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Browsing by master's degree program "Proviisorin koulutusohjelma"

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  • Pihlajakoski, Marjo (2022)
    Operations of pharmaceutical supply chain and medication management practices will be evaluated as part of the ongoing social and health services reform in Finland. One of the goals is to develop digital medication management tools and services to meet the needs of both healthcare professionals and medicine users. The aim of this study was to examine population's willingness to use on new digital services by community pharmacies to promote rational pharmacotherapy and to support cooperation between those involved in the medication use process. The material for this study consisted of the national population survey conducted in 2020 for the VN TEAS report “Activation of price competition for pharmaceutical products and the population's expectations for pharmacy operations” (online survey for 18–79-year-old adults, n = 1650). The survey respondents represented well the target population expect those with higher educational level were over-represented. The current study focused on questions related to digital medication management services provided by community pharmacies, which were divided into the following 4 topics to form sum variables: 1) purchasing and dispensing process of medicines (4 items), 2) customer`s communication with pharmacy and health care personnel (2 items), 3) pharmacy and healthcare personnel`s communication with the customer (4 items) and 4) support services for medication self-management (12 items). The associations of the background variables to the sum variables were calculated using cross-tabulation and the Chi-Square test. Frequencies and percentages were used to present. The majority (85–90%) of the respondents were in favor of the possibility of sending messages electronically between the customer, the community pharmacy and other healthcare personnel by using a shared communication channel, such as My Kanta to update medication information online. Multimorbidity, medication use, and higher medication costs increased the respondent’s positive attitude towards the electronic communication channel. Three-quarters (76%) of respondents were willing to use electronic medicine purchasing and dispensing services. Younger respondents (18–34 years) were more interested in these services than older ones. The electronic medication self-management support services had more discrete opinions among respondents. More than half of the respondents indicated their strong willingness to use at least one of the medication self-management support online services listed in the survey instrument. Those aged 18–34 years (69%), those with higher education (62%), those living in the Province of Southern Finland (60%) and those living in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (67%) were more positive than others. Of the respondents who opted for pharmacy's remote online services, 55% were willing to seek advice for reconciling their medication list. According to the survey, Finnish adults are willing to use new electronic services by community pharmacies. In particular, they were willing to use a shared electronic communication channel between the customer, the pharmacy and other healthcare personnel, such as MyKanta to update information related to their medication. The willingness to have support self-care support for medication self-management primarily from the pharmacy's online services was lower than the willingness to use online purchasing and dispensing services. Of the remote medication self-management services medication reconciliation had the highest demand. Future research should focus on enhancing use of electronic medication self-management services provided by community pharmacies. Further research should also be targeted to understand medicine user needs for support as it may vary between patient groups, requiring segmentation of services.
  • Lindevall, Mari (2021)
    The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the usage of artificial intelligence in the pharmaceutical industry in the fields of pharmaceutical manufacturing, product development, and quality control. Today, developing and getting a new drug on the market is time-consuming, ineffective, and expensive. Artificial intelligence is seen as one possible solution to the problems of the pharmaceutical industry. From 734 articles 77 academic study articles were included. Included articles showed artificial neural networks to be the most used artificial intelligence method between 1991 and 2021. The search was conducted from three databases with the following inclusion criteria: studies using AI in either pharmaceutical manufacturing, product development or quality control, English as the language, and Western medicine-based pharmacy as a branch of science. This systematic literature review has three main limitations: the possibility of an important search word missing from the search algorithm, the selection of articles according to one person's assessment, and the possible narrow picture of the used artificial intelligence methods in the pharmaceutical industry, as pharmaceutical companies also research the subject. The use of artificial intelligence in product development has been studied the most, while its use in quality control has been studied the least. In the studies, tablets were a popular drug form, while biological drugs were underrepresented. In total, the number of studies published increased over three decades. However, most of the articles were published in 2020. Nearly half of the articles had some connection to a pharmaceutical company, indicating the interest of both the academy and pharmaceutical companies in the use of artificial intelligence in manufacturing, product development, and quality control. In the future, the efficacy of artificial intelligence, as well as its limitations as a method, should be investigated to conclude its potential to play a key role in reforming the pharmaceutical industry. The results of the study show that a wave of artificial intelligence has arrived in the pharmaceutical industry, however, its real benefits will only be seen with future research.
  • Vilhunen, Noora (2021)
    Pharmacy compounding involves the preparation of customized medications that are not commercially available for individual patients with specialized medical needs. The compounded preparations have many special features, such as the rapid/immediate need for the drug, the preparation of several pharmaceutical dosage forms, and the variation of batch sizes and manufacturing processes. Medicinal products prepared in hospital pharmacies may pose additional risks to patients compared to industrial products. These risks with limited evidence of quality, efficacy and microbiological purity can jeopardize patient safety. The aim of this study was to perform a product specific risk assessment of aseptically processed and terminally sterilized products belonging to the manufacturing range of the hospital pharmacy of Turku University Central Hospital. The study material contained 118 different products. The risk assessment was performed with the help of a risk matrix in which various quality and safety risks have been identified and assessed. The risk points obtained from the different areas of risks were multiplied together to obtain total risk points for each product. The products were qualitatively classified according to the total risk points into low-risk, medium-risk and high-risk products. All total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions of the study were classified as high-risk products. TPN solution prepared into a syringe without lipids and TPN solution prepared into an EVA bag without lipids had the highest risk points of the study (6561 points). Most of the eye drops (88 %) and patient controlled analgesia (PCA) pumps (68%) belonged to high-risk category. PCA pump containing morphine, clonidine, bupivacaine, ketamine and saline solution (1944 points) and autologous serum eye drops (1296 points) had the highest risk points of these product types. 60 percent of intraocular injections and half of pain products prepared into syringes were scored as high-risk products. Intravitreal bevacizumab had the highest risk points of intraocular injections (972 points). Medium-risk products were mainly different infusions. Infusions containing defibrotide, oxytocin and onasemnogene abeparvovec had the highest risk points in the medium-risk category. Liquid solutions and patient controlled analgesia (PCA) pumps were the second largest group in this category. All products used in allergy testing, all ointments and all inhalation solutions were in the low-risk category. The risk matrix used in the study can be used to identify high-risk compounded preparations in hospital pharmacies. Risk assessment enables targeting quality assurance more effectively to high-risk products. Risk assessment can be used to manage various risks in pharmaceutical compounding and reduce harm to patients. The results obtained in the study cannot be directly generalized to other hospital pharmacies because the products, manufacturing processes and the amounts of different products prepared vary among hospital pharmacies.
  • Sinisalo, Jade (2021)
    Pharmaceutical contaminants in waste and surface waters have been recognized as an emerging risk to environmental health. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals increases the risk of adverse effects in off-target species, as the chemical concentration within the organism exceeds the concentration of the surrounding environment. An organism’s ability to metabolize foreign organic compounds influences the likelihood of bioaccumulation. Current methods for predicting bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms are labour intensive or too simplistic to cover the variety of chemical and physiological processes involved and may lead to over or underestimations of environmental risk. A promising approach to improve bioaccumulation predictions, without the need of excessive animal testing, is to incorporate in vitro biotransformation data into computational models. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, gemfibrozil, haloperidol, levomepromazine, levonorgestrel, sertraline and risperidone), that are well metabolized in humans through key biotransformation pathways, are metabolized by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver enzymes under physiologically relevant conditions (11°C, pH 7.8). A secondary aim was to produce fish in vitro intrinsic clearance (CLint, in vitro) data, that could potentially be used as input in computational models to predict bioaccumulation. In vitro biotransformation was studied using a single vial approach according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline 319B: Determination of in vitro intrinsic clearance using rainbow trout liver S9 sub-cellular fraction (RT-S9). Depletion of the test compounds were measured during a 3-hour incubation period. High-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC–UV) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the samples. Levomepromazine, levonorgestrel and sertraline showed significant substrate depletion compared to negative controls while gemfibrozil, haloperidol, and risperidone did not seem to be metabolized. The results for verapamil were inconclusive. Levomepromazine displayed a higher in vitro intrinsic clearance rate (26 ml/h/g liver) than diclofenac (6.2 ml/h/g liver). These results are in accordance with previous studies and support the notion that a direct comparability between fish and human metabolism cannot be assumed, highlighting the need of fish in vitro biotransformation studies. The apparent lack of in vitro metabolism of risperidone, haloperidol, and gemfibrozil combined with their lipophilicity suggest that they are more likely to accumulate within rainbow trout, compared with the compounds that showed depletion during the assays, although repetitions and additional studies are needed to confirm this.
  • Alho, Eerika (2024)
    Biological medicines are used, for example, in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Biological medicines cause a significant part of the costs of prescription drugs in outpatient care. In Finland, automatic substitution of biological medicines will be introduced in 2024–2025 to promote the use of biosimilars and to increase price competition. When substituting biological medicines, pharmacists are required to counsel the customer and ensure proper use of the new administration device. The objective of this study was to study Finnish community pharmacists’ knowledge about biological medicines and biosimilars and the need for further training. Data was collected with an electronic questionnaire and analyzed using frequencies and percentages. Associations between background variables and readiness for automatic substitution were analyzed using crosstabulation and chi-squared test. Differences in drug-specific knowledge were compared using sum variables. Most pharmacists (n=899) answered that they understood at least the basics of what biological medicines and biosimilars are. The important role of biosimilars in reducing society's drug costs seemed to be well understood, but only one in four (25.0%) felt that they were ready for automatic substitution. Master’s degree in pharmacy, graduating as a pharmacist (BSc) between 2010 and 2022, and working in community pharmacy for less than 10 years after graduating as pharmacist (BSc) increased the experience of readiness for automatic substitution. Previous work in the pharmaceutical industry or wholesale trade, in official positions or in research and teaching positions also increased the experience of readiness for automatic substitution, as well as clinical expertise or additional training in the field of pharmacy. Drug-specific knowledge seemed to be best about enoxaparin and insulins. Further training was needed especially on the differences of administration devices and giving injection advice. The strength of this study was a representative sample of pharmaceutical personnel working in Finnish community pharmacies, although low response rate weakens generalizability of the results. The results give an indication of how Finnish community pharmacists assessed their knowledge about biological medicines and biosimilars before the introduction of automatic substitution in Finland. Further research is needed to monitor the development of knowledge about biological medicines and to examine customers’ experience on the quality of medication counselling related to biological medicines at pharmacies.
  • Rosqvist, Linn (2021)
    Marine invertebrates are a good and relatively unexplored source of bioactive compounds. These bioactive secondary metabolites can have unique structures and mechanisms of actions, since they are produced by organisms, which means their structures are not limited by the fantasy of chemists. Therefore, bioactive secondary metabolites isolated from marine invertebrates are attractive for drug development. Still, there are challenges regarding bioprospecting marine invertebrates. For example, the amount of material is limited and the environment as well as the biodiversity has to be taken into account when gathering the organisms. The aim of this thesis was to perform the first steps of bioprospecting marine invertebrates; extraction, fractionisation, analysis of bioactivity and identification of bioactive metabolites. The samples used in the experiment, gathered from three different locations, were of the sponge Caulophacus arcticus. The goal was not only to identify one or more bioactive metabolites for eventual further analysis, but also to compare the bioactivity of the samples gathered from different locations. The fractionisation was performed using flash fractionisation, which resulted in eight fractions of each extract. These fractions were tested for anticancer, antibacterial and biofilm inhibiting properties. The bioactivity of the fractions was analysed by performing cell viability assays (MTS assays) on four cell lines, antibacterial growth inhibition assays on five strains of bacteria and biofilm inhibition assays on biofilm of S. epidermidis. The active fractions, the fraction right before and after them and the corresponding fractions of the two other samples were further analysed using UHPLC-HR-MS, in order to identify eventually bioactive compounds and determine the elementary composition of these compounds. The most interesting fractions, from which one or more bioactive compounds were to be identified first, were prioritised based on the bioactivity assays. One compound, which was identified as potentially bioactive with a potentially novel elementary composition, was chosen as a target compound for further analysis. Based on the results, it was also possible to draw the conclusion that there were variations as well as similarities in the bioactivity of samples gathered from different locations. Still, further research is needed to determine if the bioactivity of the same fractions from different samples was caused by the same compounds or not. Even if there are challenges regarding bioprospecting of marine invertebrates, it is still useful to keep studying them in order to find new, bioactive compounds. There is a huge need of new drugs, especially for treating cancer and bacterial infections. Therefore, experiments such as this are relevant also in a bigger perspective. The target compound identified in the experimental part of this thesis might be further analysed in order to determine whether it is bioactive and whether it is profitable to develop it further.
  • Luukkanen, Saana (2021)
    Pharmaceutical costs have been rising globally every year. A significant portion of drug costs is caused by biological drugs, which are often very expensive, yet essential in the treatment of many chronic diseases. Biosimilars are clinically equivalent to biological originator products and are expected to alleviate the increase in drug costs. The biosimilar development process does not need to repeat the complete development process of the originator product, allowing the biosimilar to enter the market at a lower price than the originator after the patent and data protection period for the originator ends. The aim of this study was to find out what impact the market entry of biosimilars has on the prices of the reference products in outpatient care in Finland, and to investigate whether biosimilars create price competition for biological drugs. In addition, the study examined how the prices and market shares of outpatient biosimilars have developed in Finland. The study examined the development of price and market shares for adalimumab, etanercept, insulin glargine, insulin lispro, enoxaparin, filgrastim, pegfilgrastim, somatropin, follitropin alfa, teriparatide and epoetin biosimilars and their reference products. The data for the study was acquired from IQVIA and it covered pharmacy wholesale data between 1.1.2009–31.8.2020 for products under investigation. The weighted average wholesale price and monthly wholesale amounts were determined for each product, and the development of the price and market shares were analyzed. In addition, a linear segmented regression analysis was performed to examine the impacts of market entry of biosimilars on the prices of the reference products. According to the study, the prices of the reference products mainly decreased after the biosimilar entered the market. If the price of the reference product did not fall, it lost its reimbursement under the Health Insurance Act. The market shares of the reference products were marginal when they were no longer reimbursed. The prices of biosimilars did not change as much as the prices of reference products, and for most active substances biosimilar prices remained stable or decreased. The use of biosimilars varies widely between different biologics. The study found that prices of reference products were decreasing mainly as a result of various changes in drug policies. Therefore, biosimilars were not seen to generate genuine price competition between biological products. In many of the drug groups examined, the market shares of biosimilars had future growth potential.
  • Heiskanen, Vilma (2021)
    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder characterized by compulsive recurrent binge eating episodes with the sense of a lack of control. During a binge eating episode, one eats a larger amount of food, typically high in fat and/or sugar, than would normally be eaten in a discrete period of time. After the episode, negative emotions, such as shame and self-disgust, are present. However, BED does not include compensatory behavior, such as vomiting or excessive exercise. Due to compulsive and uncontrollable eating behavior, it has been suggested that BED represents a food addiction. Eating energy-dense food activates the dopamine, opioid, and endocannabinoid systems in the brain. This elicits the activation of the reward process. Some drugs and medications affect the same neurotransmitter systems, which may produce neuronal alterations in the reward process, leading to an addiction. Several studies have found that cannabidiol (CBD) reduces the self- administration of cocaine, morphine, alcohol, and sucrose in rodents, suggesting an effect on the reward-response. Some of these effects have been shown to be mediated by cannabinoid receptor 2 and TRPV1 receptor. However, the effects of CBD on bingeing behavior have not been studied up to date. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of CBD on homeostatic feeding and binge eating behavior in C57BL/6 mice. Five separate experiments were conducted. The first experiment investigated the effect of CBD (15, 50, and 150 mg/kg, i.p.) on locomotor activity in a modified open field test over a 2-hour period. In the second test, the effect of CBD (15, 50, and 150 mg/kg, i.p.) on homeostatic feeding was monitored in non-bingeing mice. Next, a limited intermittent access binge eating model without food deprivation or stressors was inducted. Mice had access to laboratory chow ad libitum, but a high energy diet (high in fat, HED) was presented in 24-hour periods every 5-8 days. Then the effect of CBD (15, 50, and 150 mg/kg, i.p.) on HED and chow intake in bingeing mice was investigated. In the fourth experiment, seven days following the administration, the after effect of CBD was studied by monitoring food intake without CBD treatment. Finally, it was investigated whether the effect of CBD can be inhibited by TRPV1 receptor antagonist AMG9810 (1 mg/kg, i.p). In each test, the food intake was monitored at the time point 0,5, 2,5, and 24 h after CBD treatment. Also, water consumption was measured in each experiment. The results revealed that CBD does not affect locomotor activity or homeostatic feeding at a dose of 15, 50, or 150 mg/kg (i.p). However, the results showed that CBD reduces the intake of HED in a dose-dependent manner (15, 50, or 150 mg/kg; i.p.) and, possibly, increases chow intake. No after effect was observed seven days following the administration. Most likely, TRPV1 does not mediate the effect of CBD on HED intake. Furthermore, no significant effects on water intake were observed. In this study, the core aims were to evaluate whether CBD affects homeostatic feeding or binge eating behavior in mice. The results provided a novel insight into the effects of CBD. The findings indicate that the acute systemic administration of CBD reduces HED intake, and possibly, simultaneously increases chow intake, suggesting a balancing effect on feeding in bingeing mice. However, the role of TRPV1 in this effect remains unclear, and further studies are needed.
  • Vuorela, Arja (2024)
    Adoptive cell therapy utilizes the patient's own immunological system in the treatment of cancer. T cells expressing the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) are produced from the patient's own T-cells. The CAR gene is introduced into the T cells by a gene transfer vector, which results in the T cells expressing the CAR molecule that recognizes the antigen on the surface of the cancer cell. When CAR-T cells are returned to the body, they recognize the cancer cell with the CAR molecule and destroy it. CAR-T cell therapy has shown promising results in the treatment of malignant hematological cancers. The white blood cells used as starting material for CAR-T cells are collected from the patient using a specially designed leukapheresis device. The collected leukapheresis product is transported to the CAR-T cell manufacturing site as soon as possible, either fresh or frozen. The aim of this stability study of leukapheresis products was to determine the effect of storage time and temperature on the quality of fresh cell products regarding cell number, viability and composition. In addition, the goal was to determine the optimal storage temperature and the shelf life of leukapheresis product to ensure high quality cell starting material for CAR-T cell production. The study was performed by dividing the leukapheresis products into two cell bags immediately after collection, one stored at +15–25 °C and the other at +2–8 °C for five days. The leukapheresis products were examined at five different time points (0, 25, 49, 73 and 121 h) for white blood cell count, viability, apoptosis and white blood cell composition. The microbiological purity of the cell products was examined after leukapheresis. The leukocyte composition was stable, viability and cell yield over 80 % for at least 72 hours at +2–8 °C storage temperature. Although small proportions of cells were apoptotic after the 48 hours of storage +2–8 °C, the leukapheresis products contained more than 80 % viable leukocytes after 72 hours and over 70 % after 120 hours. Leukapheresis products remained stable for 48 hours at +15–25 °C, after which their leukocyte composition changed, leukocyte viabilities and yields decreased. The viabilities of the leucocytes were above 90 % for 48 hours at +15–25 °C, but at the 73 h time point, only half of the cells were viable. The optimum storage temperature for leukapheresis products was +2–8 °C, at which white blood cells remained in good quality for 72 hours. These results can be used to set quality requirements for the cell source material of CAR-T cell product and to plan the transport from the collection site of the leukapheresis to the CAR-T cell production site.
  • Silmu, Veera (2021)
    Parkinsonin tauti on hitaasti etenevä hermorappeumasairaus, jossa mustatumakkeen dopamiinihermosolut tuhoutuvat. Taudille on tyypillistä dopamiinihermosoluissa esiintyvät Lewyn kappaleet, jotka koostuvat pääasiassa väärin laskostuneesta ja kasautuneesta alfasynukleiiniproteiinista. Myös neuroinflammaation uskotaan olevan osa Parkinsonin taudin patofysiologiaa. Nykyiset lääkkeet vaikuttavat ainoastaan taudin oireisiin, joten tarve uusille lääkkeille on suuri. Pilottikokeen tarkoituksena oli selvittää aiheuttaako adenoassosioidun virus- (AAV) vektorin alfasynukleiinin ja alfasynukleiinifibrillien yhdistelmämalli rotilla liikehäiriöitä ja tyrosiinihydroksylaasi- (TH) positiivisten dopamiinihermosolujen tuhoutumista mustatumakkeessa ja hermopäätteiden tuhoutumista aivojuoviossa sekä saadaanko mallilla aikaan neuroinflammatorinen vaste. Varsinaisen pitkän kokeen tarkoituksena oli selvittää aivojen dopamiinihermokasvutekijän (CDNF) mahdollinen neurorestoratiivinen vaikutus tässä mallissa. Alfasynukleiinin kasautumispatologian tasoa ja CDNF:n neurorestoratiivista vaikutusta selvitettiin käyttäytymiskokeilla sekä mustatumakkeen ja aivojuovion TH-vasta-ainevärjäyksillä. Yhdistelmämallista aiheutuvaa neuroinflammatorista vastetta selvitettiin ionisoidun kalsiumia sitovan adapterimolekyylin 1 (Iba1) ja gliaalisen fibrillaarisen happaman proteiinin (GFAP) vasta-ainevärjäyksillä. Pilottikokeen sylinterikokeessa yhdistelmämalli ei indusoinut liikehäiriötä, mutta pitkän kokeen askel- ja sylinterikokeessa mallin osoitettiin aiheuttavan unilateraalille leesiolle tyypillinen liikehäiriö. Pilottikokeen ja pitkän kokeen TH-vasta-ainevärjäyksissä mallin osoitettiin aiheuttavan TH-positiivisten dopamiinihermosolujen tuhoutumista mustatumakkeessa ja hermopäätteiden tuhoutumista aivojuoviossa. Nämä tulokset osoittavat, että yhdistelmämallilla saadaan aikaan alfasynukleiinin kasautumispatologiaa. Pilottikokeessa osoitettiin myös, että yhdistelmämallilla saadaan aikaan neuroinflammatorinen vaste, mikä osoittaa, että malli soveltuu hyvin uusien lääkkeiden vaikutuksen tutkimiseen Parkinsonin tautiin liittyvässä neuroinflammaatiossa. Pitkän kokeen sylinterikokeessa AAV-CDNF:llä ei ollut vaikutusta mallista aiheutuvaan liikehäiriöön. Sen sijaan askeltestissä kämmenen suunnan mittauksessa AAV-CDNF korjasi liikehäiriötä. AAV-CDNF ei kuitenkaan suojannut TH-positiivisia hermosoluja mustatumakkeessa tai hermopäätteitä aivojuoviossa, minkä perusteella johtopäätöstä CDNF:n neurorestoratiivisesta vaikutuksesta ei voida tehdä.
  • Autzen Virtanen, Anja (2023)
    Poorly water-soluble drugs are challenging to formulate as solid oral dosage forms because of their inadequate solubility in the gastro-intestinal tract. Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are a proven method of increasing the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs through drug supersaturation. Downstream processing of ASDs into oral tablets has gained academic interest in recent years. However, minitablets, which are tablets smaller than 4 mm in size, have not received the same level of attention. Minitablets have been cited as a promising dosage form for children, the elderly and in veterinary use because of their good compliance, flexible dosing, and ease of swallowing. In this work, 15 different blends of microcrystalline cellulose and lactose have been characterized for their suitability in the formulation of an ASD of spray-dried poorly soluble indomethacin in PVP K 29-32 or HPMCAS MF as minitablets. Minitablets were compressed at the compression forces ~1000 N and ~1500 N. The flowability of the blends were evaluated based on the Carr’s indices, Hausner ratios and angles of repose. From the most promising blends, 3.0 mm placebo minitablets were manufactured. A mixing test using colored beetroot powder was used to determine the optimal mixing time. The finished tablets were tested for their uniformity of mass, crushing strength, height, and disintegration. Based on their Carr’s indices and Hausner ratios, Vivapur 105, Vivapur 200, Pharmatose 200M and Pharmatose 80M had the best flowabilities. Placebo minitablets were successfully manufactured from blends of these excipients except for the 1:1 ratio of Vivapur 105/Pharmatose 80M. The mixing test indicated that the optimal mixing time is 20 to 25 minutes. The mass variation for all placebo batches except the 1:3 ratio of Vivapur 105/Pharmatose 80M was less than 10 percent from the average mass and most batches therefore fulfilled the uniformity of mass requirement of the European Pharmacopoeia. For five of the batches, the variation was within 2.80 percent. The average crushing strengths were between 32.4 N and 79.7 N and increased with increasing compression force. All batches of placebo minitablets disintegrated within 6 to 19 seconds on average except the 1:3 ratio of Vivapur 105/Pharmatose 80M which took 90 seconds to disintegrate. Minitablets filled in capsules disintegrated within 124 to 167 seconds on average except for the previously mentioned slower disintegrating batch which disintegrated in 477 seconds. All placebo minitablets, individual or loaded into capsules disintegrated within 15 minutes thereby fulfilling the requirement of the European Pharmacopeia. When considering the results obtained for placebo minitablets, the 3:1 ratio blend of Vivapur 200/Pharmatose 200M with 0.5 % (w/w) magnesium stearate was found to be the most promising candidate for ASD formulation. This formulation was subsequently used as the basis for the manufacture of 3.0 mm minitablets containing 6.22 % (w/w) of a spray-dried dispersion of indomethacin and PVP K 29-32. Except for one outlier, the mass variation of these minitablets fell within 2.37 % of the average mass, thereby fulfilling the requirement of the European Pharmacopoeia. Single indomethacin-PVP minitablets disintegrated within 6 minutes and 38 seconds, and capsules containing twelve minitablets disintegrated within 10 minutes and 37 seconds, which also is accordance with the pharmacopoeia. At 80.3 to 80.4 N the crushing strength was at the upper end of the targeted range, but still adequate. Thus, the formulation developed in this study appears promising for the manufacture of minitablets containing 6.22 % of an amorphous indomethacin-PVP dispersion. This study demonstrated that minitablets could be manufactured from a spray-dried solid dispersion despite its poor flowability.
  • Manninen, Kalle (2023)
    Oncolytic adenoviruses are a new cancer treatment platform which aims to eliminate cancer through direct lysis of cancer cells by viral replication and the activation of the immune system by the release of tumor antigens upon oncolysis. In the PeptiCRAd technology, the activation of an anti-cancer immune response is enhanced by the addition of poly-lysine modified cancer peptides, where the antigen presentation to the immune system is improved in comparison to plain oncolytic viruses. PeptiCRAd complexes have been assumed to form solely by electrostatic interactions, but the thermodynamic profiles and mechanisms involved in the complexation have not been previously addressed. Thus, by adding isothermal titration calorimetry as part of the analysis repertoire provides valuable information of the characteristics of PeptiCRAd complexes. In this study, the applicability of isothermal titration calorimetry in PeptiCRAd complexation analyses was evaluated based on initial peptide-to-virus and virus-to-peptide titrations, and a method of analysis was created for the thermodynamics of the interactions of the complex. Optimization of the experimental method (i.e., titration protocol) and the data analysis (i.e., calculation models) remains inconclusive for quantitative analysis as data obtained from the measurements was mainly of bad quality, thus requiring further optimization to obtain reliable data. However, using surface plasmon resonance as an already established method for poly-lysine peptide-virus interaction studies gave robust data and can be used as a base or guideline to further develop isothermal titration calorimetry analyses for characterizing PeptiCRAd complexes. Although isothermal titration calorimetry measurements were unsuccessful for quantification purposes, it was possible to qualitate the mechanisms of PeptiCRAd complexation for four different peptides with fair confidence. The peptides showed low heats of binding, and positive and negative cooperative binding in ionic and non-ionic solutions, respectively. Based on this, the binding of peptides in PeptiCRAd complexes was determined to be driven by hydrophobic inter-peptide interactions on the virus surface, although an electrostatic attraction is indeed present at the virus-peptide interface, initiating the binding event. Also, improvements to the titration protocol for PeptiCRAd analyses with isothermal titration calorimetry are suggested for further optimizations in the future to conclusively determine the applicability of the isothermal titration calorimetry technique for characterizing peptide-virus interactions of PeptiCRAd complexes.
  • Kylkilahti, Sanni (2022)
    Chilit ovat Capsicum-sukuun kuuluvia yleensä korkean kapsaisiinipitoisuuden omaavia paprikalajeja. Niitä käytetään mausteena. Lisäksi chilien sisältämillä kapsaisinoideilla on todettu olevan useita farmakologisia ominaisuuksia, kuten analgeettisia ja antioksidanttisia vaikutuksia. Niiden antimikrobisia ominaisuuksia on myös hieman tutkittu, mutta tutkimuksia on vielä verrattain vähän. Tämän työn tarkoituksena oli selvittää muutamien eri chililajikkeista valmistettujen uutteiden antimikrobisia vaikutuksia Escherichia colia ja Staphylococcus aureusta vastaan. Uutteet testattiin dimetyylisulfoksidiin (DMSO) ja veteen liuotettuina. Lisäksi testattiin myös kahden puhdasaineen, kapsiaatin ja solaniinin, vaikutuksia kyseisiä bakteereita vastaan. Antimikrobiakokeet suoritettiin 96-kuoppalevyllä noudattaen aseptisia työtapoja. Testattuja chiliuutteita oli 19. Uutteita valmistettiin eri chililajikkeiden versoista (1 kpl) siemenistä (3 kpl), lehdistä (10 kpl) ja hedelmistä (5 kpl). Dimetyylisulfoksidiin liuotetut uutteet testattiin pitoisuuksilla 2,0 mg/ml ja 4,0 mg/ml. Veteen liuotetut uutteet testattiin pitoisuudella 4,0 mg/ml. Solaniini- ja kapsiaattiuutteet testattiin kahdeksalla eri pitoisuudella (0,001172–0,15 μg/ml). Tutkimuksen tuloksena on, että testatut chiliuutteet eikä solaniini- ja kapsiaattiuutteet estäneet E. colin tai S. aureuksen kasvua. DMSO:iin liuotetuista uutteista korkeimmat estoprosentit kumpaakin bakteeria vastaan saatiin nuorilla Pimento-lehdillä. Veteen liuotetuista uutteista korkein estoprosentti E. colia vastaan saatiin Dulcen versoilla (30 % esto) ja S. aureusta vastaan Dulcen hedelmillä (50 % esto). Aiemmat tutkimustulokset chilien antimikrobisista vaikutuksista ovat ristiriitaisia, joten yhteneviä johtopäätöksiä chilien vaikutuksista bakteereihin ei voida tehdä. Johtopäätöksenä voidaan todeta, että chileillä on lukuisia terveysvaikutuksia. Antimikrobisen tehon varmistamiseksi tarvittaisi kuitenkin lisää tutkimuksia. Antibioottiresistenssi on maailmanlaajuinen ongelma, koska yhä useammat bakteerit ovat resistenttejä käytetyille antibiooteille. Tulevaisuudessa onkin erittäin tärkeää löytää uusia yhdisteitä bakteerien tappamiseksi, joten tutkimuksia uusien antimikrobisten aineiden löytämiseksi tarvitaan jatkuvasti lisää
  • Sipola, Kirsi (2021)
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by degeneration of motor neurons in brain and spinal cord. The degeneration of motor neurons leads to muscle atrophy and paralysis. Currently there is no cure for ALS. Available drugs for ALS can lengthen the survival time by a couple of months. Several factors involve the pathophysiology of ALS, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress and neuroinflammation. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a protein which has shown neuroprotective effects on animal models of Parkinson disease and brain ischemia. C-terminal fragment of MANF can cross the blood-brain barrier, allowing it to be administered subcutaneously instead of injected directly into the brain. The experimental part consists of two parts. The aim of the first part was to study the pharmacokinetic properties of next generation MANF (C-MANF). The aim of the second part was to elucidate the effect of twice a week administered subcutaneous injection of C-MANF in genetic SOD1-G93A mouse model and its neuroprotective effects by assessing protection of lumbar motor neurons. Pharmacokinetic properties of C-MANF were determined in wild type mice after a single subcutaneous injection of C-MANF at different time points by using indirect ELISA assay. The effects of C-MANF in SOD1-G93A mouse model were assessed by subcutaneous injection of either C-MANF or PBS twice a week and by monitoring clinical score and motor behavior of mice from 10 weeks of age to clinical endpoint. Hematoxylin eosin staining was used to study neuroprotective effects of C-MANF. C-MANF administered subcutaneously is absorbed into the blood circulation and the highest serum concentration of C-MANF is after 60 minutes of dosing. Subcutaneously injected C-MANF also crosses the blood-brain barrier and reach the brain in 120 minutes. C-MANF did not preserve motor function or ameliorated ALS symptoms in SOD1-G93A mouse model. In this study C-MANF did not increase the survival of SOD1-G93A mice. C-MANF did not significantly protect motor neurons from degeneration even though there was a slight trend between the groups. No beneficial effects were observed with C-MANF in SOD1-G93A mouse model and therefore the dose and frequency of administration of C-MANF were not optimal. Subcutaneously injected C-MANF provides a safer dosing option for neurodegenerative disorders.
  • Cavonius, Karin (2021)
    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a rare but devastating neurodegenerative disease, progressively culminating in severe brain atrophy and death. The disease is caused by an inherited mutation resulting in a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene, leading to the production of a neurotoxic protein, known as mutant huntingtin, with an abnormally long polyglutamine stretch. Even though the genetic background of HD is known, the cellular pathways affected in the disease are complex and not completely understood. Increasing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress – a condition of disturbances in normal ER activity, leading to accumulation and aggregation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen – is a central factor in the pathogenesis of HD and other neurodegenerative diseases. In the literature review of this thesis, known pathogenic cellular mechanisms of HD and how these cellular mechanisms are connected to ER stress, are discussed. Unpublished data from previous studies in our laboratory have indicated that the ER luminal protein canopy homolog 2 (CNPY2) could play a role in the regulation of neuronal survival, including the viability of mutant huntingtin expressing neurons. The aim of the experimental part of this study was to gain insight into a possible function of CNPY2 in HD, by examining the levels of the protein in neuronal models of HD under various conditions, such as ER stress, and by searching for potential interacting partners of CNPY2 amongst known ER stress regulators. The obtained results show that the levels of CNPY2 are increased in striatal neurons expressing mutant huntingtin, and that the secretion of CNPY2 is increased by these neurons, compared to control neurons expressing normal huntingtin. Further, we show that CNPY2 interacts with the major ER stress regulator binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) in human neuroblastoma cells treated with the ER stress inducer tunicamycin, and that the intracellular levels of CNPY2 are altered by tunicamycin treatment. Together, these findings indicate that CNPY2 could be involved in the pathogenesis of HD. However, further research on the functions of CNPY2 and its role in ER stress regulation is required to understand the nature of this involvement.
  • Nurmi, Kurt (2022)
    Viral promoters are an essential part of a normally functioning virus. Their main task is to drive the transcription of genes which govern hijacking of cell function and replication of viral particles. In addition to supporting normal function of a virus, they can be used to drive the transcription of transgenes which can be used in different therapies. In oncolytic therapies, transgenes can be used to prime the host system against neoplasms which has been shown to generate long term anti-tumour immunity. Human adenoviruses (Ad) are commonly used as a platform for oncolytic virotherapies. Human Ad’s replicate poorly in mouse tumour cell lines, yet some promoters, which are included in the viral constructs to drive the transcription of beneficial transgenes, are able to function. Currently it is unknown whether E3, the native promoter of adenovirus 5 of the E3 region, is capable of functioning in murine cell lines. In this thesis we study whether human cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV) and E3 differ in their efficacy to drive the transcription of the mOX40L and mCD40L transgenes. In the experimental part of this thesis, we compared the efficacies of two viral promoters, AdE3 and AdCVM, in transcribing mOX40Land mCD40L in vitro. Efficacy of transcription was assessed through immunofluorescence and flow cytometry in human and murine cell lines. Furthermore, the effects of promoters on viral infection, killing and replication were evaluated in burst assay and the colorimetric MTS proliferation assay. MTS and burst assay were conducted to confirm if viral infection, killing and replication occurs in human and murine cell lines. Both AdE3 and AdCMV were able to infect and kill human cell lines and cell viability decreased in correlation to the number of viral particles used. In murine cell lines, no decrease in cell viability was detected in the 4T1 cell line. In burst assay, viral replication was observed for both AdE3 and AdCMV in the human MDA-MB-436 cell line. In murine CT26 cell line, no replication was observed for AdE3 or AdCMV constructs. Immunofluorescence assay was performed to visualize transgene expression and localization. Results indicated that mOX40L was localized on cell surface while mCD40L was detected both outside and inside of the cytosolic compartment. Flow cytometry results revealed that both AdE3 and AdCMV constructs are capable of efficiently transcribing mOX40L in human cell lines. In the flow cytometry results for AdE3, two large cell populations with different fluorescence intensities were detected. AdCMV lacked this feature which is postulated to be due to higher lytic activity of the viral construct. In murine cell lines, HCMV could produce mOX40L, but production in murine cell lines was severely attenuated compared to human cell lines. mOX40L produced by the AdE3 construct did not differ from the baseline and was deemed incapable of producing mOX40L in murine cell lines. For the purpose of studying novel virotherapeutics the results of this thesis would indicate that human CMV can be used to drive expression of transgenes in murine cell lines. Despite this, it is preferable to use host specific viruses and promoter sequences for a better translation between mice and humans. Viruksen promoottorit ovat keskeisessä osassa toimintakykyisessä viruksessa. Virus promoottorin päätarkoituksena on geenien transkriptio, mitkä vastaavat solun keskeisten toimintojen kaappaamisesta ja virus partikkeleiden replikaatiosta. Näiden toimintojen lisäksi promoottoreita voidaan käyttää transgeenien transkriptiossa, mitä voidaan hyödyntää sairauksien hoidossa. Onkolyyttisissä terapioissa transgeenejä voidaan käyttää virittämään kehon immuunipuolustus taistelemaan kasvainkudosta vastaan. Ihmisen adenovirusta käytetään usein onkolyyttisten viroterapioiden alustana. Ihmisen adenovirus (Ad) replikoituu hyvin heikosti hiiren syöpäsoluissa, mutta osa adenovirukseen sisälletyistä eksogeenisistä promoottoreista, joita käytetään terapeuttisten transgeenien transkription ajamiseen, kykenee toimimaan ja tuottamaan haluttua proteiinia. Tällä hetkellä ei tiedetä, kykeneekö E3, joka on adenoviruksen E3 lokuksen promoottori, toimimaan hiiren solulinjoissa. Tässä tutkielmassa selvitämme ihmisen sytomegalovirus promoottorin (CMV) ja E3 eroa niiden tehossa ajaa mOX40L ja mCD40L transgeenien transkriptiota. Kokeellisessa osuudessa vertailimme kahden virus promoottorin, E3 ja CMV, eroa niiden tehossa ajaa mCD40L ja mOX40L transkriptiota in vitro. Transkription tehoa tutkittiin immunofluoresenssin ja virtaussytometrian avulla ihmisen ja hiiren syöpäsolulinjoissa. Tämän lisäksi promoottorien vaikutusta virus infektioon, replikaatioon ja kykyyn tappaa soluja arvioitiin burst kokeella ja kolorimetrisellä MTS menetelmällä. MTS ja burst kokeiden avulla varmistettiin AdE3 ja AdCMV virusten kyky infektoida, tappaa ja replikoitua ihmisen ja hiiren syöpäsolulinjoissa. Sekä Ad3 ja AdCMV todettiin kykenevän infektoimaan ja tappamaan ihmissyöpäsoluja ja solujen viabiliteetin lasku korreloi virus partikkeleiden määrän kanssa. Hiiren 4T1 syöpäsoluissa ei todettu solujen viabiliteetin laskevan. Burst kokeessa havaitsimme sekä AdE3 että AdCMV kykenevän replikoitumaan ihmisen MDA-MB-436 solulinjassa. Hiiren CT26 solulinjassa kummankaan viruksen ei havaittu kykenevän replikoitumaan. Immunofluoresenssi kokeessa visualisoimme transgeenien ilmentymisen ja paikantumisen. Tulokset osoittivat, että mOX40L paikantui solun pinnalle. mCD40L havaittiin puolestaan sekä solun ulkopuolella että sytosolissa. Virtaussytometria kokeen tulokset osoittivat, että sekä AdE3 ja AdCMV pystyivät tehokkaasti ilmentämään mOX40L ihmisen solulinjoissa. AdE3 virtausytometria tuloksissa löydettiin kaksi solupopulaatiota, joilla oli toisistaan poikkeavat fluoresenssi intensiteetit. Tätä ilmiötä ei havaittu AdCMV:lla infektoiduilla soluilla, mikä saattoi johtua korkeammasta lyyttisestä aktiivisuudesta. Hiirisolulinjoissa CMV kykeni ilmentämään mOX40L, mutta transkription teho oli selvästi alhaisempi verrattuna ihmissolulinjoihin. E3 promoottorin ilmentämä mOX40L ei eronnut kontrollista ja sen todettiin olevan kykenemätön tuottamaan mOX40L hiirisolulinjoissa. Tuloksemme osoittavat, että ihmisen CMV promoottori kykenee ilmentämään transgeenejä hiiren 4T1 ja CT26 solulinjoissa. On kuitenkin huomattava, että isäntälajille natiivien virusten ja promoottorien käyttö olisi tarkoituksenmukaisempaa tulosten käännettävyyden kannalta hiiristä ihmisiin.
  • Backman, Heidi (2020)
    Theoretical framework: The consolidated pharmaceutical market is becoming increasingly global and the same international pharmaceutical companies operate around the world in different countries, responsible for drug development and production. The high costs of developing novel medicines and the motive for higher profits has led to elevating price level of pharmaceuticals and health care services. Finland and the U.S. offer two extremes at the pharmaceutical market. The pharmaceutical market field in Finland is very structural and rigid, and medicine prices are regulated by law. In the U.S. the prices are based on the laws of supply and demand and the prices differ by different states, retailers and insurance policies. A small-scale longitudal price comparison is also reviewed to showcase the effect of continuously rising medicine prices. Study objective: The idea of this study is to describe and compare pricing mechanisms of pharmaceuticals and price differences between two very different market structures and review how these might affect the cost-effectiveness of national health care spending. These divergences are also mirrored to survey recent global pharmaceutical market problems such as drug shortages, possibly due to less appealing markets of higher price regulation policies. Materials and methods: Price data were collected from national, official, open-source databases. National health care expenditure and comparison to GDP was collected from publications by the OECD. All monetary values have been presented in both currencies (EUR and USD) to present more comparable values. Results: When compared to other OECD-countries the U.S. spent distinctly the largest amount of funds on health care per capita. Finland’s national health care costs were thousand times minor in total spending and less than a half per capita when compared to those of the U.S. With lower expenditure Finland manages to offer access to public, government-funded health insurance program. Meanwhile the prices of prescription medicines in Finland have decreased significantly, the prices for have continuously elevated in the U.S. Conclusions: The outcome of this study is that free markets and a complex supply chain, compared to more regulated markets with more transparency, have higher overall price level in pharmaceuticals and health care services. Free markets and sufficient intellectual property rights are more enticing to pharmaceutical companies. They promote new innovations and developing of much-needed novel therapies to modern health problems, such as AIDS and the global threat of worsening situation of antibiotic resistance. More regulated markets may create problems such as drug shortages and are often considered complex and less appealing market systems due to high level of administrative work but conserve the cost-effectiveness of the use of public funds.
  • Virtanen, Sonja (2020)
    Parenteral products are sterile products that are administered as injection, infusion or implantation. Administration of the contaminated parenteral product can cause severe consequences such as sepsis meningitis and even death. Most of the parenteral products used at the hospitals needs to be compounded (e.g. dissolved, diluted) before administration. Whenever possible, compounding should be done in biological safety cabinet using aseptic techniques. According to previous studies errors in aseptic techniques are quite common. Aim of this study was to compare three different environments as compounding area and their effect to the sterility of the compounded parenteral product. Based on the results of this study, changes to the protocols of the hospital could be made. Altogether 220 samples were compounded at two pediatric wards at HUS Helsinki University Hospital. Six volunteers (one pharmacist and five nurses) participated from both wards and each compounded 18 samples in three different environments (patient room, medicine room, biological safety cabinet). The samples were tested for the sterility by membrane filtration within 4 hours or after 24 hours of storage in the refrigerator. The investigator used an observation form to observe the compounding procedures. Environmental monitoring (settle plates) and monitoring of personnel (glove samples) were conducted. Almost all compounded samples (99%, n=213/215) were sterile. There were no significant differences in the contamination rate of the compounded samples between different environments. Five of the collected samples were excluded, because they were contaminated during the sterility test. According to observations, aseptic techniques were well followed. However, disinfection of the septum of the medicine bottle, hand hygiene and cleaning of the compounding area were observed to be deficiently completed. Even though there were lot of variation in the environmental and personnel monitoring the results were quite good. Results from the environmental monitoring were compared to the recommended limits of EU GMP for clean areas. One compounded sample was contaminated with Diezia maris and Corynebacterium mycetoides but the contaminants from the other contaminated sample could not be identified. Aseptic techniques were mainly well followed, however compounding should be done in the biological safety cabinet, since the environmental monitoring results show that the biological safety cabinet was only environment which was within the recommendation limits of the EU GMP for the compounding area of parenteral products. Protocols of the hospital could be changed, since there was no correlation between higher contamination rate of settle plates or compounded samples and not wearing mask and hair cover while compounding in the biological safety cabinet.
  • Mikkonen, Sampsa (2023)
    Orphan medicinal products (OMPs) are pharmaceuticals, that are utilized in the treatment of rare diseases. Rare diseases are diseases with a prevalence of at most five individuals out of 10 000. Clinical trials with statistically robust clinical data are challenging to conduct with rare diseases, since patient populations are small and the amount of trial subjects enrolling into these trials are usually scarce. Rare diseases also represent a variety of different diseases with divergent properties (5000-8000 identified). This presents challenges in health technology assessment (HTA) when reimbursements for these treatments are assessed and decided, especially when these treatments are usually considerably expensive and burdening to national health care systems. The main objectives for this study and master´s thesis was to research via interviews with experienced professionals from pharmaceutical industry and officials as how to define, monitor and assess the clinical effectiveness of OMP treatments, how to enhance their market access, and how to develop the current conditional reimbursement system in Finland. The interviewees (n=12) all represented from their respective backgrounds and introduced opinions from their own occupational positions and frameworks based on their professional experience. The study was executed as a qualitative study utilizing semi-structured interviews with predetermined questions and themes between 6th of April 2023 and 8th of June 2023. The interviewees were initially contacted via email and phone by one of this thesis supervisors from a professional pool of individuals identified using purposive sampling. The interview transcriptions were examined and analyzed using content analysis, and they were coded and grouped into themes. When inquired, the most common opinions regarding how to define and monitor clinical effectiveness of OMP treatments, the most common answers emphasized individual clinical assessment, real world data (RWD) collection, consideration of symptom control and overall quality of life, economic effectiveness, and clinical expert assessment. Market access of OMPs could be enhanced with more flexible and bold applications for negotiations and agreements, and a need for uniform, predictable MEA procedures, parameters for treatment discontinuation, outcomes-based models, and earlier proactive start for initial negotiations on behalf of the payer (society). The existing conditional reimbursement system might be developed with outcomes-based models, increased dialogue and trust between companies and officials within the realm of negotiations, uniform and predictable MEA procedures, and already established MEA negotiation frameworks to fast tract OMP market access. Development of the existing conditional reimbursement scheme, as well as objective to enhance market access environment in Finland could be accomplished by novel, flexible, patient specific, holistic and bold systems with an emphasis on systematic collection of RWD. Uniform and predictable MEA procedures with predetermined negotiation frameworks could bring value through faster market access and valuable predictability for pharmaceutical companies in their operations. Rapid market access of OMPs could be beneficial via clinical effectiveness of the treatments, as well as through collecting valuable clinical data from the medicinal products.
  • Lähdesmäki, Emmi (2023)
    The most typical symptoms of dementia include impairment of cognitive brain functions, such as memory and thinking. Most common forms of dementia include Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia, which is caused by degeneration of the frontotemporal lobe. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, covering about 75% of all the cases. The pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease includes beta-amyloid plaques and tau proteins, which accumulate in the brain, and which have been linked to damage to nerve pathways and the appearance of the typical symptoms of the disease. The disorder is progressive, but the exact cause remains unknown. However, old age (>65 years), the APOE-4 gene, lifestyle, and some comorbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases, are considered risk factors. Even though extensive research has been conducted, there is currently no curative treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Sleep disorders can be both a symptom of Alzheimer's disease and a risk factor for the onset of the disorder. Therefore, the mechanisms of sleep and circadian rhythm are connected to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, for example through the glymphatic system that cleans the brain mainly during deep sleep. Many drugs for Alzheimer's disease have a recommended time of administration. The dosing time can be very important issue in terms of the effectiveness of the drug. According to a recent study, sleep and circadian rhythm have not been considered in most studies on new rapid-acting antidepressants. Therefore, we carried out an analogous systematic literature review for Alzheimer's disease and dementia. The aim of this study was to find out whether sleep and circadian rhythm have been considered in the most cited preclinical and clinical drug research articles for Alzheimer's disease and dementia during the last decade (2010–2020). In addition, it was examined which drug groups the studied compounds belonged to, and what was the sex distribution of the test subjects in the studies. The number of subjects was also determined from clinical studies, and the animal species from preclinical studies. The research articles analysed in the study were collected with a systematic literature review of Scopus database. The study found that most studies did not include any consideration of sleep or circadian rhythm. Most of the investigated compounds were small molecules, followed by supplements and herbs, and rest classified as biological drugs. Most of the clinical trials were relatively small studies with less than a hundred subjects or hundreds of subjects. Among the 100 most cited clinical research articles, there were 14 reanalyses and observational studies that were not included in this analysis of subject numbers. In clinical studies, most of the test subjects were usually female, while preclinical studies used commonly male animals. To conduct more open and reliable science in the future, drug research should pay more attention to the subjects’ sleep patterns, the time of drug administration, and reporting on these issues in the articles, which is usually part of the requirements of scientific journals. This could potentially narrow the translational gap between preclinical and clinical research.