Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by department "Geotieteiden ja maantieteen laitos"

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Jousi, Netta (2017)
    137Cs is an artificial isotope generated by fission reactions, whose deposition times are well known both globally and locally. The 137Cs dating method measures the 137Cs activity in sediment layers from different depths, and by utilizing knowledge of the deposition moment dating accuracy can be up to one year. The prerequisites of the dating method are not only the knowledge of precise moments of deposition, but also calm sedimentation and understanding of the sediment disturbances. The best destinations for using the 137Cs dating method are deep basin sediments, where bioturbation is very low and sedimentation is calm. This study looked at the accuracy and reliability of the 137Cs dating of the bottom sediment from five different lakes. There were clear annual varves in four out of five lakes, so the sediment was not mixed and mechanical movements of 137Cs had not occurred. The most significant fall-off affecting Finland in 1986 was the Chernobyl nuclear accident and when analyzing sediment samples in 1986, it could even be traced back to a single varve. Another significant 137Cs fall-off has been the nuclear tests of the 1950s to 1960s. The 137Cs peak of these events was almost invisible compared to the 137Cs activity of 1986. Regardless of the limnological features of the lake, 1986 had also migrated downward in the analysis results. The more porous sediment was, the stronger the spread had occurred. According to the results of this study the 137Cs dating method is still usable, especially in Finland at the time of the Chernobyl nuclear accident of 1986. From 1950 to 1960, the time of nuclear testing, this method is far more uncertain in Finland, although the marker horizon is more globally distinguishable. However, downward migration of 137Cs was clearly evident even in a calm sedimentation environment, which is a major hindrance to the method. Chemical follow-up studies would be useful to clarify the causes of migration.
  • Lindqvist, Teemu (2014)
    This work aims at delineating the geometry and geotechnical properties of major fracture zones within the Kevitsa open pit excavation in northern Finland. The results are intended to be used as input parameters for a comprehensive slope stability study scheduled for 2014 by Engineering Consulting Group WSP Finland Ltd. The present work has both a regional and local-scale focus. The regional study focuses on identifying major linear trends from topographic and aeromagnetic maps, whereas the local scale study focuses on building 3D fracture zone models by merging lineaments interpreted from detailed digital elevation model and fracture data mapped from open pit mapping, 3D photogrammetry models and borehole videos. The orientation constraints derived from the fracture data are merged with RQD- and RG-logs to build the 3D fracture zone models. The regional topographic lineaments (RTL) comprise two main orientations with NNW-SSE and SSW-NNE trends. The regional aeromagnetic lineaments (RAL) indicate NW-SE and SW-NE orientations. The local topographic lineaments (LTL) indicate NNW-SSE, SSW-NNE, WSW-ENE and NW-SE orientations. Ground surface fracture data mapped from 3D photogrammetry models comprise steeply ENE- and steeply SE-dipping fracture sets. Fracture data derived from borehole videos show steeply ENE-, steeply SE-, sub-horizontally SW- and gently NNE-dipping fracture sets. Furthermore, the open pit mapping observations reveal the presence of gently WNW- and steeply ENE-dipping brittle zones of rock. The main 3D photogrammetry and borehole video fracture sets define wedge shaped blocks of rock at the slopes of the Kevitsa open pit excavation. The studied brittle fractures and fracture zones most probably originate from the general NW-SE oriented compressive stress field in the Finnish bedrock. However, most of the observed fracture sets are not oriented parallel to the compression. Instead, the fracture sets form conjugate shear fracture pairs that are attributed to a transpressive stress field comprising the NW-SE oriented normal stress combined with a smaller NE-SW oriented shear component. 3D fracture zone models arising from this work include a 50 m fracture zone model (50M), a statistical population model (SPM) and a merged fracture zone model (MFM). The 50M model illustrates the geometry of the fracture zones within the uppermost 50 meters of the Kevitsa open pit area. The SPM model extracts the dominant orientations from the fracture observations mapped from borehole videos by generalizing the observations and forming statistical clusters that represent these dominant orientations. The clusters are visualized with 3D surfaces that indicate the orientation of the cluster. The MFM model combines geometries derived from the SPM model with the RQD and RG-diamond drillcore logs to build the final 3D fracture zone models. The 3D models are delivered with the M.Sc. thesis as digital end-products.
  • Koivulehto, Liisa (2016)
    Äänekosken Energia Oy is planning an artificial groundwater recharge plant in Äänekoski Central Finland. Consulting company Ramboll is in charge of the water intake project that is situated at an important groundwater recharge area, Kulopalokangas. The aim of this study is to collect data from previous studies in the area, create a three-dimensional geological model of the study area's bedrock surface and sediments as well as discuss their effect on groundwater flow. Further objective is to test modelling software Leapfrog Geo and its suitability in this type of study. The study area is characterized by an esker formation that was deposited during the deglaciation of the Weichselian glaciation. This esker originates from a end moraine formation in Central Finland that formed at the rim of the continental ice sheet about 11 000 years ago. The bedrock is relatively homogenous and there are no faults. The bedrock is considerably exposed in the area and the sediment package consists of coarse sand and gravel units in the central part of the study area, whereas finer material is located at the rims and on the outside of the esker. Geological and geophysical investigations have been conducted previously within the water intake project. The data used in this study was gathered from seismic refraction surveys, drilling data and groundwater table measurements. The input data was in point data and drill hole format, and the surfaces and volumes of soil units were created subsequently. Cross sections were created to illustrate inner structures of the sediments throughout the area. The results are presented as a digital elevation map of bedrock, a groundwater map, images and cross sections of the model. They show the distribution of soil units. In addition, they provide information of the areas for artificial recharge as well as factors effecting the groundwater flow. The bedrock surface forms a NW-SE oriented depression valley that is filled with soil units. A two-meter thick unit of till is located above the bedrock and the innermost coarse gravel unit of the esker shows an elongated dome-like structure. The topmost unit is fine sand or silt at the western side of the esker, whereas the eastern side top unit is mostly composed of sand and coarse sand. Results of this study correspond with the previous studies. The three-dimensional soil model is used as a basis for a numerical groundwater flow model in the next stage of the project. The model is a simplified representation of the area and the results are absolute only at the vicinity of the observation points. The three-dimensional geological model offers more accuracy and information about subsurface geological conditions and furthermore helps to communicate between different stakeholders.
  • Kähkönen, Mervi (2017)
    Fracturing of the ore and wall rock in Pyhäsalmi mine was analysed from 3D-photographs, using Structural Suite –add-on to Surpac. Observations of geological structures were also made. The suitability of 3D-photographing method to observe rock mass movement was also tested. 33 fracture zones, which differ from the main joint direction, were observed from the pictures. In particularly, fracture zones that trend from southwest to northeast and pierce the ore body from the middle, were prominent. There was also a zone of rock inclusions, almost at the same direction and same location, as the southwest to northeast trending fracture zones are. Presumably, from southwest to northeast trending fracture zones have been noticed earlier on the basis of the seismic events. Gently dipping fracture zones were also noted, in which dip direction was mostly towards north or south. In wall rock, there were pegmatite veins, singular joints and possibly small-scale faults, which were gently dipping toward north or south. Apparently clearly visible rock mass movement did likely not occur during the monitoring period. It is not possible to observe small-scale movement with 3D-photographs, but large scale movement can possibly be observed from the pictures. Avainsanat – Nyckelord – Keywords Pyhäsalmi, mine, 3D-photogrammetry, 3D-photograph, 3D, fracture, fracturing, rock, rock mechanic, rock mass movement Säilytyspaikka – Förvaringställe – Where deposited Muita tietoja
  • Salojärvi, Niina (2013)
    Boreaaliset suot ovat globaalilla tasolla merkittäviä hiilen varastoja sekä monimuotoisia ekosysteemejä. Ombrotrofisia keidassoita esiintyy erityisesti eteläboreaalisella vyöhykkeellä, kun minerotrofiset aapasuot ovat yleisempiä keski- ja pohjoisboreaalisella vyöhykkeellä. On kuitenkin odotettavissa, että ilmastonmuutos siirtäisi keidas- ja aapasuovyöhykkeen rajaa pohjoisemmaksi, mikä tarkoittaisi nykyisten aapasoiden rahkoittumista keidassoiksi. Keidas- ja aapasoiden suhteellisten osuuksien muuttuminen vaikuttaisi soiden kaasuvirtoihin sekä monimuotoisuuteen. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää nykyisten aapasuovyöhykkeen soiden sukkessiovaihetta rahkoittumista indikoivien avainlajien kautta. Kasvillisuus- ja ympäristöaineisto tutkimukseen kerättiin 21:ltä luonnontilaiselta suolta Pohjois-Pohjanmaalta sekä Pohjois-Karjalasta ja Kainuusta. Avainlajien optimielinympäristöä mallinnettiin yleisten lineaaristen mallien ja regressiopuumenetelmien avulla. Myös ekologisten monimuuttujamenetelmien (DCA ja CCA) avulla selvitettiin suokasvien esiintymistä suhteessa ympäristötekijöihin sekä tutkimusalueiden välisiä mahdollisia eroja. Tulosten perusteella avainlajien (Eriophorum vaginatum, Sphagnum angustifolium, S. balticum ja S. magellanicum) esiintymistä selittää parhaiten sekä pH, sijainti sekä turpeen paksuus. Ilmastomuuttujien osuus on vähäinen, mutta niiden mukanaolo kuitenkin paransi GLM-mallien selityskykyä. DCA:n perusteella myös vedenpinnantaso vaikuttaa avainlajien esiintymiseen. Vasteet ympäristötekijöiden suhteen kuitenkin vaihtelevat avainlajien välillä. Itäisen ja läntisen tutkimusalueen välillä on havaittavissa tilastollisesti merkitsevää lajistoeroa, ja erityisesti S. balticumin esiintyminen on painottunut itäiselle tutkimusalueelle. Yhdistettäessä avainlajien dominanssitulokset ja soiden trofiatasot havaittiin tutkimusalueella kolmea erilaista kehitysvaihetta: selkeät aapasuot, selkeät rahkasuot, sekä muutosvaiheen suot. Aapasoiden osuus aineistosta on 43 %, muutosvaiheen soiden 19 % ja keidassoiden 38 %. Tulokset kertovat, että rahkoittuminen on jo alkanut aapasuovyöhykkeen eteläisissä osissa. Rahkoittumisen taustalla voi olla useita tekijöitä. Koska soiden välillä on suuriakin eroja kehitysvaiheen suhteen, voidaan päätellä, ettei suurilmaston merkitys ole kovinkaan voimakas soiden kehityksen kannalta. Itäisen tutkimusalueen suot ovat tulosten perusteella hieman enemmän rahkoittuneet, mutta itäisellä tutkimusalueella vallitsee edelleen myös selkeitä aapasoita. Niinpä rahkoittumiskehitykseen näyttää vaikuttavan erityisesti paikalliset ympäristötekijät. Tulosten perusteella on oletettavaa, että avainlajien dominanssi tulee kasvamaan erityisesti muutosvaiheen soilla ja suot muuttuvat keidassoiksi. Aapasoiden rahkoittuminen vähentäisi ravinteikkaiden suotyyppien monimuotoisuutta, joten aapasoiden suojelu tulee jatkossa olemaan nykyistäkin tärkeämpää. Boreaaliset suoekosysteemit ovat muutoksen alla, ja ilmastonmuutoksen ja soiden sukkession välisten suhteiden selvittäminen vaatii lisätutkimusta.
  • Sipari, Pinja (2014)
    Koulujen puutarhatoiminta on yhtä aikaa koululaitoksemme kanssa kehittynyt ilmiö. Aikojen saatossa koulupuutarhatoimintaa kohtaan tunnettu kiinnostus on vaihdellut ja tällä hetkellä se on ilmeisesti taas kasvussa. Koulupuutarhatoimintaa voidaan tarkastella monenlaisista näkökulmista, esimerkiksi osana koulun ympäristökasvatusta, terveyskasvatusta tai oppiainerajat ylittävää opiskelua. Aihetta on tutkittu vain vähän ja tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää millaista koulupuutarhatoimintaa Suomessa on ja miten puutarhoja hyödynnetään opetuksessa. Lisäksi tarkastelun kohteena on havainto, jonka mukaan koulupuutarhatoimijat usein ajattelevat oppilaiden oppivan toiminnan kautta 'mistä ruoka tulee'. Nykyaikainen ruokajärjestelmä on kuitenkin monimutkainen kokonaisuus, jonka muodostavat kuluttaja, tuottaja, jatkojalostajat ja pakkausteollisuus, sekä kauppa ja muut ruoan kautta tekemisissä olevat verkostot. Ymmärtääkseen ruoan matkaa pellosta pöytään ei siis riitä että tietää miten kasvit kasvavat. Tutkimuksessa selvitetäänkin lisäksi mitä koulupuutarhojen avulla opetetaan ruokajärjestelmästä. Tutkimuksen empiirinen aineisto kerättiin teemahaastattelujen avulla. Tutkimusta varten haastateltiin 11 opettajaa eri puolilta maata sijaitsevista kouluista, joissa on aktiivista koulupuutarhatoimintaa. Tutkimuskoulujen joukossa on ala- ja yläkouluja, lukio ja kaksi steinerkoulua. Tavoitteena oli saada tutkimukseen mukaan mahdollisimman laaja otos erilaisia koulupuutarhoja, joten kustakin koulusta haastateltiin vain yhtä toiminnasta hyvin perillä olevaa opettajaa. Litteroitu haastatteluaineisto analysoitiin teemoittelun ja tyypittelyn avulla. Teemoittelun kautta aineistosta löytyneiden ilmiöiden yleisyyttä selvitettiin sisällön erittelyllä. Tutkimuksen tulosten perusteella ei voida määrittää suomalaisen koulupuutarhan tyyppiesimerkkiä, sillä toimintatavat, toiminnan laajuus, sille asetut päämäärät ja puutarhojen hyödyntäminen opetuksessa vaihtelevat kouluittain paljonkin. Puutarhojen toimintamallit on kehitetty koulukohtaisesti niiden resurssien varassa, joita kullakin koululla on ollut käytettävissään. Toiminnan ensisijaisena tavoitteena on oppimisen tukeminen, mutta eri kouluissa puutarhan merkitystä painotetaan eri tavoin: ympäristökasvatuksen, kokonaisvaltaisen oppimisen tai jonkin tietyn kurssin oppimisympäristönä tai koulun pihaa viihtyistävänä tai koulun arkeen vaihtelua tuovana tekijänä. Toiminnalle asetetut tavoitteet määrittävät sitä kuinka paljon puutarhaa hyödynnetään opetuksessa ja lisäksi hyödyntämisen laajuuteen vaikuttaa puutarhan koko. Vaikka myös monet opettajat ajattelevat koulun puutarhatoiminnan avulla opittavan mistä ruoka tulee kauppojen hyllyille, opetetaan ruokajärjestelmästä puutarhatoiminnan kautta vain tiettyjä osia. Alkutuotannon roolia painotetaan vahvasti, mutta osassa kouluista näkökulmaa laajennetaan valmistamalla satoa myytäväksi myyjäisissä tai sitä tarjotaan kouluruokalassa. Kahdessa koulussa tehdään lisäksi maatilayhteistyötä lähitilojen kanssa. Uusien oppimisympäristöjen ja opetusmetodien hyödyntämistä opetuksessa pidetään yleisesti suositeltavana, mutta niiden käyttöönotto vaatii opettajalta edelleen erityistä rohkeutta. Koulupuutarhatoiminta kannustaa opettajia kokeilemaan koulussa monenlaisia uusia toimintatapoja ja opetusmetodeja, kuten ulkona opettamista ja kokemuksellista oppimista. Tutkimukseen osallistuneet opettajat eivät juuri kokeneet tarvitsevansa apua koulun puutarhatoiminnan kehittämiseen, mutta se voisi hyödyttää heitä etenkin puutarhakasvatuksen osalta, sillä monilla on melko suppea käsitys puutarhan hyödyntämismahdollisuuksista opetuksessa. Koulupuutarhojen aiheuttama innostus ja lisääntynyt oppilaiden motivaatio, sekä käytännön tekeminen, oikeat ongelmat ja konkreettisen lopputuloksen näkeminen puoltavat paikkaansa koulussa, sillä tällaiset tekijät edistävät tutkimusten mukaan esimerkiksi oppilaiden luonnontieteiden osaamista. Tutkimus on esiselvitys suomalaisen koulupuutarhatoiminnan käytännöistä ja se avaa runsaasti lisätutkimuksen aiheita. Jotta puutarhakasvatuksen parhaista käytännöistä päästään selville, on tehtävä esimerkiksi hyvin dokumentoituja kokeiluja erilaisista puutarhakasvatuksen muodoista, joiden vaikuttavuutta arvioidaan. Tarvetta on myös tutkimuksille, jotka selvittävät puutarhakasvatuksen vaikutuksia oppilaiden oppimiseen suomalaisen koulun kontekstissa. Ruokajärjestelmäopetuksen suhteen tutkimuksessa ilmeni ristiriita sen suhteen, mitä opettajat toivovat oppilaiden oppivan koulupuutarhatoiminnan kautta ja mitä he näyttävät käytännössä opettavan, joten lisätutkimusta tarvitaan myös tämän ristiriidan vahvistamiseksi ja selvittämiseksi.
  • Iiskola, Marie-Helene (2016)
    Tourism destinations tend to attract mainly those tourists who choose the location as the main or only destination of their trip, although the share of those tourists who choose it as a secondary or through destination is greater than have been initially thought. Most tourism destinations have the ability to take advantage of the potential offered by transit tourists, as the necessary infrastructure and services already exist - they just need to be directed into new markets. Finland is a secondary tourist destination that acts as stop-over point on the way to primary destinations. Transit tourists form a significant amount in the flow of tourists to Finland and the volumes of Asian transit tourists arriving to Helsinki-Vantaa have increased. Many of the most important factors of tourism destinations for Asian tourists are present in Finland, and interest toward the country among Asians have grown in recent years. However, in stopover tourism the challenge lies in encountering the diverse interests of many different parties and tourists, the combination of which is needed for stopover tourism development. This master's thesis aims to identify changes in stopover tourism and predict the future development in the Helsinki metropolitan area by the year 2025. The study examines the impact of the Helsinki metropolitan area starting points, and how changes in lack of opportunities and lack of interest among tourists affect the development of stopover tourism. The study utilizes the Delphi method used in future research, in which persons classified as experts act as predictors of the future development of the studied phenomenon. Unlike in the traditional multi-stage Delphi, rounds were limited to only one round of interviews. Twelve experts (n = 12) took part in this study's Delphi panel, representing companies and organizations operating in the tourism sector. The snowball method is used for the selection of the expert panel, where a few key experts are first identified and then asked to name other experts for the panel. The interview material is analysed by coding and thematising in order to highlight both the converging and diverging points of views. The results show that the major opportunities for stopover tourism development in Helsinki metropolitan area are related to the accessibility and competitiveness of Finnair's Asian route network. The Helsinki metropolitan area is able to offer a new kind of appeal for Asian tourists compared to other well-known European destinations, even though it does not have any tourist attractions recognised on a global level. The metropolitan's compact size and the focusing of tourism service offerings in a relatively small area provide a framework for stopover tourism. The challenge, however, is whether the development of the tourism service offerings can become attractive enough for the tourists to stop in the Helsinki metropolitan area when flying between Europe and Asia. There will not be any significant changes in the roles of the Helsinki metropolitan area's tourism operators in the future, while Finnair will continue playing the key role. Since most of the stopovers made in Helsinki metropolitan area are pre-designed and tourists are leisure tourists, the travel time to and from Helsinki-Vantaa does not have an impact on whether or not to stop in Helsinki. Similarly, visa requirements do not reduce the attractiveness of the Helsinki metropolitan area as some of the visitors will need a visa to travel to Europe in any case. In the future provision of tourist services in the Helsinki metropolitan area, the importance of individuality is emphasized, as well as the need for accessibility and availability of tourism services improvement. Since the Helsinki metropolitan area cannot compete in terms of tourist attractions, the attractiveness should be based on its existing nature potential. Based on the study, the lack of interest affects stopover tourism development in the Helsinki metropolitan area more than the lack of opportunity. Growth of appeal arising from awareness and development in tourism service will increase the attractiveness of the Helsinki metropolitan area. As a result, the number of Asian tourists in the Helsinki metropolitan area will increase significantly by 2025, as more transit tourists arriving to Helsinki-Vantaa will stop in the metropolitan area. Despite the challenges, the study shows that the interests of the tourism sector and tourists can be seen to meet better during the next ten years in stopover tourism.
  • Haapa, Sanna K. (2018)
    The aim of the study is to inspect with GIS methods socio-economic structures in relation to homicides of youth in the context of Mexican Drug War. The escalation of violence has impacted youth, who fell victims to homicide more often since 2006. The study’s concentration is how the local conditions of poverty, marginalization risk of youth and violence of criminal organizations are related to elevated homicide rates of youth in 2005 and in 2010. Mexico was a relatively peaceful country before the escalation of violence since 2006. The crisis of violence has been branded by media as the Mexican Drug War, where over 200 000 people have died. Conflicts between criminal organizations and the changes in political atmosphere have been considered as main reasons for the escalation. However, the escalation of intentional homicides was recorded to exceed the areas where criminal organizations operate. The impact of increased violence on youth and the cost to the society underlie the importance of studying conditions of where violence takes place. There is no theoretical framework for conflicts where drug cartel related homicides and unrelated homicides increase at the same time, only other examples been recorded only in favelas of Brazil and to an extent in Columbia. Theoretical framework was drawn from comparing gang and criminologist studies to theories on civil conflicts. Through the literature, poverty has been theorized as a primary cause of increase in level of violence. The high marginalization risk of youth has been connected to criminal behaviour. The increased activity by criminal organizations has had an indisputable impact of murder rates. These three statements set the hypotheses for the thesis. The variables were collected to represent the municipal conditions of population, households and interest points of criminal organizations. The spatial analysis was conducted by using Ordinary Least Square Regression to represent the global impacts of variables across Mexico and Geographically Weighted Regression for the local variance. The results of analysis demonstrate that the spatial dimensions of violence have changed between 2005 and 2010. The homicides of youth have increased across the country, were more clustered in 2010 than in 2005. The results suggest that the increased number of homicides in 2010 are more strongly related to marginalization than to absolute poverty. The effect of variables for poverty fell in significance between 2005 and 2010. The marginalization on the other hand, seemed to have a greater explanatory power to local increase in young homicide victims in 2010, especially when concurring with bloodshed by criminal organizations. The violence between criminal organizations had the strongest increasing impact on homicide rates, non-existent in 2005 and eminent in 2010. The regression models’ performance was weaker in 2005 than in 2010. However, the moderately weak performance of regression models and the residuals suggest that the results are not comprehensive and further research is called for.
  • Savolainen, Talvikki (2013)
    A mining facility is planned to Hannukainen, Kolari, where iron, copper and gold will be enriched. The brown-field of Rautuvaara in the Niesajoki valley is one of the options for the tailings disposal area in the environmental assessment plan. It has been used by the Rautuvaara and Saattopora mines to dispose tailings from 1962 to 1995. The target of the study was to define groundwater table and directions, hydrostratigraphical features and water qualities as well as research groundwater – surface water interactions in order to evaluate the present state and possibility for future use as a tailings disposal area. The hydraulic gradient was delineated with ArcGIS to be towards the center part of the valley and a watershed was identified in the middle part of the northern settling pond. The hydraulic pattern was simple. Mostly, the valley is covered by till, with some alternating sand, gravel and silt units. No good aquitards were identified with permeabilities calculated from grain-size analysis and slug tests. However, the hydraulic conductivity was determined to be poor or moderate (from 10^-2 to 10^-7 m s^-1) in the till units, they dominated in the area. The surrounding surface and groundwaters followed the baseline in the area for the most and were determined to be natural waters (calciumhydrogencarbonate) with Aquachem software. Contaminated (acid mine drainage) surface and groundwaters (sulphate-magnesium) were quite restricted in area, they were identified in surface waters and groundwater observation wells close by the abandoned tailings area. Some of these groundwater observation wells were evaluated to contain surface water by their oxygen and hydrogen ionic compositions, where others of the evaporated observations wells situated near a bog area. Groundwater seepage from the west coast was also concluded, which could have had a part in the AMD generation process. On the other hand, some of the wells contained enriched waters, in form of elevated trace element concentrations, however they were still Ca-HCO3 waters. This was the case for two artesian monitoring wells on the tailings area. It was concluded that the existing peat layer underneath the tailings is impermeable and leads to the assumption that mostly the contamination is restricted in area because of a separate tailings water body. The tailings waters had only very limited connection to the confined aquifer underneath. The thickness of the peat layer should be examined as well as the hydrostratigraphy of the aquifer, to prevent any future leaking risks to the groundwaters.
  • Martikainen, Kaisa (2016)
    Tutkimuskohteena on Salon kaupungissa sijaitseva Aijalan vanha kaivos, joka on ollut tunnettu sulfidimalmeistaan jo 1600-luvulta lähtien. Kaivos oli toiminnassa vuosina 1949-1958. Kaivoksella on käsitelty myös läheisen Metsämontun Zn-Pb-malmeja (v.1951-1958, v.1964-1974) sekä Telkkälän Ni-Cumalmeja (v.1969-1970), joiden jätteet sijoitettiin samalle rikastushiekka-alueelle Aijalan jätteiden kanssa. Aijalan kaivoksen rikastushiekka-alue kuormittaa tällä hetkellä ympäristöä hallitsemattomasti hyvin voimakkaasti metallipitoisilla vesillä (mm. Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb) Aikolanlahteen sekä Kiskonjokeen, joka luokitellaan Natura-alueeksi. Rikastushiekka-aluetta ei ole jälkihoidettu kunnolla, minkä johdosta alueella muodostuvat sekä alueen läpi virtaavat pinta- ja pohjavedet happamoituvat voimakkaasti. Kuormittumista on tutkittu useaan otteeseen, mutta kunnostustoimiin alueella ei ole ryhdytty. Tarkoituksena oli saada tietoa rikastushiekka-alueelta tulevasta metallikuormituksesta alueen vesiin, ja mikä kuormitus tulee mahdollisesti olemaan tulevaisuudessa. Aiempien tutkimusten perusteella alueelle suunniteltiin vesinäytteenotto. Aijalan alueelle luotiin myös ArcGis-ohjelmalla pintavesien virtausmalli, jonka pohjalta tulkittiin alueen osavaluma-alueet. Merkittävin havainto oli, että Koskossuolta tulee suuri pintavalunta rikastushiekka-alueelle. Kiskonjokeen rikastushiekka-alueelta laskevan puron ja sen sivuhaarojen kautta tulee valuntaa noin 790 000 m3 vuodessa ja Aikolanlahteen noin 170 000 m3 vuodessa. Kiskonjokea kuormittavista metalleista lyijy ja kupari muodostavat suurimman riskin. Kuparikuormitus Kiskonjokeen on noin 35 kg vuodessa ja lyijykuormitus noin 1 kg vuodessa. Kuormittavien metallien pitoisuudet Kiskonjokeen laskevassa purossa ovat laskeneet viimeisen 30 vuoden aikana, mikä todennäköisesti johtuu valuntamäärien lisääntymisestä alueella. Aikolanlahteen ei kohdistu merkittävää metallikuormitusta. Tärkein havainto oli, että länsimalmin kaivoskuilusta todennäköisesti pääsee purkautumaan hyvin metallipitoista pohjavettä maanpinnalle. Metallikuormitus alueella tulee jatkumaan alueella satoja vuosia. Vaikka kuormitus ei ole merkittävän suuri, tulisi alueelle laatia päivitetty kunnostussuunnitelma. Rikastushiekka-alue tulisi peittää ja suolta tulevan luontaisen valunnan pääsy rikastushiekka-alueelle tulisi estää. Myös länsimalmin kaivoskuiluista tapahtuvaa pohjaveden purkautumista tulisi tutkia enemmän.
  • Räsänen, Saara (2017)
    Immigration has increased and with it the need for research dealing with matters concerning immigrants employment and integration processes. This thesis aims to analyze educational and labour paths of immigrants in Uusimaa, who have started literacy training in the course of the year 2010. Literacy training is organized mainly for the purposes of labour market training aiming at further developing immigrants' human, cultural and social capital. The aim is to discover, which viewpoints the immigrants already completed literacy training and the providers of integration services are able to provide to education and employment. Furthermore, an analyses of the types of capital that are closely connected to these viewpoints will be conducted. The area of research is Uusimaa for the reason that, the largest part of the migration wave is directed at the largest cities and especially to the metropolitan area. The data analyzed in this research consist of nine interviews collected from immigrants, heads of educational division and a teacher of the literacy training. In addition to this, quantitative data extracted from the information system of the labour policy administration on data registration of students of literacy training will be examined. The time period under examination here extends from the year 2010 until 2017, during which, many significant changes have occurred regarding the literacy training and integration training. The contents of the integration training have altered as the point of direction of the integration training has shifted toward a more employment type of direction and the amount of vocational training has been increased. According to interviews, such developments include, changes in the literacy training programme's student profiles and improvements on the student's guidance to educational paths. Teaching groups of immigrants are very heterogeneous in terms of immigrants learning ability, life situation and education background. These differences influence their consequent progress and the formation of various capitals. Guidance and support provided at a right time were found to be important factors in building student's paths and furthering employment. However, current teaching model does not automatically support all students in their educational path. In conclusion, in order to provide accurate guidance, it is relevant to recognize what type of a learner a student is. Three of the immigrants interviewed for the purposes of this research had found entry level employment in the labour markets and one interviewee was carrying out a vocational upper secondary qualification. Their most important objective in Finland was to find employment. The data has clearly revealed how different capitals form a synergetic relationship with each other. A work placement period pertaining to the training was an integral tool in increasing forms of capital in various ways. The work placement period was found to increase factors of human capital such as language skills and work experience. Cultural capital manifests in the form of acquired norms on Finnish work culture. The relevance of social capital was intensified through furthering of employment and support in the integration process, because it was through social networks, which immigrants retrieved information on employment and education.
  • Pyyhtiä, Markus (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2010)
    This master s thesis is concerned with the airline network geography of the Baltic Sea Area. The developments in economical liberties in the area and new liberties in air transport give special interest in researching this matter. Also the requirements of airlines to consolidate their activities give a reason to predict the possible outcomes of the geography of airlines in the area. Airlines networks organize themselves according to economic principles, most often attempting to reconciliate their form with the needs of passengers. The passengers are the centermost actors with their utilities as the main determinants of when and where air services are provided. States have interests in controlling parts of airline transportation as connectivities at cities act as instruments of local economic development. Cities as transport nodes can be characterized by their transport linkages as being central and/or intermediate. This characterization is created by the actions of the passengers, the airlines and the states. This interplay is central to the airline networks being formed in the Baltic Sea Area. Two empirical measurements of international airline connetivity were made from the study cities of Copenhagen, Helsinki, Oslo, Riga and Stockholm. The measurements were made from the database of flights during week 49 in December 2009, which has been acquired for this thesis. This database consists of the data of available passenger seats per flight per destination. From the database a measure of connectivity based on network analysis was made from all the study cities. This connectivity reveals geographic directionality of airline links between the study cities. To compare the situation with the natural transport demand, a gravity model was formulated from the same database to explain the divergent geographic airline connections. Airline connections have specialized in intercontinental airline connections mainly due to strategic business selections made by the region s airlines. In intracontinental connections, much less geographic divergence is found and this is also explained well by the gravity model. Potential is seen for some of the study area s cities to specialize geographically towards Eastern Europe in the future.
  • Meriläinen, Sara (2015)
    The Akwé: Kon Guidelines, based on the Article 8(j) of the Convention on Biological Diversity, are voluntary guidelines for cultural, environmental and social impact assessment. The Guidelines are intended to be applied in the impact assessments of plans and projects conducted in areas that are inhabited or used by indigenous populations or that contain sacred places of indigenous peoples. The Guidelines have been applied for the first time ever in Finland in Hammastunturi wilderness area. The research question of the thesis is 'To what extent the Akwé: Kon Guidelines have affected on the consideration of Sami perspective in the management plan of Hammastunturi wilderness area'. The data of the thesis consists of two management plans of Hammastunturi wilderness area published in different years. In the new plan the Akwé: Kon Guidelines have been applied whereas in the old plan the Guidelines have not been used. The management plans produced by the Finnish forest administrator Metsähallitus are secondary data. The qualitative research methods used in the thesis are comparative content analysis and thematic analysis. As a result of the content analysis four themes about the consideration of Sami perspective came up from the data. The themes are Sami perspective in the structure of the plans, attitude towards the indigenous people, values and the actions presented in the plans. The key differences of the new plan compared to the old plan are that the Sami people are concerned more extensively in the context of cultural heritage and traditional livelihoods, the Sami people are referred to as an indigenous people, the Sami culture is defined as a cultural value of the area and the new plan contains actions that directly aim at the protection of Sami culture. The conclusions are that in the new plan the Sami perspective is integrated into the other sections better than in the old plan. In addition, the Sami people are considered as an indigenous people and not as a minority. Contrary to the old plan, in the new plan the cultural values regarding the indigenous people are essential part of the plan. In the actions of the old plan the protection of the Sami culture is in passive level whereas the actions of the new plan aim more actively at the protection of Sami culture. In conclusion, the Akwé: Kon Guidelines have affected positively on the consideration of Sami perspective in the management plan of Hammastunturi wilderness area. The Guidelines have affected above all on the attitude towards the Sami people but less on the concrete actions of the plan.
  • Järvinen, Ville (2015)
    Five granulite xenoliths entrained in the ~600 Ma Lahtojoki kimberlite pipe in eastern Finland represent the lower crust below the suture zone between the Archaean Karelian craton and the Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian terranes. They provide direct information on the petrology of the lower cratonic crust, and the processes that controlled its evolution. Studied xenoliths comprise a dry intermediate garnet granulite, three mafic garnet granulites with amphibole contents ranging from 3–50 vol–%, and a peraluminous micaceous garnet gneiss. Granulites have granoblastic fabrics with mineral assemblage Grt – Cpx – Plg ± Amb ± Qtz ± Ilm ± Rt ± Bt, with pink garnet and green clinopyroxene. Gneiss is coarse grained with a heavily deformed and strained fabric with mineral assemblage Qzt – Bt – Grt – Sil. Mineral chemistry based TWEEQU–thermobarometry indicates equilibration of mafic granulites at ca. 800 °C and 9.5–10.5 kbar and intermediate granulite at ca 800 °C and 17.5 kbar. The pressure estimates correspond to crustal depths of 38–55 km. Equilibration temperature for garnet gneiss is ca. 700 °C – TWEEQU based pressure estimate was not possible, but based on Grt–Sil stability equilibration pressure can be constrained to ca. 4–8.5 kbar. Mineral zonation indicates slight post peak cooling and decompression of some samples. Whole-rock geochemical composition (major and trace elements) implies derivation of dry (<10 vol–% Amb) mafic granulite from a Ni-Cr fractionated basaltic melt. Enrichment in LREE and other trace elements suggests a low to moderate degree of melting of a primitive mantle source. The sample could represent a mafic underplate crystallized in situ. Amphibole and enrichment in K and Rb could indicate a later metasomatic enrichment event. The intermediate granulite is anomalous in composition compared to other Kaavi-Kuopio lower crustal xenoliths. REE composition, depletion in K, Rb, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, and strong enrichment in Sr and a prominent positive Eu anomaly imply that the sample represents a restitic residue after partial melting, possibly of a plagioclase cumulate protolith. The results add on to earlier xenolith studies performed in eastern Finland. Restite formation indicates that partial melting of lower crust occurred under Kaavi-Kuopio. LILE enrichment and abundant hydrous phases in many samples suggests metasomatic events, possibly coincident with the partial melting events.
  • Taagehøj, Inka Ilona (2016)
    The Pro Gradu thesis is handling social impact evaluations of Sports for Development and Peace projects, particularly football projects. The thesis is answering to questions on how a regional perspective should be included to an impact evaluation tool, that is used in heterogenous locations. The thesis is also taking part in the conversation about how impact evaluation tools of global Sports for Development and Peace can be developed to respond to local change. The research material is collected from participants of Cross Cultures Project Associations Open Fun Football Schools. A two-stepped baseline and follow-up questionnaire and group interviews are used as a method. The question material is based on local needs and goals defined by local volunteers in a volunteer training seminar. The regional perspective is included in the research method in dividing the aspired goals to indicators which can be chosen as the goals of the local Open Fun Football Schools by the volunteers of the project. The impact evaluation was conducted based on these goals. The conclusions of the research are based on a critical evaluation of the impact evaluation conducted in Crimea, Ukraine. The results show that a social impact evaluation will be successful when local needs, the pedagogical contents of the project and the questions asked in the questionnaires and interviews are aligned. The local needs analysis and finding out the baseline of the area turned out to hold primary importance. When the indicators presented in the research are portraying the realistic possibilities of the project, they are creating a base for successful use of an impact measurement tool that has the ability to take regional and project based differences in consideration.
  • Miettinen, Anniina (2018)
    TIIVISTELMÄ Myllypuro on modernin suunnitteluideologian mukainen metsäinen ja kallioinen lähiö Itä-Helsingissä. Myllypuro on 1990-luvun lamasta lähtien kärsinyt koko Helsingin keskiarvoa korkeammasta työttömyysasteesta ja huonosta maineesta. Myllypuroon onkin kohdistettu huomattava määrä erilaisia kehittämistoimenpiteitä niin kaupungin, valtion kuin Euroopan unioninkin toimesta. Kehittämistoimenpiteiden myötä asuinrakennuksien varustetasoa on parannettu, julkisia tiloja on remontoitu ja alueen julkiset palvelut ovat täydentyneet mediakirjastolla, terveysasemalla ja liikuntapalveluilla. Kokonaan uusia asuinalueita on rakennettu. Alueen vanha ostoskeskus on purettu kokonaan ja tilalle on rakennettu uusi keskustakortteli. Tässä tutkimuksessa tutkitaan Myllypuroon kohdistuneiden kehittämistoimenpiteiden vaikutuksia alueen asuntojen hintakehitykseen. Kiinnostuksenkohteena on erityisesti Myllypuron vanha 1960-luvulla rakennettu metsälähiöosa, jonka hintakehitystä verrataan kolmen muun helsinkiläisen metsälähiön hintakehitykseen 2000- ja 2010-luvuilla. Aineistona on Kiinteistövälitysalan Keskusliiton kauppahintatilasto-tietokanta, jota analysoitiin kvantitatiivisin metodein. Aineisto sisältää yli 136 000 raportoitua kauppaa Helsingistä, joista yli 1400 on Myllypurosta. Tulokset osoittavat, että Myllypuron 1960-luvun asuinrakennuskannan myyntihinnat ovat nousseet enemmän, kuin 1960-luvun asuinrakennuskannan hinnat Kontulassa, Pihlajamäessä tai Vuosaaressa vuosina 2005–2016. Myllypuron asuntojen hinnoissa tapahtuu selkeä hyppy vuoden 2012 jälkeen, jolloin Myllypuron uusi keskustakortteli valmistui. Kehittämistoimenpiteillä vaikuttaa siis olleen Myllypuron asuntojen hintoja nostava vaikutus. Asuntojen hintojen nousu indikoi Myllypuron metsälähiöosan arvostuksen nousua ja siten myös onnistuneita kehittämistoimenpiteitä. Alueen arvonnousun myötä lähiöitä uhkaava negatiivinen kehityskierre vaikuttaa Myllypuron osalta katkenneen. Toisaalta tämä tutkimus osoittaa myös sen, että vaikka julkisten kehittämistoimenpiteiden tarkoituksena ei olisi asumisen hinnan nostaminen, voivat asuntojen hinnat silti nousta kehittämistoimenpiteiden myötä – tämä puolestaan voi johtaa gentrifikaatioon, jossa alueen huonotuloisimmat asukkaat korvautuvat varakkaammilla. ABSTRACT Myllypuro is a modern Finnish suburb located in East-Helsinki. It represents the modern Finnish urban planning ideologies and values about healthy living environments. Since the economic recession in 1990s Myllypuro has been struggling with high rates of unemployment and a reputation of a low-profile neighborhood. Therefore, several public development programs, carried out by the city, state and EU, have been applied in Myllypuro, leading to urban renewal. The old building stocks have been renovated and public spaces have been maintained. Whole new neighborhoods have been built. The old 1960s shopping mall has been completely dismantled and replaced by a new urban center block, which comprises both public and commercial services and brand-new apartments. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the urban renewal has affected on the local housing prices in Myllypuro. The focus is on the response of the so called forest-suburb part of Myllypuro formed in 1960s. This is examined by comparing the development of housing prices of Myllypuro’s forest-suburb during the past two decades to the development of housing prices of similar, same price range forest-suburbs in Helsinki. The research is conducted by using quantitative methods and the real estate data from the 1999 to 2016, collected by the official real estate agents. The data consist of over 136 000 reported sales in Helsinki, of which over 1400 are in Myllypuro. The results show that the housing prices of the building stock dating to 1960s in Myllypuro have increased more than housing prices of the same age building stocks in comparable suburbs of Kontula, Pihlajamäki and Vuosaari during 2005–2016. There was a significant increase in Myllypuro’s housing prices right after the completion of the new urban center block in the year 2012. Therefore, it appears that the urban renewal has had an impact on the housing prices of Myllypuro. The purpose of the urban renewal in Myllypuro was to upgrade the profile of the area. On the basis of the increased housing prices this goal seems to be achieved. Anyhow, the increased housing costs on the low-income neighbourhood might force some residents with lower income to move away and be replaced by new, wealthier residents. This kind of gentrification phenomenon is rarely the purpose of urban renewal, although it tends to be a result of increased housing prices. The case of Myllypuro shows that even though the purpose of urban renewal would not have been to increase the housing prices, the prices may still be augmented.
  • Granqvist, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2011)
    The Finnish regional development system has gone through structural reforms from state centered governed system to multi-actor governance, based on negotiation and cooperation. One of the reforms has been the regional cohesion and competitiveness program (COCO) established in 2010. The aim of the program is to increase competitiveness through all the regions and balance the regional development by supporting networking. The main focus of the program is to improve the methods and tools for regional development. In the program there are seven thematic networks founded around topics seen important national wide. This thesis explores regional development networks and their evaluation COCO:s two thematic networks, Wellbeing and Land use, housing and transportation as examples. The aim of the thesis is to explore the network actors understanding of thematic networks as tools for regional development. In particular, the study focuses on how the actors see the possible network level outcomes and wider effects of the networking activity. In addition, the central themes of the study are the prerequisite for successful network processes and improvement of the network process effectiveness by evaluation. The research material in this study consist the interviews of the network coordinators and national and regional actors participating in the network activities. The interviews were conducted in spring 2011. Based on the research results, the networks act on national regional and network level and across them. The cooperation is based on official and unofficial relations. The structure of the networks seemed to be self-organizing and controlled at the same time. The structural elements were found to set the framework for the network process and evaluation. According to the results, the networks enabled the more effective operation of the national development system, support of the regions and political lobbying. For the regions the networks offered support for areal development, new resources and possibility to influence national discourse. As conclusion, the role of the network was to disseminate information, create possibilities for collaboration and execute projects and studies and to effect on national policy making. These factors determined the effectiveness of the networks. However, because different regions were satisfied with different network level outcomes, the utilization of the networks in the regions should be evaluated by their own objectives. Resources, motivation, competence and perceptions of the effects were found to affect the successful implementation of the network process and cooperation in networks. Some network level obstacles could be overcome with coordination, but the challenge was the ability and motivation of the areas to utilize the networks as resources and see them as part of the comprehensive development agenda. Thus, the development should focus on how to increase awareness on how to improve regional cooperation processes and how multiple regional actors could enhance their working by utilizing the networks.
  • Fagerström, Pia Helena Kristina (2016)
    The main subjects of this research are corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability reporting. The aim of this study is to describe the contents and appearance of some of the most sustainable companies' sustainability reports. The leaders in CSR were selected from five well known global sustainability indices. A total of 29 companies' CSR reports from different industries and countries were selected for the study. Additional nine companies were included in the analysis of the best practices in CSR reporting but excluded from the content analysis. The purpose of this study is also to understand how the contents of the CSR reports have been defined. Content analysis is conducted in the four research areas: sustainability strategy or vision, materiality assessment, material topics, and sustainability targets. The study finds out how the four research areas are influenced by the company's operating environment and company-specific factors which form the contents of a CSR report. These factors are studied through stakeholder, legitimacy and other theories and concepts of CSR in its widest definition, such as creating shared value and corporate citizenship. The study also focuses on CSR reporting according to the Global Reporting Initiative. The results show that the leaders in CSR have many features that follow the most recent guidelines in CSR reporting and contain some of the most current topics concerning CSR, CSR reporting and global challenges. Most of the reporters recognize their role in the society and they are committed to tackle global challenges. The reporters emphasize the importance of sustainability and innovation which enables companies to create wellbeing and find solutions to global problems. The reports have certain similarities regarding their contents and appearance. Companies engage both external and internal stakeholders in the materiality assessment process. Companies' identified material topics represent the global challenges as well as the company-specific approach for creating shared value. Most of the best reports present a clear strategy and/or an ambitious vision that takes sustainability into account. Many companies have a credible sustainability program or plan which is visible throughout the report. Best reports focus only on topics that are most important for the company and stakeholders. In addition, an excellent report is reader-friendly with a clear structure, interesting graphics that simplify the complex matters of sustainability, is well-written and has case examples to enliven the story. The report is convincing and tells a distinctive story of the company's sustainability journey where sustainability seems to be well integrated into the business strategy. According to the subjective evaluation of the reports' appearance, the best reports belong to Adidas, Biogen, BMW, Henkel, IKEA, Johnson & Johnson, Natura Cosmeticos, Nestlé and Unilever. Other companies that were not included in the analysis but have excellent reports are: Air France-KLM, BG Group, LEGO, Outotec and Sodexo. Future research could be done in the field of sustainability targets and performance in CSR: how the leading companies in sustainable business measure the progress of their commitments for creating shared value and whether the progress is visible.
  • Harjula, Pauliina (2015)
    The attempts of the Canadian government to abolish Indigenous ways of being through forced assimilation has resulted into a collective trauma and marginalization of Indigenous peoples. The legacy of this colonial genocide has been particularly devastating to Indigenous women who experience oppression by Euro-Western patriarchy through both their race and their gender. Colonial mind-sets and structures of the society in the past have denigrated and dehumanized Indigenous womanhood, and persist to victimize the women in particular and hurtful ways today. Despite being one of the most disadvantaged groups in Canada, Indigenous women are not victims – they are survivors, resisting the forces that oppress them by reconstructing the identity of Indigenous womanhood and taking action for social change. Regarding this topic and urban Indigenous realities in general, the city of Winnipeg in Manitoba is a place of special interest. It has lately become the toponym of violence and racism against Indigenous people in Canada, and especially Indigenous women. However, the city also has, for quite a while now, fostered a determinant and organized Indigenous community whose women are strongly expressing themselves and working for social change. This thesis describes the relationships I have built with the urban Indigenous community in Winnipeg to deepen the understanding of some the ways Indigenous women engage in colonial resistance through collective identity constructions and direct action in the city. By participating in the everyday life of the community, having one-on-one conversations and exploring personal narratives in social media I have learned how colonial resistance takes place in the women's lives and in the city. I have transcribed my learning into three individual stories of three women who were my main participants. These stories speak of resistance through self-expression and action to reclaim spaces of autonomy. They reveal the significance of healing from colonial and personal trauma through the reconnection with spirituality and tradition, education and sense of belonging to a community. This thesis, centering the inspirational stories of resistance, is situated in anti-colonial framework, incorporating philosophical and methodological premises of Indigenous research paradigm. As such, the purpose of this study has been not only to uncover the power of Indigenous resistance but to support the ongoing global effort of Indigenous peoples to decolonize and restore their cultural-political sovereignty, identity and ways of knowing.
  • Söderström, Sara (2015)
    Itämeren Ancylusjärveen kerrostuneissa sedimenteissä esiintyy rautamonosulfidiraitoja. Raitojen alkuperä on ollut tutkimuksen kohteena jo pitkään, sillä muodostuakseen rautamonosulfidi tarvitsee sulfaattia, jota on makeassa vedessä yleisesti hyvin vähän. Tällä hetkellä onkin kiistanalaista, missä vaiheessa nämä raidat ovat syntyneet. Syntytavasta on esitetty kaksi eri teoriaa, joista ensimmäisen mukaan raidat olisivat syntyneet vasta murtovesivaiheessa, jolloin sulfaattirikki olisi bakteerien toiminnan seurauksena muuttunut rikkivedyksi ja diffundoitunut alla olevaan rautapitoiseen järvisedimenttiin. Tämä olisi johtanut rautamonosulfidin muodostumiseen suunnilleen samalle syvyydelle järvisedimentissä laajalla alueella. Toisen teorian mukaan jokin, esimerkiksi suolapulssi, olisi käynnistänyt rikkiä metabolisoivien mikrobimattojen voimakkaan kasvun jo Itämeren järvivaiheen aikana. Orgaaninen aines olisi ylläpitänyt mikrobitoimintaa hautautuneissa matoissa, johtaen lopulta niiden korvautumiseen rautamonosulfidilla. Tämä syntytapa olisi johtanut Fe-monosulfidin laikuittaiseen esiintymiseen järvisedimentissä. Tämä tutkimus perustuu kolmeen läntiseltä Suomenlahdelta kairattuun sedimenttinäytesarjaan. Sarjoja tutkittiin sekä visuaalisesti että näytesarjoista otettujen röntgenkuvien avulla. Näytesarjat korreloitiin toisiinsa hehkutushäviö- ja suskeptibiliteettikäyrien avulla, jonka jälkeen Fe-monosulfidiraitojen jatkuvuutta näytesarjasta toiseen seurattiin. Näytteistä tehtiin myös pintahieet, joiden avulla tutkittiin rautasulfidimineraalien mineralogiaa sekä kiteytymisjärjestystä. Petrografisten tutkimusten perusteella rautamonosulfidiraidoissa esiintyy pääasiassa framboidista pyriittiä sekä euhedrisia pyriittikiteitä. Framboidinen pyriitti tarvitsee muodostuakseen rauta(II)sulfidista ja rikkivedystä voimakkaasti ylikylläisen liuoksen sekä avoimen huokostilan. Tästä johtuen on todennäköistä, että framboidinen pyriitti on kiteytynyt lähellä sedimentin pintaa, eli Itämeren järvivaiheen aikana ennen sedimentin tiivistymistä. Euhedrinen pyriitti puolestaan muodostui myöhemmässä vaiheessa diffuusion seurauksena. Myös näytesarjojen korrelointitulokset viittaavat tähän syntytapaan, sillä ainoastaan yksi rautamonosulfidiraita näyttäisi jatkuvan kaikissa kolmessa näytesarjassa.