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Browsing by study line "Yleinen ja aikuiskasvatustiede"

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  • Raessalo, Emma (2020)
    In 2020, the government of Juha Sipilä implemented a reform in higher education. The meaning of the reform was to bring forward the starting of university studies as well as remove the need to participate in preparatory courses. The ideals of the competitive society were influencing in the backround of the reform. Instead of disappearing, the preparatory course markets will presumably transform into courses offered for even younger students at earlier stage, thus causing extra pressure to younger students. The aim of this thesis was to study high school seniors who applied to universities under the new reform. The aim was to examine how the competitive ethos affected their transition as well as how they reasoned the need to participate in preparatory courses as a part of the transition. This topic has not been researched before in this research frame, however similar studies have been conducted of students participating in preparatory courses. Former studies show that preparatory courses are perceived as a normal part of transitioning from secondary education to tertiary education. Studies also show that successful transition seems to require entrepreneurial characteristics. The research data was collected in the winter of 2020 through semi-structured interviews. Altogether five senior students, who participated in preparatory courses in Helsinki Summer University, were interviewed. The data was analysed with discourse analysis. The competitive ethos affected the transitioning strongly. The impact is evident in the notion of entrepreneurial self as well as in emphasizing the instrumental value of education. The preparatory courses give important support in the application to universities thus it’s viewed as a natural part of the transition. As a conclusion, the preparatory course market will not disappear, only transform into courses offered for even younger students. As a result of the reform, students are required to act as an entrepreneurial self in order to secure a successful transition.
  • Kiiskinen, Jenna (2022)
    The aim of this study was to examine and describe how principles, student counsellors and other school administrators in comprehensive school represent the school paths of immi-grant children in Finland. The aim is to analyse the challenges described by authorities that immigrant students face in the transition between comprehensive school and upper second-ary level, and to contemplate how immigrant backgrounds and class positions are connect-ed to each other. In addition, the aim is to consider how social mobility of immigrants should be improved through different ways of support and guidance. Previous studies show that people with immigration backgrounds are still often excluded from secondary education and especially from high school in Finland. The expansion of compulsory school age obliges every child to move on to the secondary level, but especially with poor Finnish knowledge and weak social and cultural capital it is challenging coping with secondary level studies. In the centre of the theoretical framework of this study are Pierre Bourdieau’s forms of capital. The study was conducted as a qualitative content analysis and the data for the study con-sisted of interviews with eight authorities working in Finnish primary schools with pupils with immigration backgrounds. The data was analyzed and classified by means of thematic con-tent analysis. According to the findings, the challenges of school paths and transitions among students with immigration backgrounds include the extensive lack of cultural and social capital in fami-lies in relation to the context of the Finnish middle-class school system. Furthermore, the views of the families and of the school on realistic school options often differ. The joint appli-cation system does not encourage the student to change school after the first choice and experiment, and therefore people with immigration backgrounds are particularly challenged by choice and unknown educational opportunities. According to the results, Finland does not yet have a clear tailored system for immigrant children who move to Finland and who have passed the primary school age. They are ex-pected a quicker takeover of language and syllabus than other children. In addition, high school education appears to be inaccessible to many people with immigration backgrounds, according to authorities. In vocational training, resources for specific language and integra-tion support are insufficient, leading to the fact that after finishing vocational studies, they are moving to employment with low capacity.
  • Perilä, Emma (2020)
    This study will focus on news about the higher education reform that was conducted by Sipilä’s government (2015-2019), and their relations to the changes and reforms of educational politics. In theory part, I will discuss about the trends of educational politics and their relations to employability and neoliberalism. Studies have shown that Finnish education politics has adopted policy of competitivity, heading towards individualistic, evaluative and number-based policy. In my study I will answer two research question: What kind of arguments are represented for enhancing and objecting the higher education reform in media? Are there any paradoxes standing out in the higher education reform news? My study consisted of 53 the higher education reform news from Helsingin Sanomat and YLE, published between 2015-2019. I approached the news with a discursive practice, following Foucault’s ideology of power, seeing discourses as practices rather than speech. My aim was to point out what was possible to say or do in the created media discourse and find out what kind of discursive practice the news created. This study was also discussing the different subject positions given to the youth by the media in regard to this reform. Analysis showed that competitivity was established as a natural part of educational politics in media. The universities autonomy was seen as threatened when the government controls the universities with funding. The youth talked about their increased mental health problems while the individualistic responsibility increased. Education was described as free-will -based path with countless opportunities, but on the other hand people were governed to the same path. Media seemed to create the picture of the ideal consumer citizen: efficient, responsible, self-governed, young high school boy. Education was seen as a responsibility that youth should aim towards in order to maximise their own value. Media’s discursive practice emphasized the freedom and rights, still governing the youth to the path that was seen as ‘the right choice’. The results are in line with the previous research on marketized education and individualistic responsibility.
  • Wiitasalo, Magdalena (2021)
    Proficiency in English is necessary for university students to graduate and it is also useful in their future. Previous research has shown that students experience a wide range of emotions that can have an impact on their academic performance. Emotions and cognition are strongly connected and therefore can have an effect on academic performance. The aim of this Master’s Thesis was to study the variety of academic emotions and find out whether the type of the course influences them. In autumn 2020 students from several faculties at the University of Helsinki took part in this study. The data was collected through a questionnaire that measures academic emotions. A total of 76 students answered the questionnaire. The research material consisted of quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were analyzed with SPSS software. The analyzes included an exploratory factor analysis that yielded six sum variables to describe the academic emotions experienced by students. Open-ended responses were analyzed using data-driven content analysis. The six sum variables describing emotions were named irritability, boredom, teacher support, dissatisfaction, enjoyment, and hope. University students experienced boredom and irritation the least, and support from the teacher and hope the strongest. When comparing Alms and lecture course participants, there was more variation in the boredom sum variable among lecture course participants. However, there were no statistical differences between the two groups. Open-ended answers showed more negative emotions, such as fear and anxiety. Based on the results of this study, academic emotions should be taken into consideration when teaching, for instance by supporting students’ positive emotions. The teacher can play an important role by providing support and encouragement. Understanding academic emotions may also benefit students, as it can affect academic achievements.
  • Purontaus, Nelli (2022)
    The purpose of this master’s thesis is to examine professional agency in self-managing work teams. The developmental processes focusing on work stress the ability to manage own work, therefore assessing these possibilities is essential to comprehend the ability of individuals and organizational structures to enable these demands. The theoretical framework is based on examining flexible and agile organizational structures, which emphasises self-management and self-managing teamwork as a focal part of the way flexible organizations operate. Furthermore, the theoretical framework consists of the theory regarding professional agency. The understanding of professional agency is based on a subject-centered socio-cultural approach. The research questions are 1) how do the interviewees describe their professional agency and 2) what kind of themes occur in self-managing teamwork that support professional agency? This thesis is a qualitative interview study, and the research material consists of eight employees’ interviews who work in self-managing teams. The analysis was carried out as a theoretically guided content analysis, in which the material was categorized as central themes. The results showed how professional agency in self-managing teamwork was described by directional factors, participation and inclusion, as well as the development of work and competence. The results also indicated how self-managing teamwork supported professional agency by the themes of developmental mentality, power structures, and the quality of work community dialogue. The interviewees had good opportunities to influence their work and participate in decision-making, but these were determined by the employees’ unprompted actions. Therefore, self-managing teamwork can be interpreted to support professional agency. However, taking in account the context-specific nature of self-managing teamwork and the complex nature of professional agency, further research is required to consider varying work communities.
  • Kotiranta, Heidi (2021)
    The purpose of this case study was to research the path to employment from graduating from vocational studies to employment of young people with special and demanding special needs. The aim was also to find out how important the vocational education was to the young people researched in this study from their own perspective. The factors that could be conducive to the employment of the young people with special needs were also studied by interviewing four professionals that were attached to the young people in this research. Previous studies have shown that workplace learning is significant when it comes to the employment of young people with special needs in vocational education. It has also been addressed that young people in general are more interested in entrepreneurship than before. Most of the young people also think the future is in their own hands. Previous studies have also shown that employers think financial support is a good way to foster the employment of the young people with special needs. Four young people that were employed during vocational education or after graduation took part in this research. One of them had participated in vocational education for special needs and three for demanding special needs. In addition, four professionals that were connected to the employment of the young people in this study were interviewed. The professionals consisted of two employers, one work coach and one responsible teacher. All in all, eight persons were interviewed in this study. The study was carried out in a project called Tulevaisuuden Työelämän Starat which was financed by social fund of the European Union. The material consists of eight half-structured theme interviews. In addition, some backround information have been collected from a questionnaire that the young people filled as they were graduating from vocational education. The results of this research show that workplace learning has significance for the employment of young people with special needs. At the same time, the need of special education does not necessarily stand out in working life. The young people in this study feel confident about the future being in their own hands and they worry about general subjects regarding to their future such as accidents or being exhausted from work. Two of the young people that were interviewed in this study were interested in entrepreneurship in the future.
  • Järvinen, Jenny (2021)
    Teacher burnout has negative consequences on an individual, transactional and organizational levels between teachers and pupils. Compared to other fields, the educational field experiences higher levels of burnout. Previous studies indicate that burnout is connected to turnover, withdrawal, pupils’ motivation, and problems in the working community in addition to the individual’s health. The burnout symptoms have been found to differ in gender, career phase, academic level, socio- economic level of the neighborhood and organization size. Previous research has found that burnout crossover happens from an individual to another across the teacher community. The buffering and exposing attributes concerning the crossover of teacher burnout have been studied rather little. The aim of this research is to discover which individual, transactional and organizational attributes could potentially buffer or expose to the crossover of burnout. Research data was gathered as a part of a wider, national research project called School Matters by the members of the Learning and Development in School research group (Pietarinen, Pyhältö & Soini, 2017). The participants were selected from six different areas. Altogether 1531 teachers from primary, secondary and combined schools completed the questionnaire. The teachers were divided into groups based on their gender, academic level, the level of socio-economic status (SES) of the school neighborhood, career phase and school size. Individual, transactional and organizational factors’ connection to the burnout symptoms were examined through correlations, t-test and One-way analysis of variance. Results indicate that on average the teachers are doing quite well and experience quite moderate levels of burnout. Even so, quite many of them reported higher and lower levels of the symptoms. The symptoms correlate positively with each other. Based on the research findings it can be suggested that individual attributes, including male gender and higher number of years in the profession, buffer from the crossover of burnout. In addition, the higher socio-economic status (SES) of the school neighborhood – a transactional attribute – and smaller school size – an organizational attribute – also act as buffers. On the other hand, exposing attributes include the female gender, less years in the profession, lower socio-economic status of the school neighborhood and large school size. The result may be generalized to the Finnish teaching community as a whole because the research population was large and the geographical distribution of the population was comprehensive.
  • Mäkelä, Essi (2021)
    The purpose of this thesis is to desribe what potrays to be a ’’problem’’ in the political documents of European union which regulate the lifelong learning. The study also focused on the matter how the lifelong learning is used as a technology of government and produces idea of ”normal” through political discourses. What kind of ideal or normality it constructs and how the lifelong learning subjectifies the individual? In the end of the thesis the presumptions and silences which has been left unproblematized or unquestioned in the political documents of the lifelong learning are raised. The research material was collected from EUR-lex, the official database of the juridical documents of European Union. The material consists of six notable documents related to lifelong learning of European Union from the years of 2005-2020. The material was analyzed using Carol Bacchi’s method “What’s problem represented to be (WPR)?”. The concepts of Foucault’s governmentality and discourse theoretical ideas based on post-structuralism has been utilized in this research in the context of lifelong learning. The results of this research showed that the starting point of lifelong learning is based on the discourses of economy, competitiveness and growth. Lifelong learning was seen foremost as the solution to the competitiveness and growth as well as to the constant change of the society and to the questions of social involvement. Ideal lifelong learner was constructed to be more entrepreneurial using competence talk. In addition, the lifelong learning was portrayed to be the responsibility and obligation of the individual more than before.
  • Harjama, Heli (2022)
    Objectives. This thesis examines the European Union higher education governance. Previous research has shown that political steering of higher education institutions has strengthened over the recent decades, and growing convergence between the education policies of European states. The purpose of the thesis is to examine the kinds of thinking according to which the Union governance seeks to shape the space it governs, and what kind of position the higher education occupies in the picture. The European Union hasn´t got educational policy competences for steering educational institutions, but previous research has shown that the Union nevertheless does practice education policy steering. Methods. In this thesis, the European Union higher education governance was scrutinized by analytics of governing with the data consisting of Higher Education for Smart Specialization manual, produced by the European Commission. The HESS Manual is directed to the Union Member States regional administrators with a higher education policy competence and responsible for regional development. The manual instructs regional administrators to carry out such regional governance and higher education steering model reforms that serve the political objectives of the Union. The analysis of HESS Manual was carried out by Peter Millers and Niklas Roses analytics of government, according to which the HESS Manual was scrutinized as a technology of government, with the aim of specifying characteristic thinking of Manual and therefore of governing. Results and conclusions. The thesis demonstrates that the characteristic thinking of the Union values economic and technological progress and seeks to harness both the governed space and the higher education towards this ambition. The thesis also shows that according to the characteristic thinking of the Union, existence must be earned through contributing to political objectives. The thesis shows the Union governs by setting prerequisites to resources in an environment which requires economic resources.
  • Seitamaa, Aino (2021)
    Purpose. In the context of rapid digitalization and the need to develop students’ 21st century skills, acquiring a growth mindset is essential. A person with a growth mindset believes that, for example, intelligence and creativity are malleable and develop through persistent practice. The purpose of this investigation was to first, explore Finnish 7th grade students’ mindsets related to intelligence and giftedness. Secondly, this study investigated students’ mindsets relation to academic achievement in mathematics and mother tongue, as well as students’ educational aspirations. Thirdly, this investigation examined how the mindsets are related to students’ sociodigital competence beliefs and perceived digital school practices. Finally, findings of a mindset intervention conducted in a Finnish educational context, which targeted mindsets in intelligence, giftedness and creativity, are reported. Method. Data for Study A was collected with a questionnaire, which was answered by 1059 7th grade students in Helsinki. The questionnaire assessed students’ intelligence and giftedness mindsets, educational aspirations, sociodigital competence beliefs and perceived digital school practices. A TwoStep cluster analysis was used to locate natural intelligence and giftedness mindset groups from the data. Next, two-way ANOVA’s were utilized: identified mindset groups and gender were independent variables and academic achievement in mathematics and mother tongue, educational aspirations, as well as sociodigital competence beliefs and perceived digital school practices were dependent variables. In Study B 21 students answered a questionnaire on intelligence, giftedness and creativity mindsets before and after the intervention. Differences between pre- and post-test were analyzed using a paired samples t-test. Results and significance. The results indicated that 7th graders had a strong growth mindset in intelligence and giftedness, yet groups of fixed, mixed and growth mindsets were found. Moreover, a growth mindset in intelligence and giftedness was positively related to students’ academic achievement in both mathematics and mother tongue as well as their educational aspirations. Further, a fixed mindset in giftedness indicated higher technical sociodigital competence beliefs. Similarly, students with a fixed mindset in both intelligence and giftedness perceived there to be more sociodigital school practices. Study B found that only students’ creativity-related mindsets changed significantly. The investigation proposes that schools should more strongly support students’ growth mindsets and their creative and academic sociodigital competences as they are a relevant part of the 21st century skills.
  • Rissanen, Nenna (2020)
    The purpose of this study was to examine how HR professionals working in private employment sector view and experience their own expertise. Expertise is a phenomena that can be interpreted in many ways and it has been studied a lot from different perspectives. In this study the focus was on professional expertise and on experience of having expertise. My research question was: What kind of perceptions HR professionals have of their own expertise? With this research question I wanted to find out how the HR professionals view their own expertise, what are the main elements of it and what kind things and experiences affect the development of their expertise. This research was a qualitative case study. The research data was collected by interviewing eight HR professionals working for a private employment company WorkPower Oy. I used thematic interviews as a data collecting method. The research data was analysed with a phenomenographic analysis. The phenomenographic analysis focuses on individuals’ perceptions and experiences on certain phenomena. The results of this study show that the expertise of the HR professionals consists of many different elements. Wide enough knowledge, capacity to act, social skills and ability to reflect one’s actions and know-how are key elements of HR professionals’ expertise. Also the ability to find the right words in different situations is vital, since the work in human resources is mainly based on interaction with different people. In addition, this study showed that constant learning and development of one’s skills and knowledge is also important to the expertise of HR professionals. There are several different challenges to the development of expertise, such as a busy working schedule, constant changes in one’s daily work and insufficient support. According to this study, practical experience and work-based learning are crucial for the development of expertise for the HR professionals working in private employment sector.
  • Hyttinen, Heini (2022)
    This master’s thesis aimed to identify and analyse the most relevant job resources that support and promote workplace well-being in knowledge work, focusing on the social and organisational aspects as well as their functional prerequisites. Previous studies have shown that job resources help cope with work goals, alleviate job demands and mental and psychological stress, as well as encourage growth and development. This thesis is based on a resource-centred approach by approaching workplace well-being from the view of positive psychology – seeing that workplace well-being forms in the interplay of social and organisational practices as well as the job itself, which the individual interprets from their own perspective. The study utilises the Job Demands Resources Model (JD-R) as well as Perceived Organisational Support Theory. The research material was collected through a semi-structured thematic interview of eight knowledge workers. The interviewees worked as architects, designers, engineers and in HR. The analysis of the interviews was conducted through a theoretically guided content analysis. The most essential social aspects supporting the interviewees’ workplace well-being were organisational culture and work atmosphere as well as workplace communication. The most essential organisational resources were autonomy and perceived organisational support. The most important perquisites for these resources were general attitude, allocated time resources and work community skills. The organisational and social aspects are best able to support the workers’ well-being when the individual’s, work community’s and organisation’s attitudes, action and allocated time meet. The results are in line with previous research and support the JD-R model and Perceived Organisational Support Theory.
  • Niskanen, Tiina (2021)
    Previous studies indicate that a background in elite sports is seen as a positive experience in recruitment. However, concurrently many elite athletes feel that finding the first job after a sports career is both challenging and time-consuming. Studies addressing generic skills have shown that skills especially valued in work-life in today`s society are good co-operative skills, goal orientation, persistence, and commitment. Studies made in the field of elite sports show that these skills are found and highlighted precisely among employees who have an elite sports background. The purpose of this study is to examine recruiters’ viewpoints on how they find a job applicant’s experience in elite sports and what type of generic skills they associate with elite athletes. Moreover, the purpose is to clarify how recruiters feel that their own background influences their perspective as recruiters. There were eight recruitment consultants from an international company in the recruitment industry participating in the study. The study used qualitative research method and the data was collected using semi-structured theme interviews and analysed using a theory-based content analysis. The analysis was guided by the data as well as the hypothesis formed based on Mustonen (2016) whereby a sports background of a recruiter is felt to have an influence when recruiting elite athletes. Theoretical background was also conducted by previous research on present-day generic skills and elite athletes’ transition from sports into working life. Recruiters who are former athletes felt that they understand the demands and sacrifices of elite sports and value the skills gained through sports. Recruiters that did not have a sports background comprehended elite sports more often as a hobby or as an experience similar to collective activities, whereas recruiters with sports background saw elite sports as work experience. The recruiters had rather similar views on elite athletes’ generic skills, which highlighted good interpersonal skills, co-operative skills, commitment, and goal orientation, as in the earlier research. The study showed that elite sports experience is seen in varying ways depending on the recruiter, and it articulated the importance of the ability of job applicants with elite sports background to verbalize their generic skills during a recruitment process.
  • Jantunen, Maria (2022)
    Objectives. Parents of preschool children need to consider several questions concerning the children’s use of digital media. Should they limit the screen time strictly or act more freely according to the situation? The existing research on the topic is varied and mostly concerns school aged children and adolescents. The aim of the study was to find out whether parents of preschoolers consider themselves get enough support and information to help in decision making concerning digital media use. Research questions were: What kind of experiences do parents of preschoolers have of their children’s digital media use? What kind of support do parents wish to have and what kinds of wishes do they have? Methodology. The research material was attained through interviewing five parents of preschool children concerning their experiences of children’s digital media use. The material was analyzed through content analysis. Results and conclusions. The parents identified several positive and negative effects that digital media use has on children. They had diverse, well-functioning procedures when it comes to screen time, restrictions and rules. Both the parents applying strict restrictions and the ones who restrict only a little did implement principles of dialogical parenthood. Parents expressed a need to get much more material and support for preschoolers’ media education than they do at present. They wished to get more support both from child welfare clinics and from daycare. Parents of preschoolers could be supported in media education through available material and support at child welfare clinics and at daycare. The effects of this kind of support on the everyday life of families and parents’ experiences of media education could be further researched for example through intervention or case study.
  • Vaittinen, Henriikka (2022)
    The aim of this research was to find out how the digital media use of Finnish children and young people has been researched and which themes and topics are emphasized in it. The research questions were guided by the generally noted problems and the prevalence of the concern-based research in the research field. Previous research has highlighted, that the theory and methodology of digital media research should be improved (Orben ym., 2020; Granic ym., 2020). Digital media has caused wide concern generally, but especially with children and young people using it (Orben, 2020b). This way of thinking can be seen in the research as well (Orben, 2020b). This research focuses on gaps of the research on the digital media use of Finnish children and youth. The research questions were answered using metascience, which aims to evaluate and improve research practices (Ioannidis ym., 2015). The data is composed of 119 research articles published between 2015 and 2020. Classification and thematic analysis were used to analyze the data. The results had a lot in common with the earlier research. Digital media was a popular research topic, cross-sectional studies and self-reported measures were common and open science approaches (Avoimen tieteen koordinaatio, 2020) were rare. Also the age groups of young people and adults were comparatively common, most of the journals were of the basic level (Julkaisufoorumi, 2022) and quantitative research methods were used more often than qualitative methods. The most highly researched theme was digital media use in general. This shows what a diverse phenomenon digital media is. The diversity adds to the need to be thorough with concept definitions used. The research themes showed signs of concern-based research. This point of view stood out from the themes of threats of digital media use and problematic use of digital media. Future research should address these research gaps, add the use of the open science approach and diverse the research themes of digital media use.
  • Meriläinen, Pauliina (2020)
    Background: The purpose of this study is to bring understanding of what elements enable experts' knowledge sharing in digital service organizations. In digital service organizations the organizational structure is often project-based. Customer projects start and end throughout the calendar year, and the employees working within them may change along with the new projects. In addition, digital service companies have been actively hiring new employees. Rapidly grown number of new employees and the fact that the closest co-workers change throughout the year may cause challenges to the employees’ knowledge sharing within projects and beyond them to the wider organization. The elements which interrelation with employees’ knowledge sharing is examined in this study are self-determination theory’s three basic psycholog-ical needs, empowering leadership, and psychological safety. The theoretical framework is based on the concepts of knowledge and expertise, and on the previous research about the basic psychological needs and autonomous motivation, empowering leadership, and psychological safety at work. Problem: The aim of this research is to gain more understanding of what elements enable employees’ knowledge sharing in digital service organizations. The viewpoint is in the conditions where the employees operate at work. Methods: The nature of the research is qualitative interview study. The research material was collected by interviewing eight employees in one digital service company in spring 2020. Empirical data was analysed by theory- and data-driven content analysis. Results: The results of this study imply that the informants’ views on knowledge sharing at work were in line with the previous studies. All the elements examined interrelated with employees’ knowledge sharing as enabling it. Significance: The results bring understanding of what elements in organizations can enable employees’ motivation, ability, and opportunity to share their knowledge at work.
  • Tukiainen, Miili (2021)
    The aim of this study was to examine what type of assumptions leaders working in central government agencies and institutions have when it comes to the qualities and abilities of a manager as a coach. The other aim was to observe its effects on well-being capital. The study introduces a current issue because modern organizations are more interested than ever in taking their leadership culture one step further and going into an interactive and individualized working environment. Managerial coaching provides an implement for this need. This study’s qualitative material was collected in the spring of 2021, with the use of theme interviews. The material included interviews of eight leaders, working in central government agencies and institutions. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using the dialogical thematic analysis method. It provided the theoretical insights and earlier research results to interact with the collected material as well as with the researcher’s own assumptions. The formed categories (28) were created from the interview material, and the analysis ended up with five themes. These themes described the viewpoints, qualities, and abilities of managerial coaching as well as its impact on competence development and coaching interaction. The well-being capital formed a theme of its own, including the examination of the extended view on the intellectual capital. The results of this study were found through the dialogue of the materials from the interviews and the earlier theory and research findings. The five themes described the viewpoints on the managerial coaching qualities and skills, such as value systems, the importance of feedback and the emotional skills. The competence development was treated as a fundamental part of managerial coaching processes and it was associated with the phenomena of productivity and well-being. Interaction was considered as a special enabler of the managerial coaching processes and it was also attached to the praxes of well-being at work. The factors attached to well-being capital were also recognized both from the study’s material and from the theory context. This study was commissioned by a coaching company so the results of this study can be used in the field of managerial coaching education in the future. It also provides insights to the leadership development of the central government, due to the interviews of the eight leaders working in central government agencies and institutions.
  • Nyman, Linda (2021)
    Objective of the study. The goal of the Finnish government is to solve all kinds of problems related to complex phenomena that occur in our society. These phenomena should be approached in a holistic manner. There’s a long history in the structure and procedures of the Finnish government but they don’t often match with the challenges that our global information society has brought us. This requires phenomenal-based working. The focus of this study is to clarify what kind of perceptions Finnish public officers have about phenomenal-based working. The aim of this study is also to find out which factors increase and decrease phenomenal-based working from the viewpoint of public officers. Methods. Nine public officers participated in this study. 7 public officers had a position in a Finnish department whereas 2 participants worked for a bureau or a public institution. The data was collected by interviewing the participants. After collecting the interview data, it was qualitatively content analysed using both inductive and abductive analysis. Results and conclusions. Based on the results of this study, the perceptions of the public officers of phenomenal-based working highlighted the structures and control mechanisms used in the government such as budget and government programme. Megatrends, systemic apprehension, collaboration with different public organizations and the ability to look at things from different perspectives were also emphasized in the perceptions of the intervieews. The public officers saw that cooperative projects across the government, work rotation, experimental culture, diverse expertise, network management, participatory collaboration and agile processes played a big role in phenomenal-based working. The communication and facilitation skills were appreciated in the government. Hidden agendas and the competition between the public organizations were rooted deeply in the culture of the Finnish government. The aforementioned factors made the collaboration of the organizations difficult in different domains.
  • Tuovinen, Sanna (2019)
    The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the social engagement scale among students at Finnish comprehensive schools. Another aim was to examine the interaction effect of social engagement and introversion on self-esteem, schoolwork engagement and burnout. The purpose of this was to understand how introverts with higher social engagement perform in terms of their self-esteem, schoolwork engagement and burnout in comparison to introverts with lower social engagement. The theory of this study focused on social engagement, which has been suggested the fourth dimension of school engagement. Social interactions help students’ learning, and enhance critical thinking and problem solving. Introversion was selected for this study as introverts are usually stereotypically seen as unsocial and unwilling to work with other people. The data for this study were collected through questionnaires of the Mind the Gap Research Group of the University of Helsinki in 2013–2016. Sample size was 862 students. The analytical methods were confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and hierarchical multiple regression. The results indicated that a two-factor model best fit the social engagement scale. These two dimensions were named the social engagement approach and social engagement avoidance. When examining self-esteem, the interactions between the social engagement approach and introversion were significant. This suggests that introverts with high social engagement have higher self-esteem than introverts with low social engagement. Interaction terms for the social engagement approach and social engagement in terms of schoolwork engagement and burnout were not found.
  • Wallden, Nina (2022)
    The aim of this master’s thesis was to describe mediation activities as part of a group discussion task in an academic English course. In addition, the goal was to investigate how successful mediation affects interaction. The perspective on mediation in this study is guided by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) and mediation is defined through the CEFR descriptors for mediation. The descriptors were added in the CEFR, and mediation presented as one of the modes of language, in the 2018 CEFR Companion Volume. The new volume, as well as the concept of mediation, further emphasizes the communicative and action-oriented approach to language learning. Mediation refers to co-creation of meaning, facilitating understanding and communication between participants in interaction. The hypothesis in this thesis was that successful mediation has a positive effect on interaction whereas problems in mediation have the opposite effect. The participants (N=51) were students from three different academic English courses in the University of Helsinki Language Centre. The data were gathered as part of a course task consisting of small group discussions. The data consist of students’ answers to post-discussion questionnaires as well as video recordings of the discussions. Mixed methods approach was used in this study, and qualitative data were analyzed both inductively and deductively. This study concretizes the concept of mediation and makes mediation activities visible. It al-so shows how mediation activities can be described and assessed from the perspective of the CEFR descriptors. The results show that mediation can be taught and practiced, and that the CEFR descriptors can be used in defining different types of mediation. In addition, the descriptors can be used as a guideline in students’ self-assessment. However, the view on language learning the concept of mediation represents is seen as more significant than the specific descriptors. Mediation embodies a communicative approach that emphasizes the social nature of learning, cultural competence and the active role of the language learner. The conclusion in this thesis is that adopting a mediation-perspective towards classroom activities contributes to a more communicative approach to language learning and teaching.