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Browsing by discipline "Skogsekonomi"

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  • Soirinsuo, Juho (2007)
    The United States is the world s single biggest market area, where the demand for graphic papers has increased by 80 % during the last three decades. However, during the last two decades there have been very big unpredictable changes in the graphic paper markets. For example, the consumption of newsprint started to decline from the late 1980 s, which was surprising compared to the historical consumption and projections. The consumption has declined since. The aim of this study was to see how magazine paper consumption will develop in the United States until 2030. The long-term consumption projection was made using mainly two methods. The first method was to use trend analysis to see how and if the consumption has changed since 1980. The second method was to use qualitative estimate. These estimates are then compared to the so-called classical model projections, which are usually mentioned and used in forestry literature. The purpose of the qualitative analysis is to study magazine paper end-use purposes and to analyze how and with what intensity the changes in society will effect to magazine paper consumption in the long-term. The framework of this study covers theories such as technology adaptation, electronic substitution, electronic publishing and Porter s threat of substitution. Because this study deals with markets, which have showed signs of structural change, a very substantial part of this study covers recent development and newest possible studies and statistics. The following were among the key findings of this study. Different end-uses have very different kinds of future. Electronic substitution is very likely in some end-use purposes, but not in all. Young people i.e. future consumers have very different manners, habits and technological opportunities than our parents did. These will have substantial effects in magazine paper consumption in the long-term. This study concludes to the fact that the change in magazine paper consumption is more likely to be gradual (evolutionary) than sudden collapse (revolutionary). It is also probable that the years of fast growing consumption of magazine papers are behind. Besides the decelerated growth, the consumption of magazine papers will decline slowly in the long-term. The decline will be faster depending on how far in the future we ll extend the study to.
  • Wan, Minli (2009)
    China's primary wood processing industry and wood consuming sectors have experienced rapid growth in recent years. Industries like sawnwood and plywood have developed very quickly. The purpose of this study is to: 1) provide an overview of the demand, supply, imports and exports of raw wood and primary wood products in the China market between 1993 and 2007, 2) present quantitative estimates of the relative importance of factors influencing the demand, supply and exports of Chinese plywood, 3) draw conclusions about China's potentials and challenges for foreign enterprises, including Finnish companies. The information, analyses and findings presented in this study can give a reference for wood processing companies, especially for sawnwood and plywood firms, and governmental agencies in China. In addition, the study provides a basis for further study and research. Even though much information has been published in China, academic research in the Chinese woodworking market is scarce, and especially, time-series data is missing and unreliable. This study tries to fill this gap. It is based on secondary data collected from various sources, including literatures, journals, magazines, consulting reports, industry analysis, news, and so on. The annual time-series data obtained for variables in models are mainly gathered from original official Chinese sources. The study increases the information and understanding on the Chinese wood products markets by using descriptive and explanatory methods to analyze the data for background information, markets and empirical modeling. By employing econometric models, based on the elasticity estimates, Chinese plywood demand seems to be income elastic but price inelastic, Chinese plywood supply would be highly elastic with raw material price but scale inelastic, and Chinese plywood exports appear to be highly income elastic.
  • Tang, Tiantian (2009)
    The objective of this thesis is to assess the recreational value (access value) provided by Yuelu Mountain Park in China applying travel cost method (TCM) which is commonly used to estimate non-market benefits. Also, a fee that would maximize the entrance fee income is tentatively calculated. The potential trips to be lost next year are estimated based on local respondents visiting intentions among different age groups. The travel cost demand function is estimated by using basic count data travel cost model-Poisson regression, and survey data collected on-site. Average access values per trip were estimated to be € 0.75 for local and € 64.52 for non-local individuals producing aggregate annual access value of € 20.43 million. Based on the travel cost demand function, an entrance fee of € 5.43 would maximize the revenue collected from the visitors. This would mean more than doubling of the present entrance fee. The result could potentially be utilized when deciding on the entrance fees. It is also suggested that the park management could further study visitors' intentions and reasons either to visit or not to visit the park in the future. Estimated consumer surpluses as well as suggested entrance fee must however, be considered with caution because truncation of the on-site survey data is not accounted for in the Poisson model estimations of this study.
  • Cheng, Zhuo (2015)
    Risk management is essential in forest management planning. However, decision making with risk analysis is rarely done in forestry. This study presents an example of the application of conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) as a decision tool and optimizes the management planning problem from a risk perspective. Stochastic programming is used to solve the problem. The model contains four different types of risk using an assumed probability distribution and quantifies these risks, namely, inventory errors, growth model errors, price uncertainty and policy uncertainty. The results suggest that forest owners’ risk tolerance, i.e., their willingness and ability to assume risk determines to the greatest extent the return potential. When the expected first period income is maximized, the subsequent period always experiences a loss that is the greatest of the entire management horizon. The proportion of carbon subsidy in the first period is also the highest. With this model it is possible to hedge some risks or to use it as means to assess the amount of insurance to purchase in order to transfer risks. The use of CVaR in forest management planning can be seen as a useful tool to manage risk and to assist in the decision making process to assess forest owners’ willingness and ability to tolerate risks.
  • Tuovinen, Mauri (2015)
    The European Union has emphasized the usage of bioenergy by increasing the share of renewable energy in total energy consumption in its member states. The more biomass is utilized in energy production, the more biomass ashes are produced. Different ashes such as wood ash have been studied ecologically a lot, but more business and market research should be conducted on wood ash. The purpose of this study is to describe, analyze and interpret ash fertilization stakeholders´ perceptions of their external environment. The research questions are the following: 1) How do the ash fertilization stakeholders perceive their external environment? 2) What barriers hinder wood ash fertilization? 3) How is wood ash recycling perceived to influence the stakeholders´ external environment? 4) What kind of Environmental Scanning practices do the stakeholders have? This study is a qualitative study which employs the guided/focused interview method. The data consists of 18 interviews conducted in 15 organizations. The approach to the data is abductive. The data is processed, described and analyzed thematically. The ash fertilization stakeholders consider their environment complex and not fully developed. The waste tax act has influenced the structure of the market and worked as a major push-force. It has created various business models in the external environment, which have made some stakeholders adopt an unorthodox code of conduct within the external environment. Few fertilization-based companies operate on ash fertilization. Instead, most of the stakeholders emphasize wood ash utilization. The logistical challenges including the high transport and spreading costs were considered the most influential barrier hindering ash fertilization usage. However, the creation of economically sustainable business models and the incapability to create value to the customer hinder the development of the market, which weakens the competitiveness of ash fertilizers. Other barriers identified were the lack of suitable ashes for fertilization, the insufficient knowledge level of the buyers as well as poor marketing communications. There seems to be an entry barrier to the ash fertilization market, which consists of the low profitability of the ash fertilization business and the high knowledge requirements. Ash recycling was perceived positively by the stakeholders although their knowledge of the concept varied significantly. They connected ash recycling with either nutrient flows or ash utilization as a raw-material for various end-uses. The implementation of ash recycling was regarded as questionable since the stakeholders were uncertain about its effects on the external environment. They considered ash recycling to be influenced by the development of energy policies and legislation both in Finland and in the EU, which they found unpredictable. The stakeholders had difficulty defining ash recycling as a process and perceiving whether it is more connected with forest or energy industries. The majority of the stakeholders did not conduct Environmental Scanning (ES). Only four stakeholders conducted ES, although this perception is interpretive. The stakeholders were categorized in ES modes according to their perceptions of external environmental intrusiveness, analyzability as well as information needs, information seeking and information use. The degree of complexity of the external environment was found high and the rate of change was considered low. Altogether, there are two stakeholder groups operating in the external environment: 1) the market-oriented stakeholders and 2) the utilization/waste oriented stakeholders. The utilization view is currently more dominant, due to the developments in the ash fertilization market. The external environment is still under the stage of development, and there is possible future rivalry between the two views. Ash recycling could be a viable option combining wood ash utilization with business. More market-oriented stakeholders are needed in the ash fertilization market.
  • Hytönen, Outi (2013)
    This thesis deals with public opinion of the decision making concerning forest policy in Finland. The data used was part of a nationwide mail survey examining the perceptions of the legitimacy of forest policy and its predictors in Finland. The data comprised of the answers to the question “What would you like to focus on in the decision making concerning forest use?”. The answers were analysed using inductive content analysis. The topics from the data were categorised under four themes: values, political decision-making, actors and practises. Based on the answers forests are regarded as multifunctional and the different value conceptions are equally respected. However, the existing value conflict between economic and ecological values was evident. The forest policy cannot be legitimised only on the basis of economic use of the forest resources. The biodiversity, nature protection and the recreational benefits of the forests must also be taken into account according the citizens. The results were analysed in the light of the goals and procedures set in the main documents of the Finnish forest policy. The aim was to compare the similarities and differences between current forest policy and citizens’ perspectives, and to find out if one can make any judgements about the acceptability and legitimacy of the forest policy. In general, citizens know what is included in forest policy decisionmaking, and the opinions are consistent with current policy. Certain forestry actions and forest owners’ decision-making power are the main points of conflict. Clear cuttings and especially the objection of them was the most essential topic in the data. This is against the prevailing forestry practises, since clear cuttings are the most used method in final felling. Citizens suggest alternative forestry practises like thinning and uneven-age management to be used in the felling of timber. According to the results concerning political decision making the main conflict arises from forest owners’ participation possibilities and the distribution of power. The procedural justice of the forest policy is not fully justified and legitimate, since citizens feel forest owners have too little decision-making power on their own forest property.
  • Chambers, Philip (2019)
    Forestry is a hazardous industry globally. Physical conditions, legal frameworks and cultural norms can vary from country to country leading to different approaches to site safety management. There are international, national and regional legislation and guidelines which outline normative approaches land managers can utilise to protect forestry machine operators and the public from accident or injury. In this study, the approaches the health and safety management in forestry operations are assessed in two countries within the European Union –Scotland (as part of the UK member state) and Finland. While both countries practice sustainable forest management, it is shown that this is carried out under different legal frameworks leading to differences in approach to site safety planning. Other factors are shown to have an effect including cultural factors and land ownership patterns.
  • Äärilä, Johannes (2013)
    This thesis investigates the methods and principles used to calculate timberland return indices. By studying these existing indices and new possible methods, the study contributes to the accuracy and methodology of timberland return measurement. Attention towards timberland investing has been increasing among institutional investors, while at the same time timberland return indices are also being utilized by policy makers as supporting indicators for policy decisions. The possibility to measure timberlands returns exactly is understandably of great interest and a desirable goal. Previous literature does discuss the general aspects of timberland return measurement and index calculation, but very little about the actual index number theory and its implications to the timberland return measurement. For this reason, there exist some issues regarding the currently available indices that make them prone to bias and otherwise unfavorable and inappropriate in the context of index number theory. The four existing indices considered in this thesis are the NCREIF Timberland Index, John Hancock Timber Index, Timberland Performance Index and the index formula utilized by the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The results of the examination confirm the benefits of fully-regulated forest in index construction, as it offers a stable and comparable base for an index. Also the effects and trade-offs of price selection, interest rate and index frequency are presented and discussed in detail. The utilization of net present value in index construction, instead of the liquidation value, is a new approach utilized in this thesis and the issues regarding its use in index calculation are considered and assessed. The key finding of this thesis is that the index formula used by the Finnish Forest Research Institute suffers from a weighting problem and it is not consistent in aggregation. To overcome the index number problems present in the existing indices, the pseudo-superlative Montgomery-Vartia index formula is applied into timberland returns. It is shown that the index is consistent in aggregation and that it approximates closely the desirable superlative indices. As a result, this thesis advocates the use of Montgomery-Vartia index. It is more appropriate formula for timberland return measurement than the currently used or the other available index formulas are, and its implementation should therefore be considered.
  • Räsänen, Mikko (2015)
    The conundrum between market entry and business development activities within innovation companies is generally regarded as a challenge. The energy industry as a whole is in a flux and the sustainable future requires drastic actions to be taken to reduce the effects of the global warming and in adaptation of a circular economy model. Using the industrial innovation company St1 Biofuels Oy as a case, this thesis will identify the decision-making components of an opportunity based target market analysis in a company, which operates in an industry with notable resource scarcity, policy regulations and variable business models. In response to this hypothesis, this study suggests an opportunity based target market analysis model that illustrates a new framework to study target markets in a systematic and analytical manner. For the purpose of the case with St1 Biofuels Oy, a market intelligence tool was created to store and process the market data and illustrate the most essential components of the theoretical model. The case study demonstrates the utilization of the opportunity model presenting the internationalization criteria and justification to a potential new R&D concept investment decision. The implications of this thesis contribute to the decision-making of the case and aid in demonstrating analytical justification for internationalization on a strategic decision-making level. This thesis introduces relevant literature to the topic and reflects the existing theories to the new model concept design. Structure and empiric base in this study were drawn together from two-stage data collection, including extensive market research and investment calculations along with semi-structured interviews with the specialists of the case company. The results of this thesis present a theoretical model and the functioning of the model is then piloted with the case study variables of St1 Biofuels Oy. Based on the discussion in this thesis, further research is suggested reflecting the model as a theoretical framework in strategic marketing planning and value-based selling studies.
  • Heikkonen, Hanna-Lotta (2014)
    The goal of this research was to produce guidelines for an eco-labeling program of wood and paper products in the U.S. market. The factors affecting consumers’ willingness to pay for eco-labeled wood and paper products were examined using a metaregression analysis. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine what are the preferable on-product label characteristics. Results show that consumers in North America are willing to pay less for eco-labeled wood and paper products than European consumers. Wooden and durable goods are able to capture larger price premiums compared to less durable wood/paper products. Consumers are willing to pay more for eco-labeled products where the labels provide more information to the consumers. Among demographic variables, age is shown to positively influence the amount consumers are willing to pay for eco-labeled wood and paper products. Among desirable label characteristics contact information of the labeling agency and information about the environmental effects of the product were found important in addition to information enabling product comparison. Environmental non-governmental organizations are perceived as the most credible labeling providers as shown in past studies.
  • Karttunen, Kalle (2006)
    The aim of this study was to compare the differences between forest management incorporating energy wood thinning and forest management based on silvicultural recommendations (baseline). Energy wood thinning was substituted for young stand thinning and the first commercial thinning of industrial wood. The study was based on the forest stand data from Southern Finland, which were simulated by the MOTTI-simulator. The main interest was to find out the climatic benefits resulting from carbon sequestration and energy substitution. The value of energy wood was set to substitute it for coal as an alternative energy fuel (emission trade). Other political instruments (Kemera subsidies) were also analysed. The largest carbon dioxide emission reductions were achieved as a combination of carbon sequestration and energy substitution (on average, a 26-90 % increase in discounted present value in the beginning of rotation) compared to the baseline. Energy substitution increased emission reductions more effectively than carbon sequestration, when maintaining dense young stands. According to the study, energy wood thinning as a part of forest management was more profitable than the baseline when the value of carbon dioxide averaged more than 15 €/CO2 and other political subsidies were unchanged. Alternatively, the price of energy wood should on average exceed 21 €/m3 on the roadside in order to be profitable in the absence of political instruments. The most cost-efficient employment of energy wood thinning occured when the dominant height was 12 meters, when energy substitution was taken into account. According to alternative forest management, thinning of sapling stands could be done earlier or less intensely than thinning based on silvicultural recommendations and the present criteria of subsidies. Consequently, the first commercial thinning could be profitable to carry out either as harvesting of industrial wood or energy wood, or as integrated harvesting depending on the costs of the harvesting methods available and the price level of small-size industrial wood compared to energy wood.
  • Laakso, Janne (2015)
    Suomi on maailman soisin maa, jonka pinta-alasta kolmasosa on joko suota tai turvemaata. Suot ja turvealueet ovat tärkeä osa maamme luontoa ja sen monimuotoisuutta. Tämän vuoksi on tärkeätä tutkia soiden ja turvemaiden järkevää ja kestävää käyttöä sekä kansantaloudellisia vaikutuksia. Tässä pro gradu-tutkielmassa pyritään vastaan kahteen kysymykseen. Mikä rooli energiaturpeella on Suomalaisessa yhteiskunnassa ja kuinka energiaturpeen hinta muodostuu? Lukijalle pyritään antamaan kuva turvetuotannon moninaisista hyödyistä ja haitoista. Tutkielmassa aihetta lähestytään kansantaloudellisesta näkökulmasta ja pääpainotus on energiaturpeessa. Energiaturpeesta on kirjoitettu paljon, mutta taloustieteellinen näkökulma on jäänyt vähemmälle huomiolle. Akateemisissa tutkimuksissa pääpaino on ympäristöasioissa ja turpeen tuotannosta ja käytöstä aiheutuvissa ympäristöhaitoissa. Taloudellisia näkökulmia esiintyy eri tutkimuslaitosten ja elinkeinoelämän instituutioiden julkaisuissa. Turpeen tuotannolla ja käytöllä on Suomessa pitkä historia. Energiaturpeen ympärille on kehittynyt merkittävä teollisuus, jolla on suurta yhteiskunnallista painoarvoa. Energiaturpeella on poikkeuksellinen rooli Suomalaisessa energiantuotannossa, jossa sen osuus primäärienergian kulutuksesta on noin 5 – 8 prosenttia. Energiaturpeella onkin tuotettu Suomessa noin 19 – 29 terawattituntia energiaa vuosittain 2000-luvulla. Toimialan arvioitiin vuonna 2009 tuottavan Suomen kansantalouteen noin 440 miljoonan euron kokonaisnettovaikutuksen. Turpeen tuotanto ja käyttö työllistää suoraan tai epäsuoraan yhteensä 12350 henkilötyövuotta. Nämä työpaikat syntyvät usein alueille, joissa vaihtoehtoisen työn saaminen olisi hankalaa. Energiaturpeen tuotantoa ja käyttöä on perusteltu sen kotimaisuudella, huoltovarmuudella ja aluepoliittisilla tekijöillä. Energiaturpeen hinta on viime vuosikymmeninä ollut tasainen ja kilpailukykyinen. Jyrsinturpeen hinta käyttöpaikalla on vaihdellut 8 – 14 €/MWh välillä vuosina 2000–2013. Palaturpeen hinta on vuorostaan vaihdellut noin 9 – 22 €/MWh välillä. Energiaturpeen kustannuksiin vaikuttavat monet tekijät ja jokainen tuotantoalue on yksilöllinen. Toisaalta aiheesta tehdyt tutkimukset eivät pysty antamaan energiaturpeen hinnanmuodostumiseen tarkkaa vastausta, mutta verrattaessa tuotantokustannuksia ja hintoja voidaan olettaa alan olevan kannattavaa toimintaa. Yhteiskunnan kannalta energiaturpeen tutkiminen taloudellisesta näkökulmasta olisi hedelmällistä. Tämä antaisi perusteluita ja näkökulmia nykyiseen turvekeskusteluun.
  • Wang, Jue (2015)
    Forest carbon offset projects have been growing vigorously in China in the last ten years. It is necessary to form an overall picture of the projects, to analyze the quality of their development processes, and to shed light on the development of upcoming projects. In order to evaluate their development process, a framework of assessment was built up and applied in practical project assessment. In this thesis, firstly, the situation of the global carbon markets and Chinese forest carbon offset projects was introduced. Especially, different international and domestic carbon accounting and other carbon related standards were presented and compared. Secondly, the previous studies about the assessment of sustainable development impacts of the forestry carbon projects were reviewed; the approaches and indicators were compared and summarized. Then, in combination with checklists and multi-criteria approaches, a new assessment framework was established, consisting of a set of indicators and a four-level scoring system. Finally, 16 Chinese forestry projects which have applied different carbon standards were evaluated with this assessment framework. Their performances were compared and analyzed, the characteristics of standards were also compared. According to the results of the assessment, the successfully registered Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects gained higher scores, suggesting their development processes were of higher quality. The projects applying Climate, Community, and Biodiversity Standards (CCBS) in pair with another carbon accounting standard also tended to get higher scores, indicating the positive effect of CCBS on the consideration of sustainable co-benefits. The international standards are stricter than domestic standards, which can be seen from the comprehensiveness and meticulousness of the Project Design Documents (PDDs). The result of the assessment corresponds to the previous understanding about the projects and standards, which supports the validity of the assessment framework.
  • Mattila, Kaarle (2018)
    Cost-effective mitigation of climate change is essential for climate policy. Forest rotation age is a silvicultural measure by which forest carbon stocks can be influenced with in accordance with the Kyoto Protocol, Article 3.4. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how lengthening the forest rotation periods would affect the profitability of forestry and carbon sequestration. The discounted net revenues of the forest owner’s economical optimal (Faustmann’s rotation model) were compared with 10 and 20 years longer rotation periods, where the additional carbon dioxide sequestrated was compensated with prices 20 € and 50 € per ton of CO2. All calculations were made with a 2 % and a 4 % interest rate. Ten test sites were selected from a list of forest stands in Eastern-Finland, 5 of which were Norway spruce stands and 5 were Scots pine stands. The forest growth of these stands was simulated with Motti-simulator, a software developed by Metsäntutkimuslaitos (METLA) to estimate tree growth at forest stand levels. The results indicate, that lengthening the rotation period increases the carbon stocks of forests. The additional carbon dioxide sequestrated obeys the rule of decreasing marginal utility, so that the increment is greater for the first 10 years than the following 10 years lengthening of lengthening. The unit costs for carbon sequestration were between 2.3 – 18.1 (€/ton of CO2) for Norway spruce and 0.2 – 15.9 for Scots pine. However, the carbon sequestration was by average higher and more cost-efficient for Norway spruces than for Scots pines. The discounted net revenues of the forest owner increased in almost every case, which implies that the carbon sequestration is profitable in the right circumstances. The incompleteness of carbon trading is an obstacle for the commercialization of forest carbon sequestration. In the future, more research data is required to enable a more efficient execution for the forest carbon sequestration markets.
  • Juntheikki, Joni (2014)
    Purpose of this thesis is to estimate the carbon sequestration potential in eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay. This study also aims to show how beneficial these plantations are for carbon sinks. The aim of this research is calculate total carbon balance in eucalyptus plantations and compare the results to degraded lands. This study is first-of-its-kind study in Uruguay, but not unique globally. The objective was to use a modeling approach to formulate the results. The methodology of this study is based to the dynamic growth model (CO2fix V3.1). Model is developed to calculate and estimate forest carbon fluxes and stocks. In this study the model was utilized for estimating how much carbon is sequestered in eucalyptus plantations and soils. In this thesis the model was used to simulate eucalyptus forest plantations that stem from numerous studies and different data. Ad hoc Excel model was generated to form calculated results from the simulated data. A separate sensitivity analysis is also formulated to reveal a possible different outcome. The framework is based on a stand-level inventory data of forestry plantations provided by the Ministry of Uruguay (MGAP) and companies. Also multiple scientific reports and previous studies were used as guidelines for simulations and results. The forest stand, yield, soil and weather data used for this study are from three different departments. There are over 700 000 hectares of different species of eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay. The theoretical framework was tested computationally with eleven simulations. CO2fix was parameterized for fast-growing eucalyptus species used in different parts of Uruguay. The model gave outputs per hectare and then this result was scaled up to the national level. This study will also estimate how much grassland (Pampa) and former pasture land could sequester carbon. Situation prior to plantation is a baseline scenario and it is compared to the expected carbon sequestration of plantations. The model is also used to calculate the effect of changing rotation length on carbon stocks of forest ecosystem (forest vegetation and soil) and wood products. The results of this study show that currently the 707,674 hectares of eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay have the potential to sequester 65 million tonnes of carbon and reduce 238 million tonnes of CO2. The calculated carbon storage is 38 and simulated 25 million tonnes of C, products are deducted from the equation. During 22 years (1990–2012) the annual carbon sequestration benefit (afforestation-baseline) without products is 1 757 847 Mg C. The results suggest that it is reasonable to establish eucalyptus plantations on degraded, grassland (Pampa) and abandoned pasture land. The implications of the results are that eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay actually enhance carbon sequestration, are carbon sinks and store more carbon than grassland and abandoned pasture land. Plantations have a vast sequestration potential and are important in mitigating of CO2 emission and effects of the climate change. The findings endorse the significance of plantations to increase carbon sinks and this role will broaden in the future. The most relevant findings of this study are that afforestation increases the soil carbon in 10-year rotation plantations by 34% (101.1>75.6) and in 12-year rotation 38% (104.4>75.6 Mg Cha-1) in a 60-year simulation. The net (afforestation-baseline) average carbon stock benefit in the soil is 25.5 Mg C ha?1 in a 60-year simulation. The (CO2Fix) model indicate that the total average carbon sequestration for eucalyptus plantations is 92.3 Mg Cha?1. The average total carbon storage ranges from 25.8–138.5 Mg Cha?1 during a 60-year simulation. The simulations show that the net annual carbon storage in the living biomass is 29.1, 25.5 (soil) and 37.6 Mg C (products) on the average scenario. There is some fluctuation in the sequestration results in other 10 simulations. Previous studies have showed that the average carbon stock for eucalyptus plantations varies from 30–60 Mg C ha-1, when soil and products are deducted. The capacity of forest ecosystems to sequester carbon in the long run could be even more strengthened if a rotation length increases. Extending rotation from 10 to 12 years increased the average soil carbon stock from 25.5 to 28.8 Mg C (by 13%) in 60 year simulation. The results also indicate that mean annual precipitation (MAP) alters the carbon sinks of the forest ecosystem. There are some limitations in this study and they are clearly explained and analyzed. Hence, most of the results are estimations. Ministry and companies need to prolong planting of trees and even intensify annual programs in order to achieve carbon sequestration targets. Further research is needed to get an estimate of the total forest ecosystem carbon storages and fluxes.
  • Vanhatalo, Anna (2009)
    Outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism have increased during the last ten years. In addition, the interest towards national parks has grown, which can be seen also as an increasing trend in the development of the number of visits to national parks. The aim of this thesis is to explain the cross-sectional variation in the visitation data representing different parks and hiking areas. Another aim is to explore the question of why the visitation in national parks has increased in Finland. These questions are studied separately for the national parks and hiking areas, because the development of the number of visits in national parks and hiking areas has been different. In addition, the separation is made also between Southern Finland and Northern Finland due to for example the size differences and close link of the national parks in Northern Finland with the ski-resort centers. Explanatory factors are divided into supply side factors (services inside and outside the park) and demand side factors (economic and demographics factors). The data is a panel data, including all national parks and hiking areas in the time period 2000?2008. The one-way fixed effects model is used in the regression analysis. According to results the land area of the park, services inside the park and population size seemed to have positive effects on the number of visits. Income per capita had negative impact on the visits. In Southern Finland the size of the age-class 65?74 affected positively the number of visits, whereas the effect of gasoline price was negative. Used time period was short due to the lack of appropriate data. Thus, the results reflect more the cross-sectional variation between parks. Results can be used in the planning of the management of national parks and hiking areas.
  • Maidell, Marjo (2009)
    This master’s thesis examines the effect of international forest investing on the return and risk of the overall risky portfolio. In addition this study looks at the optimal share of forest in the portfolio and correlation between different assets. Interest towards investing in forestry has increased. As a result, knowledge of forest’s characteristics as an investment and different forest investment instruments has increased. Research on forest investing has however been carried out mainly on a national level. This thesis aims to expand the field of research by taking into consideration the global nature of investing. Today, many investors understand the importance of the diversification of the portfolio and hence divide the capital into different asset classes, sectors and markets. This study includes a theoretical framework in which forest assets that differ in terms of location, species, forest management and end product can be compared and included into the portfolio. Return on forestry is calculated according to the Faustmann formula. The historical average return is used as the expected future return. Optimisation of the overall risky portfolio is based on the modern portfolio theory. The framework was tested empirically with three hypothetical case study forest assets, located in Finland, the United States and Uruguay. These forest assets were included to a portfolio, which consisted of three alternative financial assets. Results showed that investing in forest improves the performance of the overall risky portfolio. The optimal share of forest in the portfolio is around 3-15% of the capital. The extent of forest investing’s benefits and the exact share of forest in the portfolio depend on the available risk-free rate. Most of the forest assets seemed to have a low correlation with other assets. It was found that exchange rates affected risk-reward ratios and hence also the results of the optimisation process.
  • Jämsänen, Riina (2018)
    The study compared the differences between the harvesting measurements of the harvester and the forwarder and compared these with the results of the factory measurements. The study was conducted for a Finnish forest industry company. Four different measuring points were defined for the research: harvester measurement, forwarder load scale measurement, logging truck load scale measurement and factory measurement. The study included four harvest and transport companies, who made the measurements. Specific cutting areas were defined for each of the entrepreneurs and they filled the results obtained on the separate forms. The number of measurement results collected in the study was lower than the target. However, based on the results obtained, it can be stated that the harvesting measurement gives a larger measurement result than the load scale measurement of forwarder. Based on the study, it was not possible to determine whether the geographical position of the cutting area, the forest type or the type of felling affect the measurement accuracy. The study calculated the cost impact of the measurement differences caused by the measurement of the harvester and the forwarder at the national level.
  • Anttila, Pekka (2016)
    The government of Lao PDR has promoted teak planting for over 40 years, resulting in a significant increase in the area of plantation teak. Most of the plantations are managed by individual farmers and play an important role as a kind of financial insurance system, and a ready source of quick income generation. By cultivating a teak plot it may be determined whether a farmer has land tenure to the plot and through cultivation whether they can afford to send children to school. In Northern Lao PDR the primary sales channel for teak in a complex environment are middlemen. The common association with middlemen is rather negative and they are perceived as rent-seeking actors in the value chain. However in the current teak market system in Lao PDR middlemen take responsibility for many time-consuming steps of performing teak sales in compliance with laws and regulations. In addition, unofficial fees in connection with felling and transporting strongly influence teak wood flows by increasing costs and making the process vulnerable to adversity. In general, middlemen save farmers the trouble of having to deal with unofficial costs and marketing, and therefore they represent a convenient sales channel for farmers. These extra costs are difficult for the society to tackle down as long as Lao PDR possess low effectiveness in the national formal and social control systems. This study focuses on the existing practices of teak middlemen and their implications for teak smallholders. Farmers’ perceptions of the various actors and issues with sales to be addressed are presented and discussed. In this study 120 semi-structured interviews with smallholder teak farmers and 11 with Lao authorities and non-governmental organizations throughout the forestry sector were conducted in four small villages and in Vientiane (the capital) in Northern Lao PDR. A middleman case study was included in the study to demonstrate current actions taken by middlemen. According to the results of this study farmers are lacking the time and motivation to participate in the highly regulated formalities of marketing teak, and prefer middlemen as their selling channel for their wood. Farmers do understand and, based on previous support, report of the importance of external development projects providing training and information related to teak markets, yet consider them challenging without more guidance and structural change in official governing practices.
  • Salminen, Eero-Matti (2012)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the integrated climatic impacts of forestry and the use fibre-based packaging materials. The responsible use of forest resources plays an integral role in mitigating climate change. Forests offer three generic mitigation strategies; conservation, sequestration and substitution. By conserving carbon reservoirs, increasing the carbon sequestration in the forest or substituting fossil fuel intensive materials and energy, it is possible to lower the amount of carbon in the atmosphere through the use of forest resources. The Finnish forest industry consumed some 78 million m3 of wood in 2009, while total of 2.4 million tons of different packaging materials were consumed that same year in Finland. Nearly half of the domestically consumed packaging materials were wood-based. Globally the world packaging material market is valued worth annually some €400 billion, of which the fibre-based packaging materials account for 40 %. The methodology and the theoretical framework of this study are based on a stand-level, steady-state analysis of forestry and wood yields. The forest stand data used for this study were obtained from Metla, and consisted of 14 forest stands located in Southern and Central Finland. The forest growth and wood yields were first optimized with the help of Stand Management Assistant software, and then simulated in Motti for forest carbon pools. The basic idea was to examine the climatic impacts of fibre-based packaging material production and consumption through different forest management and end-use scenarios. Economically optimal forest management practices were chosen as the baseline (1) for the study. In the alternative scenarios, the amount of fibre-based packaging material on the market decreased from the baseline. The reduced pulpwood demand (RPD) scenario (2) follows economically optimal management practices under reduced pulpwood price conditions, while the sawlog scenario (3) also changed the product mix from packaging to sawnwood products. The energy scenario (4) examines the impacts of pulpwood demand shift from packaging to energy use. The final scenario follows the silvicultural guidelines developed by the Forestry Development Centre Tapio (5). The baseline forest and forest product carbon pools and the avoided emissions from wood use were compared to those under alternative forest management regimes and end-use scenarios. The comparison of the climatic impacts between scenarios gave an insight into the sustainability of fibre-based packaging materials, and the impacts of decreased material supply and substitution. The results show that the use of wood for fibre-based packaging purposes is favorable, when considering climate change mitigation aspects of forestry and wood use. Fibre-based packaging materials efficiently displace fossil carbon emissions by substituting more energy intensive materials, and they delay biogenic carbon re-emissions to the atmosphere for several months up to years. The RPD and the sawlog scenarios both fared well in the scenario comparison. These scenarios produced relatively more sawnwood, which can displace high amounts of emissions and has high carbon storing potential due to the long lifecycle. The results indicate the possibility that win-win scenarios exist by shifting production from pulpwood to sawlogs; on some of the stands in the RPD and sawlog scenarios, both carbon pools and avoided emissions increased from the baseline simultaneously. On the opposite, the shift from packaging material to energy use caused the carbon pools and the avoided emissions to diminish from the baseline. Hence the use of virgin fibres for energy purposes, rather than forest industry feedstock biomass, should be critically judged if optional to each other. Managing the stands according to the silvicultural guidelines developed by the Forestry Development Centre Tapio provided the least climatic benefits, showing considerably lower carbon pools and avoided emissions. This seems interesting and worth noting, as the guidelines are the current basis for the forest management practices in Finland.