craftmanship and the future of the occupation are discussed. Additionally, the relationship between the Suomen Kultaseppien Liitto and occupational culture and profession of goldsmiths was studied. Craft and craftmanship is most often discussed in articles related to tradition and education. Craftmanship is understood very idealistically, with little meaning in practical life. St. Eligius and the skill and art of goldsmiths in St Petersburg are raised to symbols of craftmanship. The occupational image is broken and a clear conflict between education and occupation is visible. Education produces artist-craftsmen, while handicraft workers are required in industry, and retailers or specially trained store assistant in business. Computer-aided design and manufacture render handicraft workmanship unnecessary. In a pessimistic view, the future possibilities of the goldsmith occupational profession are dim, because the artist-craftsmen are bound to lose to fast-paced machines. On the other hand, people involved in goldsmith education see the future light, designer-goldsmiths developing the occupational to new dimensions. Suomen Kultaseppien Liitto represents goldsmiths in public. The union, however is governed by non-artisan goldsmiths. The union stresses business attitudes and entrepreneurship, and has succeeded in protecting the privileges of retailers and industry. Goldsmiths profession is seen in the research data as a combination of precious-metal industry, jewellery and watch stores, and a goldsmith shop is considered a specialized giftstore. The goldsmiths occupation is not a profession, and the Suomen Kultaseppien Liitto is not a trade union for artist and craftmen. Accordingly, part of the representative authority of the union could be transferred from the Association to Taidekäsityöläiset Taiko ry, a member of organization of Ornamo. Results of this study show the importance of defining the images of the goldsmith occupational profession and the trade union. The results could be applied to goldsmith education to examine what would be the optimal education and training for present employment opportunities. The important background theories has been the theories of Habermas and Lévi-Strauss.
  • Keskitalo, Helena (1998)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää vankilassa käsityötä opiskelevien, harrastavien ja vankityönä käsityötä tekevien vankien tähän elämän tilanteeseen liittyviä käsityötoimintaan osallistumisen kokemuksia ja heidän käsityölle antamia merkityksiä. Tutkimukselle asetettiin kolme tehtävää. Tutkimuksen ensimmäisenä tehtävänä oli kartoittaa mitä käsityötoimintaa Hämeen lääninvankilassa järjestetään. Toisena tehtävänä oli selvittää millaisia kokemuksia Hämeen lääninvankilan tutkinta- ja vankeusvangeilla on käsityötoimintaan osallistumisesta vankilassa oloaikana. Kolmantena tehtävänä oli selvittää millaiseksi vanki kokee käsityön merkityksen itselleen vankilassa oloaikana. Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin haastattelemalla kahdeksaa Hämeen lääninvankilan vankia 13-14.10.1997. Neljä heistä oli tutkintavankia ja neljä vankeusvankia. Kaikki haastateltavat olivat miehiä. Haastatteluja varten haettiin tutkimuslupa Oikeusministeriön Vankeinhoito-osastolta. Haastattelut olivat puolistrukturoituja. Haastatteluaineiston analyysimenetelmänä käytettiin Grounded Theory -menetelmää. Tutkimus osoitti, että Hämeen lääninvankilassa järjestetään käsityötoimintaa tutkinta- ja vankeusvangeille vankityönä, harrastuksiin, ammatilliseen koulutukseen ja kurssitoimintaan liittyen. Vankien haastattelujen mukaan käsityön tekemisessä ovat mielekkäitä asiat, jotka liittyvät tekemiseen, oppimiseen ja sosiaaliseen vuorovaikutukseen. Ei mielekkäinä asioina käsityön tekemisessä pidettiin motivaatioon, oppimiseen ja aikaan sisältyviä asioita. Tutkimuksen perusteella voidaan tehdä se johtopäätös, että tutkinta- ja vankeusvankien käsityön merkitykset kohdistuvat tekemiseen, sosiaaliseen vuorovaikutukseen, vaihteluun, mielialaan vaikuttaviin asioihin, oppimiseen,osaamiseen, ajan käyttöön, taloudeliseen hyötyyn ja fyysisen ympäristönmuutoksiin. Tutkielmassa esitellään vankien kokemuksia ja mielipiteitä käsityötoimintaan osallistumisesta vankilassaoloaikana. Näitä kokemuksia voidaan käyttää esimerkiksi silloin, kun suunnitellaan ja kehitetään vangeille järjestettävää käsityötoimintaa.
  • Tuokko, Sanna (2009)
    Gender-specific division of crafts is significant in Finnish culture. The aim of craft education in comprehensive schools has been to unify education for both girls and boys during the thirty years of modern comprehensive education, but in reality crafts has diverged into two different subjects for girls and boys. Craft education has taught different things: girls have been taught things that are feminine and included in private life, while the boys' education has been mostly directed at public and working life. At the same time girls and boys have been educated and socialized towards a certain womanhood and manhood. Craft as a hobby is also very gender divided but there are some clues that tell of the changing positions on the border areas. The starting point of this study has been the assumption that gender structures within crafts can be transformed. But it is important to know the background that creates and maintains these constructions and the expedients for dismantling the structures. The main purpose of this study is to find out how the gender-specific crafts are changing and how they are still maintained. My study analyses why men and woman have chosen untypical hobbies and through that I shall discuss how gendered structures can be dismantled. In the autumn of 2008 I interviewed borderline breakers within crafts: men who had an interest in textile crafts and women who had an interest in technical work. Informants of this study were 20-31 years old and they studied behavioural sciences. The data was collected in 12 theme interviews and document analysis was used to study the results. The dismantling of the gender divide in crafts is slow, but new borders are drawn all the time. The informants have started textile and technical handicrafts soon after comprehensive school or during their studies at university. A main motivation for the new hobby has been the possibility to study for a teacher's degree with technology or textile studies as a main or a secondary subject. Gender-specific division of crafts is constructed early in childhood as different skills are taught to girls and boys. School teaches gender specific skills and the different skills of girls and boys have not been taken into account. Instead, it has been assumed through comprehensive school that both girls and boys share certain basic skills, and attention has not been paid to the differences between genders. At university the same assumption has still thrived. Skill levels between men and women are substantial and that may have hindered a move by women to technical studies and by men to textile studies. Hence an assumption of naturally gendered crafts has been developed.
  • Laitinen, Anna (2010)
    When Finland occupied East Karelian territories in Soviet Union during The Continuation War (1941 1944) Finnish people had also to take care of the inhabitants of the occupied East Karelia. For example there was a lack of clothes and shoes during the wartime. In order to facilitate clothing situation and to provide more opportunities to work for women, Finnish people founded some workshops in East Karelia. Workshops also helped to collect East Karelian craft products. One of the workshops was founded in the city of Olonets in October 1941 and it was in operation until June 1944. This workshop is the subject of this thesis. The aim of this thesis is to find out with the microhistorical approach what kind of functions the workshop of Olonets had during The Continuation War and who worked in the workshop. In this thesis I also examine women's crafts in the Olonets workshop and their meaning during the wartime. I collected the material of this thesis from different places. In February 2010 I interviewed Talvikki Lausala, the leader of the Olonets workshop, who worked in the Olonets from May 1942 to June 1944. From the Virkki Käsityömuseo I looked for objects which have been made in the workshop of Olonets. Tyyne-Kerttu Virkki collected crafts from the East Karelia when she was working in the area and in the workshop from 1941 to 1944. Archive material I found from the Finnish National archive and from the archive of the Tyyne-Kerttu Virkki -Foundation. East Karelian women and girls who were not able to do anything else came to work in the Olonets workshop. If women could not go to work outside of home, they had an option to do the same crafts at home. There were three Finnish women, Tyyne-Kerttu Virkki, Talvikki Lausala and Sofi Nyrkkö, who worked and led in the workshop of Olonets. In addition to the workshop, there was a dress maker's atelier in which clothes were made to order and soldiers uniforms were repaired, a small museum and a shop to sell products of the workshop. Craft products were also exported to Finland. Courses were organized in which Finnish women taught East Karelian crafts.
  • Keskinen, Hanna (2006)
    The aim of this research is to study the boundary zone of home and work and the tensions people experience while reconciling home and work? How are the requirements of the family, the home and the work taken care of in everyday life? What kind of difficulties does the individual experience when reconciling home activities and job requirements together? What kind of activity policies have families created to ease the everyday life? What kind of goals and requirements do families feel behind the difficulties in adjusting home and work? What kind of changes would make the adjusting of home and work easier? The changing family life, everyday home activities and the changing Finnish working life are studied to describe the adjusting of home and work. In addition the boundary zone of home and work and its tensions are studied. 337 research persons who find reconciling home and work challenging were elected from different sectors of the working life. Research persons were gathered from the public, private and third sectors. The research material was gathered with a semi-structured qualitative questionnaire published in internet. Contents analysis was the analysis method of the research material. The tensions of adjusting home and work are various. Several activity systems meet on the boundary zone of home and work causing boundary zones to expand and tensions to increase and expand like a network. In the everyday life of an individual the boundary zone fades out and home and work overlap. Tensions can be examined as internal conflicts of the individual through the activity system of everyday life. Individuals balance between individualism and familism, feeling bad, suffering from lack of time and struggling with childcare organizing problems and inflexible employers. The solutions to reconciling home and work difficulties are situational. Often is the help of family and friends required without any solid solutions. The conflict of the goals, requirements and the reality is behind the problems as well as the tightening terms of the working life and its growing expectations. Change requests are proposed on the levels of individual, home, work and the society. Reconciling home and work is not only a challenge between the employee and the employer. It's a problem that needs multilateral solutions and changes on the levels of individual, home, work and society. The challenge remaining is to find out if it would be successful to take the everyday life as starting point to negotiate the reconciling of home and work and how the possible family, social and work political solutions appear in everyday life.
  • Siekkinen, Anne-Mari (2007)
    The aim of the thesis was to compare the correspondence of the outcome a computer assisted program appearance compared to the original image. The aspect of the study was directed to embroidery with household machines. The study was made from the usability point of view with Brother's PE-design 6.0 embroidery design programs two automatic techniques; multicoloured fragment design and multicoloured stitch surface design. The study's subject is very current because of the fast development of machine embroidery. The theory is based on history of household sewing machines, embroidery sewing machines, stitch types in household sewing machines, embroidery design programs as well as PE-design 6.0 embroidery design program's six automatic techniques. Additionally designing of embroidery designs were included: original image, digitizing, punching, applicable sewing threads as well as the connection between embroidery designs and materials used on embroidery. Correspondences of sewn appearances were examined with sewing experimental methods. 18 research samples of five original image were sewn with both techniques. Experiments were divided into four testing stages in design program. Every testing stage was followed by experimental sewing with Brother Super Galaxie 3100D embroidery machine. Experiments were reported into process files and forms made for the techniques. Research samples were analysed on images syntactic bases with sensory perception assessment. Original images and correspondence of the embroidery appearances were analysed with a form made of it. The form was divided into colour and shape assessment in five stage-similarity-scale. Based on this correspondence analysis it can be said that with both automatic techniques the best correspondence of colour and shape was achieved by changing the standard settings and using the makers own thread chart and edited original image. According to the testing made it is impossible to inform where the image editing possibilities of the images are sufficient or does the optimum correspondence need a separate program. When aiming at correspondence between appearances of two images the computer is unable to trace by itself the appearance of the original image. Processing a computer program assisted embroidery image human perception and personal decision making are unavoidable.
  • Sohlman, Annukka (2007)
    The aim of this thesis was to study what kind of home-made menstrual pads were used in the early 20th century in Finland, how the home-made pads were made and which techniques and materials were used. The use and taking care of menstrual pads were also explored. The history of menstrual pads has been studied in Sweden, Germany and United States but none of those studies has concentrated on home-made pads. Instead, there are many studies about womanhood and menstruation. In many studies home-made menstrual pads are only briefly mentioned. Menstrual pads were not commonly used in Finland at the beginning of the 20th century, but already in the 1940s the use of menstrual pads had become common in every stratum of society. Home-made menstrual pads were used even until the 1960s. In Finland, factory-made disposable menstrual pads became common only in the 1930s and they were only slowly accepted. The study material consisted of nine interviews, three archival inquiries, health care guidebooks from 1893 to 1943 and authentic menstrual pads, menstrual belts and other objects related to them. The interviewed women were born between 1915 and 1939. The narrative approach was used in the study and it also guided the analysis. The interview and archival data were studied according to the basic rules of oral history studies. Literature consisted of publications from several disciplines. The extensive primary material played the most important role in this study. The reconstructions of the menstrual pads were made according to the interviewed women's advice. In Finland there were innumerable variations of home-made menstrual pads. The pads were most commonly crocheted and knitted either by hand or by knitting machine. Pads were also sewn of cloth, old bed linen or old underwear. The menstrual pads were self-made or made by a female relative. Word of mouth was important in spreading information on how to make pads, because there were hardly any instructions available. The biggest pads were 54 cm long and 13 cm wide. The most widely used pad model was a rectangle, which had triangle-shaped ends with a buttonhole or a loop. The pad was attached to the menstrual belt or to the buttons of the suspender belt. Knitted and crocheted pads had one, two or three layers. In sewn pads, there could be even more layers. Cellulose wadding or pieces of cloth could be placed inside the pad to increase the absorption ability. The experiences of the comfort of self-made pads varied. The crocheted and sewn pads were found chafing, knitted ones were found soft and comfortable. The menstrual pads were laborious to wash and boil in lye water. Therefore disposable pads made everyday life easier. The home-made menstrual pads were part of a unique tradition of handicrafts and folk culture. Hand-made pads were one of the most common handicraft products and were a part of every woman's life. Even so, the menstrual pads were unnoticeable. The large number of variations was probably caused by the silence around menstrual topics and by the lack of instructions for making pads. Variations are also explained by the uniqueness of every handicraft product. In Finland the home-made pads were used until relatively recent times. This was caused by the conditions of wartime and the following years and the rarity of commercial pads. Furthermore, until the late 20th century Finland was an agricultural society where all innovations spread slowly. Home-made menstrual pad was a secret handicraft of women and every woman needed to know how to make it by herself.
  • Kyllönen, Kukka-Maaria (2009)
    Purpose This study focused on craft from a standpoint of phenomenological philosophy and craft was interpreted through Maurice Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of the body. The main focus was the physical phase of the craft process, wherein a product is made from material. The aim was to interpret corporality in craft. There is no former research focusing on lived body in craft science. Physical, bodily making is inalienable in craft, but it is not articulated. Recent discussion has focused on craft as "whole", which emphasizes designing part in the process, and craft becomes conceptualized with the theories of art and design. The axiomatic yet silenced basis of craft, corporality, deserves to become examined as well. That is why this study answers the questions: how craft manifests in the light of phenomenology of the body and what is corporality in craft? Methods In this study I cultivated a phenomenological attitude and turned my exploring eye on craft "in itself". In addition I restrained myself from mere making and placed myself looking at the occurrence of craft to describe it verbally. I read up Maurice Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of the body on his principal work (2002) and former interpretations of it. Interpreting and understanding textual data were based on Gadamer's hermeneutics, and the four-pronged composition of the study followed Koski's (1995) version of the Gadamerian process of textual interpretation. Conclusions In the construction of bodily phenomenology craft was to be contemplated as a mutual relationship between the maker and the world materializing in bodily making. At the moment of making a human being becomes one with his craft, and the connection between the maker, material and the equipment appears as communication. Operational dimension was distinctive in the intentionality of craft, which operates in many ways, also in craft products. The synesthesia and synergy of craft were emphasized and craft as bodily practice came to life through them. The moment of making appeared as situation generating time and space, where throwing oneself into making may give the maker an experience of upraise beyond the dualism of mind and body. The conception of the implicit nature of craft knowledge was strengthened. In the light of interpretation it was possible to conceptualize craft as a performance and making "in itself" as a work of art. In that case craft appeared as bodily expression, which as an experience approaches art without being it after all. The concept of aesthetic was settled into making as well. Bodily and phenomenological viewpoint on craft gave material to critically contemplate the concept of "whole craft" (kokonainen käsityö) and provided different kind of understanding of craft as making.
  • Liesvirta, Ülle (2007)
    In this thesis, taking place within the clothing industry of Finland, the impact of the globalisation of the economy on the pattern-maker's job was studied and the present day fields of know-how of the job were found out. The thesis answers the questions, what are the characteristics of the pattern-maker's job nowadays, and what areas of the know-how in the pattern-maker's job form the core know-how, which is repeated in every organisation. Earlier studies of the subject do not exist in Finland. Similar studies have been made in USA (Staples 1993) and in Estonia (2002). Pattern-makers who took part in this study were located in the Finnish clothing companies manufacturing or having clothes manufactured in series production, like clothing industry or chain of stores. A methodical triangulation was used in the thesis. In a phenomenological research of experience seven pattern-makers were interviewed and in a quantitative research 26 pattern-makers filled in a structured questionnaire. The phenomenological analysis has 2 parts. In the first phase using the professional background of the pattern-makers, the historical development of the clothing industry for the last 40 years was described. In the second phase of the phenomenological analysis the description of the pattern-maker's job was created based on the organisational strategy of the companies nowadays. The analysis of quantitative research material was performed by one-dimensional study of variables, where the variations in the amounts of variables lead to proportional conclusions. As a result of the structured questionnaire, the core know-how of the pattern-maker was pointed out. In the thesis, the concept of situationality was used to describe the continuous change in the clothing industry. This explains the continuous requirement of pattern-makers' commitment to the time and location. The researcher has a background of a pattern-maker and she works as a specialist instructor. With the thesis the researcher updates her professional competence. The analysis of the pattern-maker's job can be used to update the content of pattern-makers' education in the vocational schools.
  • Linkosaari, Tiina (2010)
    The objective of this study was to find out what development targets craft teachers could identify in the comprehensive school classes 1 through 9 after the curriculum of the year 2004 had declared craft education uniform in textile and technical craft. Earlier research had shown that after this curricular reform craft education had been carried out in dissimilar ways in different municipalities and schools. This causes differences in the contents of teaching and thus in learning outcomes on national level. The most problematic situations occur on the 7th grade when the classes contain pupils with very heterogeneous skill levels. My intention is to find general themes in craft education that are significant when considering developmental objectives. The problem was explored by four research questions as follows: What kind of problems have craft teachers confronted during the application of the curriculum 2004, what are the most important objectives and contents in craft for the comprehensive school, how craft education should be arranged in the future and what prerequisites should be considered to generate high quality craft education? The study was carried out by a qualitative research approach. The informants consisted of 21 persons, out of which 15 were textile or technical teachers and six were textile or technical teacher students. The research data was collected in the form of short open narratives, based on a partially structured inquiry. Respectively content analysis was applied for analysis of the narratives. Research results revealed that craft teachers were mainly satisfied in uniform craft and hoped that both textile and technical craft could be compulsory school subjects for both genders. Textile and technical craft should be defined as separate independent school subjects, both of which should be developed with broader and high quality contents. Craft subjects should be allocated more teaching time. Teachers asked for a more logically proceeding curriculum, initiating from the beginning to the end of the compulsory school. It was suggested that this could be done by a qualified subject teacher. A uniform curriculum solution must be found for the whole country.
  • Leinonen, Liisa (2009)
    The aim of the study was to get acquainted with the activity of Näppärät Mummot, a Lahti-based crafts society, and its importance to the wellness of the members of the group. The selected aim, i.e., analyzing the wellness, largely affected the whole research process and its results. According to earlier studies in the field, different forms of craft and expressional activity promote one's wellness as well as support the work for one's identity. Based on my theoretical knowledge, my research was set out to: 1) form a general view of crafts culture within Näppärät Mummot and 2) find out how recollective craft that promotes wellness is perceived through communality, experiential activity, work for one's identity, and divided as well as undivided craft. Qualitative field work was governed by ethnographic research strategy, according to which I set out to get thoroughly familiar with the society I was studying. The methods I used to collect data were participant observation and thematic interview. I used a field diary for writing down all data I acquired through the observation. The interviewee group was formed by seven members of Näppärät Mummot. An mp3 recorder was used to record the interviews, which I transcribed later. The method for data analysis was qualitative content analysis, for which I used Weft QDA, a qualitative analysis software application. I formed themes that shed light on research tasks from the data using coding and theory-driven analysis. I kept literature and data I collected in cooperation through the whole analysis process. Lastly, drawing from the classes of meaning of therapeutic craft that I sketched by means of summarizing and classifying, I presented the central concepts that describe the main results of the study. The main results were six concepts that describe Näppärät Mummot's crafts culture and recollective craft with its wellness-beneficial effect: 1) autobiographical craft, 2) shared work for one's identity, 3) shared intention for craft, 4) craft as a partner, 5) individual manner of craft, and 6) shared improvement. Craft promoted wellness in many ways. It was used to promote inner life management in difficult times and it also provided sensations of empowerment through pleasure from craft. Expressional, shared craft also served as means of reinforcing one's identity in various ways. Expressional work for one's identity through autobiographical themes of craft represented rearranging one's life through holistic craft. A personal way of doing things also served as expressional action and work for one's identity even with divided craft. Shared work for identities meant reinforcing the identities of the members through discourses of craft and interaction with their close ones. What proves the interconnection between communality and craft as well as their shared meaning is that communality motivated the members to work on their craft projects, while craft served as the means of communication between the members: communication through craft was easier than lingual communication. The results can not be generalized to apply to other groups: they are used to describe the versatile means of recollective craft to promote the well-being among the crafts society Näppärät Mummot. However, the results do introduce a new perspective to the social discussion on how cultural activities promote well-being.