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Browsing by study line "Biofarmaci"

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  • Hyttinen, Nea (2023)
    Chronic wounds are a worldwide health problem that produce a lot of costs for society and can have a substantial impact on patients’ quality of life. Human adipose stem cells (hASCs) have been studied as a treatment option for chronic wounds as they can induce wound healing in many ways. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) produced by hASCs are a great solution to acquire the benefits of hASCs while avoiding their problems such as possible mutagenicity. HASC-EVs have been found to induce wound healing by for example enhancing angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation. HASCs can be grown in 2D where the cells attach to the bottom of the cell culture vessel or in 3D where the cells attach to each other and create a spheroid. 2D cell culturing is easy and inexpensive but 3D cultured cells resemble in vivo –like conditions more. Because of these in vivo -like features, hASCs grown in 3D might produce EVs that resemble the properties of host cells in natural environment more than 2D. The aim of this thesis was to compare 2D culture, matrix-based nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) hydrogel culture, and matrix-free suspension culture in ultra-low attachment (ULA) wells as growing platforms for hASCs and as continuous EV production methods. During culturing, the conditioned media was collected after which, the EVs were isolated, and the EV concentration and size range was measured with nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). After culturing, the metabolic activity of hASCs was measured and the cells were collected for immunocytochemistry (ICC) assay, western blot (WB) assay, and for quantitative PCR (qPCR) to examine the stemness and differentiation of hASCs grown in different cell cultures. The hypothesis of this thesis was that the NFC cell culture would produce the best EV yield and the best EVs for therapeutic use. Based on the acquired results, this hypothesis could not be supported. When visually inspecting the cells, all three cell cultures were viable but the metabolic activity of hASCs in NFC hydrogel was low compared to 2D and suspension cultures. Also, the EV, protein and RNA yield were lower in NFC. ICC, western blotting, and qPCR results were inadequate to make a straightforward implication of what cell culturing condition is the best for EV production and they would need repetition and optimization. Looking at the overall results, 2D cell culturing produced the best EV and RNA yield, had the highest metabolic activity and was least laborious cell culturing method which makes it a good option for continuous EV production. Suspension culture on the other hand resembles in vivo -like environment which could possibly produce better EVs for therapeutic use. The metabolomic assays on the EVs would be interesting to perform in the future to examine if the in vivo –like features affect the quality of EVs.
  • Suotunen, Pauliina (2020)
    The OATP1B3 belongs to the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) encoded by the SLCO (solute carrier organic anion) genes which belongs to the SLC (solute carriers) gene superfamily. It is an influx transporter which is primarily expressed on the basolateral membrane of the hepatocytes. It transports many endogenous substrates as well as clinically important drugs such as thyroid hormones and statins into hepatocytes and thus participates in the first step of hepatic metabolism. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SLCO1B3 gene can affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of its substrates. The aim of this study was to set up and optimize an in vitro method to study the function and expression of the OATP1B3 transporter and its genetic variants. SNPs 334T> G (Ser112Ala), 699G> A (Met233Ile) and 767G> C (Gly256Ala) and stop codon TAA were introduced into the SLCO1B3 gene by site-directed mutagenesis. Recombinant baculovirus vectors containing the genetic information of OATP1B3 and its variants were used to transiently transfect the HEK293 cells. After optimizing the substrate incubation time and concentration, as well as the viral load and selecting the fluorescent substrate (8-FcA), the uptake assay was used to determine the transport activity of the OATP1B3 variants in HEK293 cells. The transport activity of the artificial WTP variant was also investigated in this study. The transport activities of the Ser112Ala, Met233Ile and Gly256Ala variants did not change significantly from the wild type although the transport activity of the Met233Ile variant appears to be slightly impaired. In turn the WTP variant was unable to transport 8-FcA. Based on this study the function of OATP1B3 variants can be studied using recombinant baculovirus to transiently transfect the HEK293 cells. 8-FcA can be used as a probe substrate in these studies. The results of this study confirm previous knowledge of the functioning of Ser112Ala, Met233Ile and Gly256Ala variants. More studies are needed about the effects of these variants on the transport of OATP1B3 drug substrates. Also studies about the location, cell membrane and total cell expression of the WTP variant are needed to evaluate reliably the reasons of its inactivity.
  • Koivunotko, Elle; Merivaara, Arto; Valkonen, Sami; Chinello, Lisa; Salmaso, Stefano; Korhonen, Ossi (2020)
    Biomimetic native nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) hydrogel has recently proven its efficacy, safety and diversity at the site of pharmaceutical industry. Yet, properties for the long-term storage in dry condition at room temperature and feasible transportation needs to be developed for NFC hydrogel before it is suitable for freeze-dried biomedical applications. Our aim was to optimize freeze-drying cycle for NFC hydrogel formulation with suitable lyoprotective biomolecules and preserve its properties after freeze-drying process and reconstitution. NFC hydrogel formulations with different combinations of chosen biomolecules were freeze-dried, and physicochemical properties and rheological features were characterized. In addition, morphology of the freeze-dried cakes was studied. The effects of the biomolecules on the water contents in NFC systems were simulated for both of the crystal and amorphous ones. All the results of the characteristics were compared with the non-freeze-dried NFC hydrogel formulations. NFC hydrogel formulation, which had the most optimal preservation properties after freeze-drying and reconstitution, was optimized. We hypothesized that without any chemical modifications native NFC hydrogel can be successfully freeze-dried and subsequently reconstituted with the proper biomolecules only by using biological and natural materials, which are human and xenon-free for the further use in biomedical applications of the native NFC hydrogel.
  • Hurmalainen, Virpi (2021)
    P-glycoprotein is an efflux transporter of the ABC family. It is expressed mainly in tissues that have a role in limiting the absorption and distribution of xenobiotics in the body or their elimination. P-glycoprotein is known to have an important role for example in the blood-brain barrier and in protecting the fetus from xenobiotics in the mother’s blood stream. Genetic polymorphisms in transporter proteins can cause individual differences in the pharmacokinetics of drug substances, which can lead to differences in drug efficacy or side effects. In the ABCB1 gene, which codes for p-glycoprotein, several polymorphisms have been discovered. The frequencies of these polymorphisms vary in different ethnic populations. Previous studies have shown that the effects of these polymorphisms are often substrate-dependent. Since there are several confounding factors usually present in clinical association studies, in vitro studies are needed to clarify the effects of individual polymorphisms. Polymorphisms can be studied in vitro by making intentional mutations to the gene sequence and expressing the variant gene in a suitable cell line. In this study four variant p-glycoprotein genes (c.781A>G, c.1199G>T, c.2005C>T and c.3421T>A) were created by site-directed mutagenesis, and expressed in HEK293 cells using a baculovirus recombinant protein expression method. The effects of the polymorphisms were studied by determining the expression level and the transport acitivity of the variant proteins compared to the wild-type. Western blot was used to determine the expression level and a calcein accumulation assay in HEK293 cells was used to compare the transport activities. Also a membrane vesicle transport assay with n-methyl quinidine was set up and optimized, but the variants were not yet studied with this method during this study. In this study no statistically significant differences were found in the transport activities of any of the four variants compared to the wild-type p-glycoprotein. Also the differences in protein expression level between wild-type and variant proteins were small. However, because of the previously reported substrate dependency of polymorphism effects, it would be beneficial to study the variants with at least one other substrate and one other assay method, and thus the membrane vesicle transport assay would be useful to further compare the transport activities of variant proteins to the wild-type p-glycoprotein.
  • Vidjeskog, Katarina (2021)
    Solunulkoiset vesikkelit eli EV:t ovat nanokokoisia solujen tuottamia lipidikaksoiskalvon peittämiä kalvorakkuloita. Solut vapauttavat EV:itä solunulkoiseen tilaan ja niitä on kaikissa kehon nesteissä. Aiemmin niiden uskottiin olevan vain solujen tapa päästä eroon tarpeettomasta materiaalista, mutta nykyisin tiedetään, että EV:illä on tärkeä merkitys solujenvälisessä viestinnässä. Sitä mukaa kun ymmärrys EV:iden merkityksestä on kasvanut, on kasvanut myös kiinnostus niiden tutkimiseen. EV:itä voidaan eristää lähes kaikista kehon nesteistä, mutta veressä niitä on erityisen runsaasti. Plasman EV:t ovat pääosin peräisin punasoluista ja verihiutaleista. Kun nanopartikkelit ovat kosketuksissa veren kaltaisten biologisten nesteiden kanssa, niiden ympärille muodostuu proteiinirakenne, jota kutsutaan proteiinikoronaksi. Proteiinikoronan koostumus vaikuttaa nanopartikkeleiden pintaominaisuuksiin. Se voi vaikuttaa myös esimerkiksi niiden soluinteraktioihin ja signalointiominaisuuksiin. Tämän pro gradutyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia punasolujen ja niistä tuotettujen nanoerytrosomien EV tyypin proteiinikoronan määrää ja vertailla näitä määriä toisiinsa. Mittaukset suoritettiin ihmisen veri plasmasta, joka oli pitoisuudeltaan 100 %:sta, 50 %:sta sekä 25 %:sta. Verestä peräisin olevien EV:iden etu sekä mahdollisina lääkekuljettimina, että tutkimuskäytössä on se, että ne ovat myrkyttömiä, heikosti immunogeenisiä, helposti saatavissa olevia, helppokäyttöisiä sekä varastoitavia. Tutkimustulosten perusteella proteiinikoronan määrä on EryEV:illä ja NanoEry:illä samaa suuruusluokkaa. Havaittavaa eroa ei ainakaan näin pienellä otoskoolla ollut havaittavissa.
  • Erkkilä, Outi (2023)
    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling (PBPK) can be used to predict pharmacokinetic behaviour of new drug molecules in human. PBPK model represents the body anatomically and physiologically with compartments connected to each other and combines those to drug specific parameters. PBPK modelling can be used to predict the absorption, disposition, and time-concentration profiles of drug molecules. The purpose of the study was to build a PBPK model for new drug molecule under research (compound A) and predict pharmacokinetics in human, to support the selection of dosing interval, formulation, and sampling time points for the first clinical trial. In this work it is described the building of the model in the ”bottom-up”-approach using in vitro parameters in GastroPlusTM-software. The modelling was done also for preclinical species (mouse, rat, dog) comparing the simulations to the observed in vivo data, which gave the confidence to the methods used in the modelling also for human. The model was first built for systemic kinetics and thereafter it was used for predicting pharmacokinetics after oral dosing. Parameters of systemic kinetics were compared also to the predictions from allometric scaling. Based on the preclinical species the most predictive method for the volume of distribution of compound A was the method by Lukacova, which predicted the volume of distribution to be moderate in human (1.7 l/kg). From the in vitro-to-in vivo -extrapolation methods the most predictive method to predict the clearance was the method by Poulin, which predicted low clearance in human (8.1-14.3 l/h). Empirical scaling factors based on the preclinical data were not needed, as the models predicted well the observed in vivo data. Allometric methods predicted the systemic kinetic parameters to be in the similar range. Advanced compartmental absorption transit -model (ACAT) integrated to GastroPlusTM-software predicted the absorption after oral dosing well in the preclinical species (predicted/observed ratio 0.8-1.3 for systemic exposure) despite the low solubility of the compound A. The model predicted the absorption in human to be sensitive to particle size and absorption rate to be clearly affected by the particle size. The feeding status was also predicted to affect on the absorption with larger particle sizes. The gut metabolism was not predicted to limit the oral exposure notably, whereas moderate bioavailability was predicted to be achievable. Compound A could be given in a capsule if the target particle size distribution could be achieved. The built PBPK-model can be used in the future to predict the first clinical doses by comparing the predicted plasma concentrations to in vitro pharmacodynamic parameters and to the plasma concentrations needed for efficacy in the pharmacodynamic models. The model can also be used to predict the drug-drug interactions.
  • Haapalainen, Joonatan (2022)
    Traditional 2D cell cultivating vessels and experimental models cannot often simulate natural chemical and physical environment of different cell types. For example, availability of oxygen, chemical gradients, messaging molecules, fluid pressure, flow and surface topography are factors that may affect significantly in cell differentiation, growth, cellular structure, and metabolism. Modular bioreactors like Quasi-Vivo® -system can be used to simulate these factors. Liposomes are particles of phospholipid bilayer with aqueous space enclosed within. They can be modified in numerous ways, like loading them with hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules, changing their transition temperature or coating them according to different needs. Doxorubicin is effective and widely used cytostatic agent, but when administered as a free drug it has often severe side-effects, like cardiotoxicity. Goal of this thesis is to determine appropriate manufacturing parameters and verify adequate shelf-life of ICG-Doxorubicin liposomes, that they are applicable for future in vitro experiments. Then survival of HepG2 cell line under flow in Quasi-Vivo®-equipment is determined, after which A549 and HepG2 will be then combined into one two-cell model. Finally, a simple illumination experiment in this cell model with previously made liposomes is conducted, and the effect in whole system is examined. Using protocol presented in this thesis it is possible to produce successfully and repeatedly liposomes with both ICG and doxorubicin encapsulation over 70%. Their shelf-life was at least 14 days when stored in 4°C protected from light. This was determined to be sufficient for in vitro testing. Cultivating A549 and HepG2 cell lines combined in the same system with shared media and fluid flow conditions was successful. Neither of the cell lines show significant difference in viability when compared to static control. When light-activating liposomes are administered to the system and then illuminated, from preliminary results we can see significant difference in drug effect. Both illuminated chambers and off-target chambers connected via Quasi-Vivo® show increased suppression, which shows promise that this in vitro model would be useful for future experiments.
  • Monola, Julia (2022)
    Native nanofibrillated cellulose is wood-derived, animal-free biocompatible biomaterial which has proved the suitability of nanoscale cellulose fiber based hydrogels for 3D cell culturing and wound healing applications. The problem of freeze-drying nanofibrillated cellulose hydrogel (NFCh) has been the aggregation of the hydrophilic fibrils of the NFC during freeze-drying, which leads deformed freeze-dried cake and unsuccessful reconstitution of the sample. Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations have been earlier applied in formulation design of NFCh for freeze-drying successfully by screening excipients based on their attraction to the surface of NFCh. The weakness of MD simulations is it can only model the fresh formulation system intend to freeze-dry, but not the actual freeze-drying process and the effect of it and the excipients to the material. To evaluate the protecting properties of excipients and therefore the accuracy of the MD simulations detailed information about changes in the physical state and molecular orientation of the formulation before and after freeze-drying is needed. Non-invasive and label-free Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine vibrational modes of molecules to investigate changes in molecular orientation of the material. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible molecular changes induced by freeze-drying of NFCh-based formulations utilizing Raman spectroscopy and evaluate the connection of the results to MD simulations. NFCh with different excipients was freeze-dried and physicochemical properties, rheology and Raman signal were measured before and after freeze-drying and compared to the literature of MD simulations. The principal component analysis (PCA) was done to the Raman spectra and differences evaluated. The spectra of all formulations differed before and after freeze-drying, and more detailed analysis was done to two most potential 0.8% NFCh based formulations, lactose 300 mM and lactose 250 mM + glycine 50 mM. They had great attraction to NFCh in MD simulations and very similar rheological properties before and after freeze-drying and reconstitution. The spectra of different state of both formulations different on areas between 400 - 500 cm-1 and 850 - 900 cm-1 based on PCA analysis contributing the mutarotation of lactose during freeze-drying and reconstitution. Freeze-drying and the absence of water molecules in NFCh formulation favor different ratios of β and α anomers than the fresh hydrated state which could be detected utilizing Raman spectroscopy. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy was confirmed to be a sensitive option to assess subtle changes in molecular orientation in fresh, freeze-dried, and reconstituted NFCh-based formulations, resulting in a detail knowledge of the molecular behavior of excipients which could be applied in MD simulations and design of better freeze-drying formulations in future.
  • Kekki, Roosa (2024)
    Light-sensitive liposomes have gained attention for their ability to deliver cargo to tissues, offering spatiotemporal control over drug release. Red-light wavelengths have been utilized as an external trigger in light-sensitive reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated drug delivery, due to their favorable properties, such as the low light absorption by tissue chromophores. The ROS-sensitive drug delivery systems use photosensitizers (PS), which upon light exposure generate ROS in the presence of molecular oxygen. Palladium(II)phthalocyanine (Pd(II)PC), a new second-generation photosensitizer, can upon light irradiation generate relatively high singlet oxygen concentrations, enabling the efficient oxidation of the unsaturated lipids. The oxidation of the lipids leads to the disruption of the liposome bilayer and eventually, the release of the encapsulated cargo. To gain deeper insight on the phthalocyanine-labeled liposomes in drug delivery, a red light-triggered cationic liposome formulation encapsulating Pd(II)PC was formulated. The characteristics of the liposomes, the release mechanisms, and the release quantities of calcein (623 Da) and fluorescent-conjugated dextrans (4 000-70 000 Da) were studied following red-light exposer with 630 nm, 450 mW/cm2 laser while utilizing varying Pd(II)PC-loading quantities. Following oxygen removal and temperature-induced release studies, the mechanism of release of the liposomes was principally observed to be light-triggered reactive oxygen species-mediated. In the light-induced release studies an effective release of the calcein, and a relatively effective release of the Rhodamine B dextrans (10 kDa, 70 kDa) were observed from the liposomes via the Pd(II)PC-generated and reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidation of the unsaturated lipids. The release of the biomacromolecules from the liposomes was observed to require longer irradiation times than that of calcein. The longer irradiation times likely lead to deeper oxidation of the unsaturated phospholipids, resulting in a comprehensive eruption of the liposome bilayer. The comprehensive eruption of the liposome bilayer eventually enables the sufficient release of biomacromolecules from the liposomes.
  • Tauriainen, Emma (2023)
    Silmätipat ovat silmälääkkeiden yleisin annostelumuoto, mutta silmään imeytyvän lääkeaineen osuus jää pieneksi. Esimerkiksi glaukoomaa sairastaa maailmanlaajuisesti noin 80 miljoonaa potilasta, mutta glaukoomalääkkeiden hyötyosuus etukammiossa on vain 1–7 %. Päällimmäiset syyt heikkoon hyötyosuuteen ovat lääkeaineen nopea poistuminen silmän pinnalta mm. systeemiverenkiertoon sekä sarveiskalvon heikko läpäisevyys. Tästä syystä lääkeaineen permeaatio sarveiskalvon läpi on ollut tutkimuksen kiinnostuksen kohteena. Lääkeaine voi imeytyä silmän pinnalta etukammioon sarveiskalvon läpi passiivisella diffuusiolla ja aktiivisesti transporttereiden välityksellä. On vielä pitkälti epäselvää, että mitä transporttereita löytyy aktiivisena ihmisen sarveiskalvosta ja että kuinka paljon eri lääkeaineet hyödyntävät transporttereita imeytyessään. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa transportterien aktiivisuutta ihmisen sarveiskalvon epiteelisolulinjassa (HCE) sekä kanin eristetyssä sarveiskalvossa. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin radioleimattuja lääkeaineita, joita käytetään silmälääkkeenä (kliinisesti tai tutkimusvaiheessa) ja joiden tiedetään olevan eräiden transporttereiden substraatteja ja/tai inhibiittoreita. HCE-soluilla tehtiin in vitro aika-lineaarisuus- ja inhibitiosolunottokokeita ja kanin eristetyllä sarveiskalvolla permeabiliteettikokeita ex vivo. Tulosten mukaan kaikilla lääkeaineilla näyttäisi olevan aktiivista kuljetusta HCE-soluissa, mutta aktiivisen kuljetuksen osuus ja että mitkä transportterit ovat vastuussa kuljetuksesta, on epäselvää. Kiinnostava tulos oli, että inhibiittoreista MK-571 inhiboi metotreksaatin solunottoa HCE-soluissa sekä permeabiliteettia kanin sarveiskalvon läpi apikaali-basolateraalisuunnassa. Tulokset viittaavat influksitransportterien inhibitioon, mutta tarkempia johtopäätöksiä on hankala tehdä. Silmän ja sarveiskalvon transportteritutkimus on vielä alkutekijöissä ja lisää tutkimustietoa aiheesta tarvitaan.
  • Jaakkonen, Liina (2022)
    OATP1B1 is an influx transporter that is predominantly expressed in the liver, and it mediates the uptake of many clinically important endogenous compounds and drugs from portal vein blood into hepatocytes. OATP1B1-mediated uptake affects the rate of hepatic elimination of substrate drugs, directly affecting their plasma concentrations. Some naturally occurring single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the SLCO1B1 gene encoding OATP1B1 can alter the transport function of the transporter resulting in alterations in pharmacokinetics, efficiency and toxicity of substrate drugs. The aim of this master´s thesis was to examine the effect of four naturally occurring SNVs of the SLCO1B1 gene on transport activity, expression, and localization of the OATP1B1 transporter in vitro. SNVs 170G>A (R57Q), 388A>G (N130D), 452A>G (N151S) and 758G>A (R253Q) were created using site-directed mutagenesis in the SLCO1B1 gene presenting in the pENTR221 plasmid. Recombinante baculoviruses were produced in Sf9 cells using the Bac-to-Bac® Baculovirus Expression System and used to transduce HEK293 cells for the overexpression of OATP1B1 wild type and variant proteins. An uptake assay was used to study the transport activity of the OATP1B1 variants in HEK293 cells. Western blotting was used to study the expression of OATP1B1 proteins in membrane vesicles. Immunofluorescence staining was used to determine the localization of OATP1B1 wild type and variants in HEK293 cells. Transport activity of the OATP1B1 variants R57Q and R253Q was significantly decreased compared to wild type. In contrast, transport activity of the N130D ja N151S variants was not significantly altered. The reasons for the changes in transport activity could not be reliably estimated due to the failure to measure the expression levels of OATP1B1 proteins by Western blotting. However, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the localization and expression of the all the studied OATP1B1 in baculovirus transduced HEK293 cells were comparable to the wild type. The results of this master´s thesis indicate that SNVs 170G>A and 758G>A can impair the transport activity and substrate uptake functions of OATP1B1 in vitro. Additional in vitro studies of transport activity, expression and localization of the variants R57Q and R253Q will be required to confirm these results. In the future, the R57Q and R253Q variants should be also studied for their possible clinical significance in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of substrate drugs, as SNVs 170G>A and 758G>A may increase the exposure and the risk for adverse effects of OATP1B1 substrate drugs.
  • Ilvonen, Petra (2020)
    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a very heterogeneous group of cell originated nanoparticles that act as mediators of intercellular communication. Accurate characterization of EVs is essential to enable their wider use and development as possible biomarkers, drug carriers, and vaccines. There is no validated reference material with EV-like properties currently available. A validated reference material would improve the reliability and reproducibility of EV studies. Nanoerythrosomes (NanoE) have been studied as a possible option for biological reference material. We aimed to further characterize and compare properties of NanoEs and erythrocyte-derived EVs (EryEV) and assess their stability concerning concentration and size distribution at most commonly applied storage temperatures, +4°C, -20°C, and -80°C for 12 weeks. Characterization was done using nanoparticle tracking analysis and flow cytometry. In addition, we studied the surface protein expression including CD235a, CD47, and CD41 of NanoEs and EryEV and conducted a preliminary cellular uptake test using PC-3 cells, CFSE-labeled NanoE, and EryEV particles. For both, NanoE and EryEV samples, 20°C was the worst storage condition. NanoEs stay stable at +4°C for a month and at -80°C, there were some drops in concentration during the 12 weeks of the experiment. EryEVs stay stable at +4°C and -80°C for 12 weeks. Both NanoE and EryEV particles seemed to be taken into the PC-3 cells, but due to problems with autofluorescence we conclude that confirming studies with different labeling protocols or another method need to be conducted. Both NanoEs and EryEVs samples had a significant number of CD47-positive particles.
  • Miinalainen, Annika (2022)
    OATP2B1 is a transmembrane transport protein expressed widely in the human body and transports both endogenous compounds and several drugs from outside the cell into the cytoplasm. The abundant expression of OATP2B1 in pharmacokinetically important tissues such as in the intestine, liver, and kidney suggests an important role in the drug absorption and elimination process, although research data on the clinical significance of OATP2B1 is still limited. Several drugs inhibit the function of OATP2B1, creating a risk for drug-drug interactions. OATP inhibition by some inhibitors is time-dependent, which may lead to more potent in vivo effects than expected. In this study, the time dependence of OATP2B1 inhibition by five different drugs was evaluated using OATP2B1-overexpressing HEK293 cells. IC50 values of inhibitors for OATP2B1-mediated uptake of DBF and E1S were determined with and without preincubation for 20 minutes. In addition, the in vivo interaction potential of the inhibitors in the intestine, liver, and other tissues was evaluated by utilizing the FDA and EMA guidelines. All five drugs showed effective and concentration-dependent OATP2B1 inhibition with IC50 values of 0.12– 8.82 µM. Furthermore, the inhibition of OATP2B1-mediated DBF uptake by ticagrelor and atorvastatin was time-dependent, while the effect of pre-incubation remains below the limit for the other inhibitors. The inhibitory effect of ticagrelor continued even after the inhibitor was removed from the inhibition buffer. All five inhibitors showed the potential to cause in vivo OATP2B1 inhibition in the intestine, which could result in decreased absorption of the co-administered substrate drug. About erlotinib, the risk of interaction also appeared in the liver, which could reduce the transfer of the substrate drug to the liver and thus lower its elimination rate. In this study, pre-incubation did not affect the in vivo interaction potential of the inhibitor drugs. The results indicate that drug-induced inhibition of OATP2B1 may be time-dependent and therefore can lead to interactions at lower concentrations than expected. For this reason, evaluating the time dependence would be appropriate when assessing transport protein-mediated interaction risk. The results of this study can be utilized in designing clinical interaction studies and in understanding the results.
  • Keskimäki, Sanne (2023)
    Plasmidit ovat geneettisiä elementtejä, joita voidaan käyttää esimerkiksi geeninsiirtovektoreina. Transposonit ovat DNA-fragmentteja, joilla on kyky siirtyä genomissa paikasta toiseen. Tutkimuksessa käytettävä transposoni on piggyBac, joka on eristetty tupsumetalliyökkösen (Trichoplusia ni) soluista. Transpositiossa piggyBac tunnistaa ITR-osat (käännetty terminaalinen toistojakso) siirtäen osien välissä olevan DNA:n. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tuottaa kaksi erilaista plasmidia. pAc5.1-piggyBac-plasmidiin sisällytettiin piggyBac ja pMT-In-EGFP-PB-ITR-plasmidiin ITR-osat sekä niiden väliin hygromysiiniresistenssigeeni sekä EGFP-geeni. BTI-Tn-5B1-4-solujen DNA:sta eristettiin piggyBac sekä ITR-osat ja ne siirrettiin plasmidiin pTOPO-piggyBac-R. Tästä plasmidista irrotettiin erilleen piggyBac ja ITR-osat, joista välivaiheiden kautta rakennettiin lopulliset plasmidit. Plasmidit rakennettiin pitkälti pilkkomalla DNA-fragmentteja restriktioentsyymeillä ja yhdistämällä niitä ligaatiolla. Plasmideja tuotettiin suurempia määriä siirtämällä niitä transformaation avulla E.Coli-soluihin lämpöshokkimenetelmällä ja eristämällä tämän jälkeen saadut plasmidit. Tuotettujen plasmidien onnistuminen varmistettiin pilkkomalla ne restriktioentsyymeillä ja tutkimalla DNA-fragmenttien kokoa agaroosigeelielektroforeesilla. Plasmidinäytteet myös sekvensoitiin osittain. Banaanikärpäsen (Drosophila melanogaster) S2-solut transfektoitiin kehitetyillä plasmideilla ja solukonsentraatioita sekä elinkelpoisuutta mitattiin 8 päivän ajan transfektion jälkeen. Tavoitteena oli hyödyntää EGFP-geeniä fluoresenssimittauksiin. Solunäytteisiin lisättiin kokeen aikana hygromysiini, jotta voitiin selvittää, olivatko viljellyt solut saavuttaneet hygromysiiniresistenssin. Tutkimuksen tuloksena plasmidit saatiin kehitettyä, mutta solukokeiden tulokset jäivät epäselviksi. Solunäytteissä ilmeni kasvatuksen aikana kontaminaatioita. Lisäksi EGFP-osia ei voitu luotettavasti mitata käytössä olleella laitteella. Transfektio tulee siis toistaa transposonisysteemin toiminnan tutkimiseksi. Lisäkokeilla voidaan selvittää tarkemmin kehitetyn transposonisysteemin mahdollisuuksia sekä toiminnan yksityiskohtia.