Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by study line "USP Plans"

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Ojansuu, Sirpa (2022)
    Selvitän tutkimuksessani kansalaisten osallistumisen valmiuksien nykytilannetta sekä kouluopetuksen tavoitteita ja käytäntöjä aktiiviseksi kansalaiseksi kasvattamisessa ja osallistumisen valmiuksien harjaannuttamisessa. Keskityn kaavoitushankkeiden osallistamisen näkökulmaan; kansalaisten osallistaminen näihin on merkittävää suoran demokratian soveltamista. Noin 22 vuotta voimassa olleen Maankäyttö- ja rakennuslain mukaan suunnitteluorganisaatiot velvoitetaan toimimaan osallistavasti ja vuorovaikutteisesti kaavoitushankkeiden prosessien aikana. Osallistujat saattavat olla ensimmäistä kertaa kaavoituksen käytäntöjen kanssa tekemisissä ja heidän tieto- ja taitotasonsa vaihtelee. Selvitän valmiuksien nykytilannetta kaavasuunnittelijoiden, maantieteen opettajien ja opettajankouluttajien haastatteluilla sekä analysoimalla perusopetuksen, lukio-opetuksen ja ammatillisen koulutuksen opetussuunnitelmien perusteita. Tutkimuksessa nousi esille, että osallistumisen valmiuksia tukevaa opetusta järjestetään perusopetuksessa useassa eri oppiaineessa, mutta erityisesti maantieteessä sen kokonaisvaltaisen ja alueellisen näkökulman mukaisesti. Perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelmien perusteisiin ei sisälly kaavoitushankkeiden periaatteiden opetusta, kuten ei myöskään ammatillisen koulutuksen yhteiskunnallisten aineiden yhteisiin tutkinnon osiin. Eniten periaatteista kouluopetuksen perusteella tietävät kansalaiset, jotka valitsevat lukiossa maantieteen kolmannen Yhteinen maailma (GE3) ja neljännen Geomedia – tutki, osallistu ja vaikuta (GE4) valinnaiset kurssit. Haastateltujen ryhmien kokemukset ja käsitykset osallistumisen taidoista ja niiden nykytilasta poikkesivat jonkin verran toisistaan; tämä selittyy osittain erilaisilla työtehtävillä ja sen kautta tuomalla näkökulmalla. Kaikkien haastateltujen ryhmien eli suunnittelijoiden, maantieteen opettajien ja opettajankouluttajien mielestä tärkeitä osallistumisen valmiuksia ovat: kartanlukutaito, kirjallinen ja suullinen argumentointitaito, ajankohtaisten asioiden seuraaminen, kaavoitusprosessien ja sisällön ymmärrys sekä yhteiskunnan toimintojen ymmärrys. Suunnittelijat toivat lisäksi esille erityisesti keskustelu-, vuorovaikutus- ja empatiataitoja sekä pystyvyyden tunnetta, sekä tietoteknisiä valmiuksia. Kun taas maantieteen opettajat ja opettajankouluttajat toivat esille kaavoitushankkeiden huomaamista ja ymmärrystä vaikutusmahdollisuuksista. Tutkimuksessani tuli esille myös osallistumisen valmiuksien parantamiseen ja kehittämiseen liittyviä keinoja ja haasteita. Kaikki haastatellut ryhmät nostivat hyvänä keinona esille suunnittelijoiden vierailut kouluissa. Lisäksi esille tuli opetusmateriaalin tuottamiseen liittyviä ideoita sekä muu yhteistyö koulujen ja suunnitteluorganisaatioiden välillä. Kehittämisehdotuksena esitän, että osallistumisen valmiuksien edistämiseksi tuotetaan ja kootaan materiaalia helposti käytettävään muotoon ja sen sisältöä markkinoidaan. Samaa materiaalia voisivat käyttää ja soveltaa sekä suunnittelijat omassa osallistamistyössään käytännön kaavoitushankkeiden yhteydessä, että opettajat kouluopetuksessa. Työni tuloksena selviää, että kansalaisten osallistumisen valmiuksien taidot ja pystyvyys ovat lähtökohtaisesti eri tasoilla. Peruskoulun jälkeiset kouluttautumisvalinnat vaikuttavat tähän merkittävästi. Kansalaisten lähtötilanne on hyvä tiedostaa realistisesti ja reagoida siihen opetuksessa ja kaavoitushankkeiden osallistamisessa, kuten edellä on mainittu, mutta myös tulevia opetussuunnitelmien perusteita kehitettäessä. Mielestäni olisi hyvä kiinnittää huomiota seuraavan perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteiden laadinnassa suunnittelu- ja tulevaisuusajattelun kehittämiseen sekä maankäytön suunnittelun perusteiden hallintaan. Ihmisen toimintojen sijoittuminen vaikuttaa ympäristöön ja luontoon, mutta myös ihmiseen itseensä, toimintamahdollisuuksiin ja resurssien käyttöön.
  • Mesimäki, Johannes (2021)
    Collisions and near accidents between pedestrians and cyclists can result in serious injuries and death but have received limited academic attention. Using an online survey, this thesis aimed to increase knowledge of such events, assess the sense of safety of pedestrians and cyclists in traffic as well as identify safety-related constraints to the uptake of walking and cycling with practice theory. Practice theory considers human behaviour to be guided via participation in established social practices constituted by interconnected elements of meaning, material and competence. As such, this thesis contributes to debates concerning barriers to walking and cycling from a safety perspective. The survey was directed to Finnish cities with over 100,000 population and asked frequent pedestrians and cyclists to report details of collisions and near accidents between pedestrians and cyclists that they had experienced in the previous three years. Additionally, the survey asked questions concerning respondents’ sense of safety in traffic when walking or cycling. Survey data was analysed with chi-square tests of independence and ordinal logistic regression. Constraints to the uptake of cycling and walking and ways to overcome them were identified with a practice theory analysis. This involved examining the implications of survey results for the elements constituting the practices, their interrelations and how the practices influenced each other. According to the results, near accidents are roughly 50 times more frequent than collisions. Only 16 respondents had experienced a collision, whereas roughly a third had experienced at least one near accident. Additionally, shared paths were associated with more collisions and near accidents compared to separated spaces, and respondents felt less safe and less willing to travel on them compared to separated paths. The most common type of collision and near accident involved both road users travelling in the same direction. Constraints to cycling and walking were found to surface from meanings of danger associated particularly with shared infrastructure, a material element of the practices. These issues are evidenced by a high near accident frequency, low sense of safety and low willingness to travel on shared spaces. In addition, these issues were exacerbated by a lack of competences concerning space sharing, resulting in poor rapport and respect between pedestrians and cyclists. Significant effects regarding sense of safety were detected between pedestrians and cyclists and across age and genders with ordinal logistic regression, suggesting variance in how different groups experience meanings of danger. Intervening in the material element of the practices by preferring the provision of spatially separated infrastructure was considered to have potential to help overcome these constraints due to their associated safety benefits and respondents’ more favourable position toward them. In addition, working to develop a shared code of conduct for travel on shared environments could further mitigate constraints. Overcoming these constraints could assist the promotion of active travel and help improve the sustainability of transport while improving traffic safety and increasing physical activity.
  • Toikkanen, Tommi (2022)
    My master’s thesis addresses the status of participants in urban infill aiming projects of local detailed planning and framework planning. Urban infill (complementary building) is emphasized in Finnish urban planning while the practices of participatory planning have been developed. However, ambiguous Land Use and Building Act causes ambiguity also for the definition of participants and for public participation. Therefore, it is reasonable to study which issues affect to the definition of participants’ status based on the practical planning cases. My research questions are how the status of participants is defined in the planning projects and by which ways practices to define the status of participants differ between the processes of local detailed planning and framework planning. I examine the phenomenon based on expert interviews and the documents related to public participation phase. The aim of my thesis is to perceive factors and practices affecting to defining the status of participants. In addition to increased meaning of participatory planning, urban planning related decision making is decentralized to more parties meanwhile growth is being pursued in urban regions as part of the world of global competition. Thus, many stakeholders with their own interests are involved to plans, which can be seen by the practices to do urban planning. I examine my research questions through the four planning theories: rationalistic, incremental, communicative-collaborative and agonistic. Planning theories form frameworks whose realization I reflect based on the data gathered of the local detailed plan of Länsi-Herttoniemi and the framework plan of Tikkurila. My qualitative thesis is a case study based cross-sectional study in which I have gathered the data by semi-structured expert interviews and document analyses. The analyses of the data consist of the three themes: the defining the participants, the choosing and using of participatory methods, and the defining the status of participants. Regarding the analysis of expert interview data, I also examine the meaning of the contextual nature of projects related to the defining the status of participants. Document analyses reflect the public perspective on the status of participants transmitted by urban planners which I compare to the findings of expert interview analysis. My thesis reveals that in practice, the concept of participant can be used to refer to separately defined project related parties defined in the public participation plans (PPP) or to all participating parties in the planning process. As conclusions, I propose that in the context of the chosen planning projects, the status of participants has been defined in practice based on 1) the definitions of the public participation plan by affecting to knowledge brokering, 2) differences between the participants, 3) participation at the early phase of the planning process, and 4) in accordance with comment valuation practices of participants’ comments. To fulfill democratic values of urban planning, there is a need for more unambiguous definitions for both, the principles of participative actions, and the status of the participants.
  • Sarla, Jalmari (2021)
    This master’s thesis explores spatial and aesthetic experiences and placemaking in two public spaces in Malmi and Malminkartano in Helsinki. It focuses on two case studies through ethnographic fieldwork in order to evaluate the added value of placemaking in the urban planning practices of the City of Helsinki from the citizens’ perspective. The case studies shed light on the possibilities and risks of placemaking, especially in the context of Helsinki neighbourhoods that are subject to densification and suburban regeneration projects. This research was commissioned by the Strategic Urban Planning Department of the Urban Environment Division of the City of Helsinki. This thesis explores three research questions. It aims to understand how the observed placemaking projects affected the spatial and aesthetic experiences in the public spaces in question. It also examines what kind of attitudes arose among informants regarding public space, placemaking, densification and urban planning in the context of the studied neighbourhoods. Lastly, it assesses the potential of placemaking to improve the spatial and aesthetic experience of public spaces in neighbourhoods undergoing suburban regeneration projects. The theoretical framework of this research utilises theories and viewpoints of human geography and philosophy of urban aesthetics. Building on the study of place and space, it employs the concepts of spatial and aesthetic experience to examine sensory perceptions in public spaces. Additionally, it continues the culture and tradition of qualitative urban planning research. The data was gathered through ethnographic fieldwork during the span of the studied placemaking projects between July and October 2021. The fieldwork entailed participant observation, informal interviews and conversations with informants and autoethnographic observations of sensory, spatial and aesthetic experiences in public space. In addition to the ethnographic data, placemaking theory was utilised to formulate the analyses and results. Based on the data, the observed placemaking case studies had a moderate effect on the spatial and aesthetic experiences in the public spaces in question. However, they raised valuable discussions about local viewpoints and provided important place-based knowledge for urban planners. The ethnographic process revealed both accepting and antagonistic narratives within the local communities regarding densification and the urban planning practices of the City of Helsinki. The latter attitudes did not, however, seem to negatively affect the informants’ conceptions of the studied projects or placemaking generally. Instead, place-driven attempts at making public spaces greener, livelier and more engaging were almost unanimously accepted and welcomed. Consequently, placemaking is proposed here as a viable method to develop and improve the experience of public spaces among citizens in neighbourhoods undergoing suburban regeneration projects. Based on the gathered data and theoretical reasoning, this thesis argues that placemaking is an urban development approach, method and philosophy that can create added value to conventional urban planning practices in Helsinki. Placemaking can improve the experience of public space by vitalising its experiential and sensory qualities, and thus complement technocratic urban planning and construction processes. Placemaking can provide planners with place-based knowledge about local conditions and aspirations that is useful for long-term planning goals. Placemaking can be utilised as a participation method that gives citizens more agency and shows faster impact than other means of participation, further empowering them to reclaim public spaces for communal uses. Placemaking can make public spaces safer and more pluralistic by broadening their usership and increasing vulnerable groups’ presence. By engaging in community-driven placemaking, the City of Helsinki can improve its public spaces in multiple ways and develop its current participatory and urban design practices in alignment with its strategic goals of enhancing the quality of life for its citizens.
  • Hurmerinta, Saara (2022)
    As inequality has increased globally, so has its spatial expression, socio-economic segregation. Traditionally Finland has been considered an egalitarian social welfare state where inequality and segregation are low. While inequality decreased until the 1990s, it has since started to grow and so has socio-economic segregation. In Helsinki Metropolitan Area this development is seen in the growing welfare differentiation between neighbourhoods. As policies to prevent segregation have proven inadequate, the role of spatial accessibility in connecting people with opportunities has grown increasingly important. Using data on travel times and population statistics on a 250m x 250m grid this thesis tries to answer two questions; (1) to what extent does spatial accessibility differ for different socio-economic groups in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area and (2) how has spatial accessibility developed from 2013 to 2018 and how have different socio-economic groups been affected. Spatial accessibility was defined by calculating the average travel time by public transport and by car between every 250m x 250m grid cell in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area using Helsinki Region Travel Time Matrix. To identify advantaged and disadvantaged grid cells in the area, an index of disadvantage was calculated using Statistic’s Finland’s Population Grid Database. Data from these two sources were combined to assess whether there is a difference in spatial accessibility between the least and most disadvantaged quintiles in Helsinki Metropolitan Area. While the main focus of the thesis is on public transport, spatial accessibility by car is also of interest, especially in relation to public transport. This thesis finds that there is a difference between spatial accessibility from the least and most disadvantaged grid cells in favour of the most disadvantaged, though the results are statistically significant only for public transport. Furthermore, the difference in spatial accessibility by public transport has increased from 2013 to 2018 in the area in favour of the disadvantaged grid cells while spatial accessibility by car has decreased. Furthermore, spatial accessibility is far better by car than by public transport and despite two major investments in public transport in the area during the study period, spatial accessibility by public transport as defined by average travel time has decreased.
  • Keurulainen, Ekku (2022)
    Lack of physical activity and obesity are increasing problems that have caused higher healthcare expenses for society. As prior studies have shown, there is a connection between proximity to a sports facility and increased physical activity. Public sports facilities are a way of preventing segregation by providing opportunities for recreational sports for everybody. In my thesis, I studied spatial segregation and accessibility to swimming halls in the Greater Helsinki region. Spatial segregation was studied in terms of travel times to the nearest swimming hall between the most advantaged and the most disadvantaged areas. The disadvantage sum index was used to identify the most advantaged and the most disadvantaged areas which were classified into quintiles by the index. The study was conducted using open source GIS data and applications apart from segregation analysis. Travel times to the nearest swimming facility were calculated using Helsinki Region Travel Time Matrix (250m x 250m grid). Travel times were calculated for six different types of transportation: walking, cycling, public transportation (rush hour and midday) and private cars (rush hour and midday). Statistically significant differences between the most advantaged and the most disadvantaged quintiles were calculated with Student’s t-test in SPSS. The analysis showed that spatial accessibility to swimming halls in the Greater Helsinki region is generally good. Swimming halls have by far the best accessibility by cycling and private car. Travel times to the nearest swimming halls were shorter with all types of transportation for the most disadvantaged than the most advantaged which indicates that living in a more deprived area does not restrict spatial accessibility to swimming halls.
  • Radaelli-Muuronen, Barbara (2019)
    In current city policies, cultural events take part in urban, social and economic development contributing in place making and city branding. This master thesis examines the role of the forthcoming Helsinki contemporary art biennial within the city strategies to fulfill social, economic and environmentally sustainable development. The vision of the city of Helsinki is to be the world’s most functional city, creating the best conditions for residents and visitors as well as an attractive knowledge hub for companies and individuals. The potential of achieving some of the strategies’ objectives through the contemporary art biennial is analyzed through interviews with experts of Helsinki Art Museum and benchmarking the city of Helsinki with other long-term biennial cities, specifically, Venice, Berlin and Liverpool. For the benchmarking, it has been used data provided by the European Commission’s on line platform “Cultural and Creative Cities Monitor”. Helsinki biennial takes part in the place-making, city branding as well as in the strategic plan for the city. Overall, the event is efficiently related to most of the objectives of the city strategies, of which the maritime strategy, the project for youth social inclusion, exercise and mobility, health and welfare promotion. The convergent outputs of the analysis of Helsinki provided positive scenarios on the creation of new jobs within the creative economy and revealed that human capital and education sectors might undertake a significant increase. Yet, a broad overview on the strategies for the city of Helsinki 2017-2021 revealed contrasting aspects within the sustainable development principles. The new jobs created through the maritime strategy seem not completely fulfill the ambitious aims of the city strategies to create new captivating jobs through new companies and startups. Furthermore, in order to avoid the worst effects of climate change, environmentally sustainable alternatives for the Biennial in the island of Vallisaari should be carefully considered.
  • Tomassen, Mike Willibrordus Laurentius (2022)
    Throughout history, the growth of cities has been considered a great source of prosperity. However, in recent years negative environmental impacts have led to a growing concern about the consequences of the sometimes seemingly unlimited urban growth. One of the key topics when speaking about these negative environmental impacts is mobility. With the increasing importance of mobility in the modern urbanized world, improving the urban built environment to stimulate the use of sustainable modes of transport is one of the major challenges for today’s land use and transport planners. The research in this thesis builds upon the reciprocal interaction between the (design of the) built environment and travel behavior. Use is made of the concept of transit-oriented development (TOD), a well-established planning approach originating from the US, aiming at achieving a shift in modal share towards sustainable forms of transport, while simultaneously creating a more livable environment with high standards for urban space. Much of the available research on TOD is, however, mainly based on the policy scale and the regional planning scale, while attention to the detailed design level has been minimal. Furthermore, much of the research has focused on the North-American context. Consequently, practical design guidelines for TOD in the European and Finnish context are still lacking. This thesis aims at bridging the gap between academic research on the topic of built environment and travel behavior, and the professional practice of land use planning. This is done, first of all, by examining the relation between land use, design, and sustainable modes of mobility in academic research, and second, by producing spatial design guidelines for TOD in the Finnish context. The main method used to bridge the gap between research and design is the creation of guidelines, a research method for environmental design disciplines defined by Prominski. The creation of the guidelines has been done in two ways. First, a study of three best-practice examples of TOD (Rieselfeld, Vauban, and Hammarby Sjöstad) has been done, from which a number of guidelines have been extracted. Second, the applicability of these guidelines for the Finnish context has been examined through several test designs for the Malmin kenttä district, a new urban development area in Helsinki. Simultaneously, new guidelines have been developed throughout the process. The creation of the toolbox of TOD guidelines for spatial development in the Finnish context forms an important first step in translating the available academic knowledge into usable practical tools for Finnish planners. Although a comprehensive understanding of the functioning of the related theoretical models is still required to achieve overarching goals, such as a modal shift, the toolbox provides a set of practical guidelines that planners can directly apply to their work. Furthermore, the guidelines may, in combination with the test designs, spark a larger discussion on the role of TOD in Finnish planning and the importance of a good integration of land use and transport planning.
  • Stark, Ella (2020)
    Espoon kaupunkirakenne tiivistyy yhä enemmän asukasmäärän kasvaessa. Viheralueiden tärkeys osana terveellistä ja viihtyisää kaupunkiympäristöä on huomioitu Espoon strategiassa valtuustokaudelle 2017-2021. Kaupunkirakenteen tiivistyminen aiheuttaa kuitenkin usein painetta rakentaa viheralueille. Viheralueiden väheneminen ja pirstoutuminen voi vähentää asuinympäristön viihtyisyyttä. Asukkaiden kokemusten kerääminen voi antaa tärkeää tietoa asuinympäristöjen viheralueista, jotka usein etenkin Suomessa koetaan merkityksellisinä paikkoina. Espoon kaupunkisuunnittelukeskuksen yleiskaavayksikössä onkin Kaupunkikeskustatyön yhteydessä tarkoitus selvittää viheralueisiin liittyviä arvostuksia, sekä kokemuksia eri kaupunkikeskusten viheralueista. Tämän tutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää viheralueisiin liittyviä kokemuksia ja merkityksiä Espoon viiden kaupunkikeskuksen asemanseuduilla asukasnäkökulmasta. Tulokset toimivat viheraluesuunnittelun tukena Espoon kaupunkikeskustatyössä. Tutkielmassa on pyritty vastaamaan siihen, millaisia viheralueita Espoon kaupunkikeskuksissa arvostetaan, mikä merkitys lähiviheralueilla on, sekä millaisia kokemuksia asukkailla on viheralueista muun muassa sosiaalisten arvojen osalta. Kaupunkikeskusten (Espoon keskus, Espoonlahti, Leppävaara, Matinkylä-Olari ja Tapiola) välisiä eroja tarkastellaan asemanseutujen viheralueiden osalta. Näitä viheralueiden käyttöön vaikuttavia tekijöitä tutkittiin karttapohjaisen PPGIS-kyselyn avulla, jossa asukkaat saivat paikantaa kartalle erilaisia viheralueita, sekä kertoa kokemuksistaan. Kyselytulokset kertovat, että kaupunkikeskusten asukkailla on läheinen suhde luontoon. Vastaajajoukon (N=616) vastausten perusteella Espoon kaupunkikeskuksissa lähiviheralueet ovat hyvin tärkeitä ja vaikuttavat asuinpaikan valintaan. Asukkaat arvostavat etenkin hyviä ulkoilureittejä, asuinympäristön vehreyttä, hiljaista ja rauhallista ympäristöä, sekä metsiä. Lisäksi tulokset kertovat millaisia positiivisia ja negatiivisia koettuja laatuja viheralueilla esiintyy. Kaupunkeskuksissa käydään erityisesti hyvin saavutettavissa olevilla ja sellaisilla viheralueilla, joilla on mahdollisuus eri liikuntamuotoihin, sekä virkistymiseen ja stressin vähentämiseen. Liikunta-aktiviteettien ja rauhoittumisen lisäksi moni tarkkailee luontoa. Kaupunkiluonto edistääkin asukkaiden psyykkistä että fyysistä terveyttä liikunnan ja positiivisten luontokokemusten johdosta.