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Browsing by study line "Yleinen ja aikuiskasvatustiede"

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  • Nurminen, Kamilla (2022)
    The research task of this master's thesis is to describe shared expertise in a distributed team during the corona pandemic. The thesis is based on the theory of distributed work. It is examined from the perspective of shared expertise, taking into account the impact of the corona pandemic on the work of experts. The research questions of the thesis are 1) how has the corona pandemic affected experts' experiences of working in a distributed team and 2) which factors support shared expertise in a distributed team? The thesis focuses on experts' experiences of the phenomenon. The material for the thesis was collected through semi-structured thematic interviews of six experts. The interviewees worked in the HR team of a large corporation, which has operated distributed work before the corona pandemic. The analysis of the data was carried out using a theory-driven content analysis. The results of the study showed that the corona pandemic has affected the work of an already distributed team. The work became even more distributed and this seemed to increase the efficiency of work, task-orientedness and independence. In distributed work, the versatile use of communication technology supports team cooperation and reduces experiences of the challenges brought by physical distance. Shared roles and the competence based on them, as well as jointly shared operating methods and communication practices, increased interaction and cooperation in a distributed team and promoted shared expertise. However, in a distributed team, spontaneous ideation and sharing tacit knowledge was perceived as challenging, so sufficient time must be arranged for this. Good team spirit and trust also emerged as important factors for the success of the work.
  • Kautonen-Jusslin, Jenni (2021)
    Background and objectives. The aim of this study was to clarify the usage of the concept of continuous learning. Another aim was to understand what conditions or expectations were set for continuous learning in different settings. These questions were examined by reviewing scientific research and reviews to identify themes in which the concept of continuous learning was used. Continuous learning is in the centre of Finnish government programme with expectation to correspond to the needs of changing working life and to enable longer careers for individuals. Corporates are also leaning on continuous learning to minimize business risk and enhance profitability by offering training or job rotation for employees. Bonding the concept of continuous learning to specific models or targets creates a contradiction to fundamentals of learning which is continuous regardless of context. Based on this setting the concept of continuous learning is reviewed from the angles of lifelong learning, political aspiration, and financial interests, for example the enhancement or change of working life. Methods. This research was conducted as a systematic literature review. This method was recognized to be the most informative when investigating the usage of the concept of continuous learning as previous meta-analysis brings out the different angles and context in which the concept was used. Data was collected from three databases and sixteen articles or reviews were included in this research. Results and conclusions. The concept of continuous learning was connected to theoretical framework of this study which included lifelong learning, political discussion, and financial interests. Especially remarks considering working life and its demands stood out from the data. These were tightly connected with political and financial interests from individual as well as societal perspectives. Continuous learning can be viewed a necessity to prosper in working life and life in general. This perception narrows down the fundamental meaning of learning as a continuous process.
  • Hellsten, Emmi (2020)
    The aim of this study was to find out views about future of leadership in school and early childhood education (ECE) from persons who work at the moment as leaders in this field. Although school and ECE are different fields, they are very similar to each other when it comes to leadership. Leaders’ work is diverse from pedagogical leadership to personnel and financial leadership including also simple office routines. In this study I wanted to show the similarity of these two fields with regard to leadership because in earlier studies these fields are separated from each other. The topic of this study is relevant because there are already challenges to find competent professionals in the leadership positions in school and ECE fields. Additionally the leadership practices are not up to date in the changing environment. It is necessary to develop the leadership practices and training in the education field so that it can be functional in the future. The material in this study is a part of the material collected in the needs of Edu Leaders -project. The aim of Edu Leaders -project is to produce advanced studies for professionals who work in leadership positions in education. The material used in this study consist of nine group interviews in which attended all together 29 professionals who work in leadership positions in education field. Analysis was performed by using thematic analysis. This is a case study where generalizability is not the aim. This study showed that by the views of these leaders, leaders in education field will need interaction skills and self-management skills in the future. It also showed that divers models of distributed leadership are needed in the future. The results showed that training and education for those who already work as leaders and for those who are going to work as leaders in education field should be developed so that the training is suitable for the changes of the working environment and field. According to this study the future challenges are increasing workload of leaders resulting exhaustion and the challenge of training and finding competent professionals.
  • Pihlaja, Henrietta (2019)
    This research is focused on the schooling experiences of non-binary transgender people. The aim of the study is to produce information on how gender variation has been taken into consideration while the 1994 and 2004 reforms of the Finnish national core curriculums for basic education were in effect. Based on these data, the aim is to speculate how gender variation is considered in schools today. The analysis was focused on how interviewees created subjectivity in their narratives and how (gender normative forms of) the hidden curriculum appears in these narratives. The results can be used to help develop the school institution into a more sensitive direction, and to be aware of different genders and the dynamics between them. The theoretical base examines the concepts of non-binary transgender and gender variation. Secondly it provides an overview of the power of gender norms. Thirdly the theoretical base introduces some of the relevant topics of the Finnish national core curriculums for basic education established in the years 1994 and 2004. It then offers some information on the invisible power of the hidden curriculum. The final section of the theoreti-cal base addresses discourses, discursive practices and subjectivities, which are essential in the analysis of gender norms, the hidden curriculum and the interviews. The research was conducted by interviewing seven non-binary transgender adults. They had attended basic education while the 1994 and/or 2004 Finnish national core curriculums were in effect. The interviews were conducted using an adaptation of the autobiographical narrative interview method. The data were analyzed with a data-based discourse analysis. The results were construed using a critical feminist perspective. The analysis produced three hegemonic discourses: outsider, gender normative school, and non-normative gender. Based on these discourses, the results showed six strong subjectivity positions: an outsider and different, an illegitimate woman or a man, nonexistent, agender or feminine-masculine, an agonist against norms, and a victim. The presence of the (gender normative) hidden curriculum occurred especially when the interviewees spoke about the support and safety of school, school control and teaching/learning situations, students’ responsibilities, and school environmental issues. The findings of this research indicate that non-binary transgender people must form a self-image mostly with-out any existing discourses. They become positioned as oppressed or as agonists against oppression. The control of the hidden curriculum was proved strong and very gender normative. Based on that, there is a major paradox between actual school policies and the national core curriculums. The findings would imply that the situation may not be any better nowadays despite the core curriculum reforms. The knowledge of gender variations and gender sensitivity must increase in the future. It is also necessary to offer teachers support and information on how they should meet and treat students of any gender.
  • Rikanniemi, Kanerva (2022)
    Aims. The aim of this master's thesis was to gain insights to the nature of the workplace mediation field and mediators in Finland. The purpose is to fulfil the current research gap on workplace mediators as similar studies have not been conducted before. This research focuses on workplace mediators' orientations which are considered the internalized theories of practice, the perceptions of mediation process, the roles of participants and the intervener and goals for the mediation intervention. Orientation reflects on mediators' actions and participants' autonomy in situational mediation framework and its' explication has been acknowledged to be part of mediators' ethical principles. This research explores if congruences can be identified within theoretically formulated orientation variables and between previous mediation literature. Further, this study explores whether these orientation dimensions can be utilized in distinguishing clusters amongst mediators. Methods. The research data was collected in January 2020 by using an electronic questionnaire. Re-spondents, who identified as workplace mediators (N = 99), form a self-assorted sample of population. The questionnaire contained descriptive and orientation-related variables along with questions considering mediation experience and training. Orientation dimensions were extracted with principal axis factoring method. Further, the respondents were divided into four different orientation pro-file subgroups by using Two-Step Cluster analysis. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to explore if orientation profile group memberships could be predicted by demographic or mediation experience related antecedents. Results and conclusions. Three orientation dimensions were identified from the research data. Based on the content analysis which builds upon the theoretical framework, the dimensions were labelled as evaluative, facilitative and transformative. Based on the orientation dimensions, four distinguish orientation profile subgroups were identified amongst workplace mediators in Finland. The orientation dimensions overlap and emerge interrelatedly contradicting the traditional and typical representations of theoretically formulated approaches to mediation. The explanatory variables selected for the multinomial logistic regression model were incapable to predict memberships to different orientation profile groups.
  • Kokljuschkin, Annina (2022)
    The aim of this study was to explore positive discrimination projects, which promote equality during early childhood education and elementary education. The projects were funded by government assistance by Finnish National Agency for Education. The purpose of government assistance was to promote social and regional equality and to prevent social exclusion. The data was gathered by interviewing project participants who were working in three different projects. Based on the data, I did explore dimensions of equality and opportunities that the projects gave to promote setted goals of positive discrimination. For the sake of analyzing the gathered data a discursive reading method was used, which aimed to point out different, parallel and competing meanings of equality. Discursive analysis sees that language has constructive and profitable nature. Using the method makes it possible to look at the project objectives and outcomes through these meanings. According to the results of this study equality and inequality had different meanings in the context of these projects. Some of these meanings emphasized more individual characteristics and skills and some were taking into consideration more structural factors. Employees described the projects as temporary solutions with uncertainty of continuation and maintenance of developed solutions after finalizing them.
  • Hussi, Johanna (2021)
    Objective of the study. Transition from studies to work can be considered as an important process in human life and it has impact on personal well-being. Study and work engagement, which are affected by individual, collective, and situational factors, have been shown to have positive effects. In this study, study and work engagement is defined as a long-term and fulfilling positive experience which is shown as vigour, dedication, and absorption. More detailed studies of engagement in the transition from higher education to work is missing from generalized fields. Aim of this study is to examine meaningful experiences of the study and work engagement in the transition from university to work with master students and Masters of Educational Science. Aim of the study is also to examine the objects in the interviewees’ studies and work of engagement. Methods. The data consisted of semi-structured interviews collected in total from 20 participants. Critical incident -technique was applied in the interviews. 9 of the interviewees were students of educational sciences and 11 of them were Masters of Educational Science. All of them were working. The data were qualitatively analysed by abductive content analysis. Results and conclusions. The meaningful experiences in the studies and work were similar in both groups. The meaningful experiences of the interviewed students were related to the beginning of the studies, courses and events, internships, the first work in related field, present situation, and future. The interviewed masters’ meaningful experiences lacked experiences of pedagogical studies. Also, instead of challenges in studies and work the interviewees described challenges which affected on studying and working, and other challenges. The objects of the interviewees’ meaningful experiences were mainly the studies and work or matters followed by those.
  • Kosonen, Emmi (2020)
    Careers have changed from moving hierarchically within a single organization to moving in more diverse directions. These changes have proven to affect also the relationship between employee and employer. The psychological contract theory has been used in studies to understand the reciprocal relationship between the employee and the employer and what the parties expect from each other in the employment relationship. This Master Thesis is an assignment from Company X and its purpose is to study former and current plant engineers’ and employer representatives' expectations of a plant engineer’s work and career. According to the sponsoring company, the turnover rate for plant engineers is too high and for that reason the aim of this study is to understand the expectations of both parties. This study is implemented as a qualitative theme interview. I interviewed four current plant engineers, two former plant engineers, and five employer representatives. The data was analyzed using a theory-guided qualitative content analysis approach and psychological contract theory structures the analysis. The research findings indicate that an employee's work and career expectations are subjective and impacted by the messages they receive and interpret from the organization, social cues and individual predispositions. The turnover rate is heightened by the constant messages about the high turnover rate and that the job is positioned as a “fast track” to other jobs. Employer representatives' expectations about a plant engineer's work and career were partly contradictory. Considering psychological contract theory, the expectations should be clarified in order to communicate them consistently to the employees.
  • Penttinen, Anna-Riikka (2021)
    Objectives. The purpose of the study is to find out whether the group discussions of primary school teachers features concepts related to competitiveness. I look at the subject by asking teachers what direction comprehensive school is heading towards and how teachers would develop comprehensive school. The discussion on education policy has general features of competitiveness and it is described as neoliberal. In the theoretical framework, I examined the policies and programs of education politics in support of the theory. The concept of competitiveness is described as vague and ambiguous. In the group discussions themes that were mentioned frequently were evaluation, measurement and development. These concepts are related to competitiveness. I looked at my research problem through themes. This research is from the fields of general and adult education research. Methods. The study was carried out using qualitative methods. As a research method, I used thematic analysis. I conducted two group discussion for collecting my data. Two groups of primary school teachers participated in the group discussions in spring 2019. Both primary schools are located in the Uusimaa region. Results and conclusions. The results show that competitiveness emerged in the group discussions of primary school teachers. Competitiveness comes to the fore in the group discussions of primary schools teachers as an emphasis on evaluation and measurement. In addition, the results show that in comprehensive school, individualization plays a key role. The contrary speech of competitiveness emerged in discussions as development. Defining the concept of competitiveness in the educational context of primary school requires further research.
  • Salminen, Tuukka (2022)
    Aims of the study. This study seeks to find out what kind of situations students typically face during their progress through university studies and what kind of different pathways can be identified as a series of these situations. The aim was to map out and to develop a clustering-based method of identifying these situations and pathways from student transcript data that would complement the information provided by commonly used measures of student progression. Methods. The research strategy of this study follows that of design research, where methods and new knowledge is built iteratively. The data consists of student transcript data of 3167 students at the University of Helsinki who had started their studies in computer science, mathematics, or general and adult education between the years 2010 and 2015. The data was provided by the Agile Education Research group at the University of Helsinki and contained all records of passed or failed completion attempts that had been recorded by 11.3.2020. The data was shaped to coarser level to be used in cluster analysis and clustered using k-medians clustering. Results and conclusions. The results show that it is possible to use clustering as a tool to better understand student transcript data and the pathways students take through their university degrees. The shown clustering makes it possible to describe the progression of studies both on the individual and group levels. Three clusters defining the starting situations and 22 clusters defining the situations during studies were identified. Transitions between clusters show that series of clusters for several pathways that have different stages and outcomes. In conclusion, the results show that student transcript data contains information which universities could use in efforts aimed at helping students advance in their studies
  • Bagrova, Julia (2022)
    Objectives. The purpose of the dissertation was to study the basic psychological needs and positive mental health of employees in a Finnish financial sector organization. The research task was to examine the current state of the basic psychological needs of the theory of authenticity, benevolence and self-determination among the employees of the target organization and their connection to the perceived positive mental health. The study examined the construction of a new model and its relationship to positive mental health using linear regression analysis. Methods. For the study, I constructed a research questionnaire utilizing several validated measures of positive mental health, authenticity, benevolence, and SDT theory’s basic psychological needs. The questionnaire was administered to the employees of the target group by e-mail. Participation was voluntary and 395 responses were received. Correlation, cluster analysis, and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The study involved using linear regression analysis for modelling relations between basic psychological needs of self-determination theory across authenticity, benevolence and self-determination, and examining its relationship to positive mental health. Results and conclusions. Satisfaction with the basic psychological needs of the employees of the target organization was quite strong. On the other hand, the perceived positive mental health of the employees was somewhat lower than the average of the Finnish population in general. The study revealed that the basic psychological needs of self-determination theory, benevolence, and authenticity are associated with perceived positive mental health. The model called as a Calling and model of Calling obtained in the study explained a total of 49% of the variation in positive mental health. The results show that high satisfaction with the basic psychological needs of workers in the financial sector predicts a higher perceived positive mental health.
  • Porvari, Jaakko (2021)
    Important transitions in life require a special ability to navigate in a changing environment. These transitions pose challenges for all people, but especially for people on the autism spectrum. Studies show that both the transition to higher education and from higher education to work pose certain difficulties for them. At the same time, the aim is to promote the diversity of higher education and a smoother work transition. The support of the universities has been found to promote both the progress of studies and skills important in studies. The purpose of this Master’s thesis was to look at speech related to support for students on the autism spectrum at universities. The research material consisted of six interviews in which two career services employees, two university teachers, and both current and graduate students on the autism spectrum were interviewed. The interviews were originally part of the Improving Employability of Autistic Graduates in Europe (IMAGE) project. The six interviews were selected for use in this thesis together with the researcher involved in the project. The research material was analyzed by discourse analysis. As a result of the analysis, three discourses were outlined, which were named similarization discourse, individualization discourse, and individualistic discourse. The subject positions of students on the autism spectrum transitioning to work, were outlined through substance- and special skills and without individualistic agency. These subject positions did not fully meet the individualistic expectations of employers, or the support formed based on these expectations.
  • Poranen, Nea (2022)
    More and more university students are experiencing symptoms of burnout. The symptoms of burnout can start already in the first year of study. This is worrisome because exhaustion has been found to be linked to, among other things, depression and university dropout. Preventing burnout is important for students' well-being. Psychological flexibility has been found to be associated with lower burnout. Psychological flexibility (based on Acceptance and commitment therapy, ACT) means the ability to be present in the moment and live according to one's own values. Most of the research on psychological flexibility is based on the work environment, so research on psychological flexibility among university students is necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the burnout of first-year students and the connections between psychological flexibility and study burnout. The aim was to investigate whether psychological flexibility alleviates study burnout. The data has been collected through the HowULearn questionnaire (n=261) prepared at the Center for University Teaching and Learning HYPE at the University of Helsinki. The research questions were: How exhausted are first-year students at the beginning and end of the 1st year? 2. In what ways are college students' psychological flexibility and study burnout connected? 3. How does perceived burnout differ in different profiles of psychological flexibility? Student burnout was found to have increased significantly between the measurement carried out in autumn 2020 and spring 2021. The research results showed that study burnout and psychological flexibility were statistically significantly connected. The study showed that psychological flexibility is important for the level of study burnout. The burnout of the most psychologically flexible students was at a lower level in both the initial and final measurements. However, burnout increased in all profiles of psychological flexibility. The impact of psychological flexibility on burnout indicates that ACT-based interventions implemented with university students would be a good solution for preventing student burnout. In addition to this, increasing students' awareness of burnout symptoms would be a good way to prevent study burnout.
  • Kivelä, Hilla (2022)
    The aim of the thesis was to describe the effects that the distance learning period, caused by the Corona pandemic, had on the field of Finnish liberal adult education, from the viewpoint of senior students. The main research question was the following 1) What are the reasons for the senior student to choose between distance learning and contact learning. In addition to liberal adult education, this thesis addresses traditional adult education, life-long learning, as well as distance learning phenomena. The thesis emphasises how liberal adult education has adapted to distance learning and how the senior students, who were used to the traditional classroom learning situation, now prefer to learn. The study method was mixed. The thesis was set on the study field of adult education and voluntary learning. The study was conducted via a voluntary questionnaire, which included open questions and multiple-choice questions. The thesis material consisted of the answers made by the senior students N = 188. The material was analysed with the methods of content analysis, as well as numerically. The written sources included international articles, scientific studies, and books. The thesis concluded that the senior students have vastly different kinds of viewpoints on what is good learning and teaching. The senior students are not a homogenic group that share similar pref-erences. Only a small majority of the study sample preferred contact teaching in a classroom to dis-tance learning. Those who preferred contact teaching felt the sense of community important. Rather than the technological side of online learning, the social and pedagogical side proved out to be a bigger explanation why they do not wish to take part in distance learning classes. Preferring either of the studying methods is not only connected to a person’s skillset, resources, and home support but to the content and substance of the course itself. Hybrid teaching was noted to be in demand in the answers of the students. Organizing it might challenge the institutes of liberal adult education. The role of Finnish liberal adult education in the future is providing accessible, voluntary, and equal education for everyone.
  • Airaksinen, Johanna (2022)
    Background: Complexity theory describes a system that evolves and adapts to its environment as a complex adaptive (CAS) system. Renewal is presented as a collective and systemic process. The process begins in unstable stage caused by changes in conditions. This study examines teachers' experiences of the nature and conditions of collaboration in a stable and unstable state in five primary schools in Finland, from the lens of complexity theory framework and Innovative school model Problems: The aim of the study is to find out how teachers describe collaboration, leadership, competence and competence development, networking, and resources in a stable and unstable state, and how these components change with forced renewal in the Covid Age. Methods: The data consists of surveys collected in autumn 2019 (n = 61) and interviews conducted in May 2020 (n = 10). The data was analysed with qualitative content analysis. Results: The following was identified from teachers' experiences: 1) In contact education teachers implemented collaboration utilizing teamwork structures to varying degrees. During distance education, teachers changed their teamwork methods, either in a managed or self-organizing and need based way. They also took advantage of the possibilities of technology. 2) The guidance of both upper management and the school's own management or the lack of guidance in responding to distance education was emphasized. 3) There was both an adequate and inadequate level of competence during both contact and distance education. The distance education period made the differences transparent especially in teachers' digipedagogical skills. The use of technology and the development of teachers' skills during the period of contact and distance education were supported by teachers' learning and development activities, as well as sharing of knowledge. During the distance education period, there were positive changes in the conditions of school development and in attitudes towards development. Collaboration with families was emphasized during distance education. 4) Inadequate resources were emphasized in contact education. In distance education the students' own and school-borrowed equipment, changes in operating conditions and the increase in working hours were emphasized. Conclusion: Distance education became a cross-cutting development target for school actors and activities. Communities and networks, such as families and the entire education system, were connected by the common need for development. The forced development activities brought about the development of competence and changes in teachers' attitudes towards the development of one`s own operations and the pedagogical use of technology. Teachers also relied on their colleagues support and recognized its importance more than before. At the same time, rapid change and the use of technology caused negative changes such as workload and stress. Practices that support school activities, developed at both the individual and community levels, should be utilized in the development of post-covid education and interaction.
  • Kinos-Järvinen, Anne (2019)
    The research task of this Master's thesis is to describe, analyze and interpret how the principals of Finnish elementary schools and high schools experience their workload and their job satisfaction. These are examined by the workload and resource factors of principal’s job. In addition, the ways of how the workload appears and ways of recovery are discussed. The thesis is a qualitative pilot study for a broader welfare research conducted by the Finnish Principals Association, which will be implemented during 2019. Previous studies on the work of a Finnish principal have shown that his job description is extensive, that the workload is high and job satisfaction is put to the test every day. This research was guided by the following research questions: How do principals experience their workload and work satisfaction? What are the factors that the principals feel stressing them on their work and how does the workload show? What do the principals feel are resource factors in their work and how and by what means do they recover? The material consists of interviews with sixteen Finnish principals of elementary schools and high schools. The interviews were conducted as a semi-structured theme interview. The interview questions related to the principal’s own experience of their job satisfaction, workload, the ways in which the workload appears, their experience of the resources of their work, and how they feel they success to recover, and how do they recover. The material was analyzed phenomenographically because the subject of the research were the subjective perceptions and experiences of the principals. According to the material, the Finnish principals are very satisfied with their work, despite its relatively high workload. The experience of satisfaction arises especially through the independence, significance and influence of the work. The principal's experience and attitude also seemed to be relevant to how the workload was experienced. Generally, the workload was described high and the load was described to appear as typical stress-induced warning signs, but the principals, however, judged the workload as being reasonable. The workload was considered to be a natural part of the principal's work and the respondents tended to have a constructive attitude towards it. The principals also reported that their own recovery was generally successful, which according to respondents was of great importance to coping with work.
  • Lipponen, Elsa (2020)
    The aim of my Master’s Thesis was to find out what kind of tasks were set for education in the 2019 parliamentary election programs. For years, researchers in the United States and Europe have studied the educationalization of social problems, which refers to the tendency to look to educational institutions in resolving the pressing social problems. In Finland, this phenomenon has rarely been studied under its own concept. Previous studies on the change in educational policy towards more individual-centered and market-oriented thinking suggested that educationalization also takes place in the Finnish context as well. In my research, I try to find out the kind of tasks political parties assign to education in their election programs and how they present the educationalization of social problems. The aim of my research is to create a picture of the most common tasks to be set for the education in the spring 2019 parliamentary election programs and to analyze the educationalization associated with the programs. The material of my research is the election programs of the parties elected to Parliament in the 2019 parliamentary elections. In my study, I relied on a frame analysis, which I use to structure the most common tasks and ideals set for education. After compiling the frames, I analyze each frame based on previous research. In my analysis, I seek to highlight the educationalization that appears in the election programs. The tasks given by the parties were very much in line with each other. The results showed a clear educationalization, which identified various complex societal problems as the responsibility for education, without specifying in more detail how education could actually solve the problem. More extensive research on educationalization is needed in the Finnish context, for example, to find out whether the resources given to education are in line with the increased number of tasks.
  • Parman, Marlene (2020)
    Based on previous studies, neoliberal features have been observed in Finnish education policy. The government has made education-related reforms in recent years. My research examines the recent public debate surrounding education reforms in a neoliberal framework. I examine what themes, goals, rationales, and attitudes toward education reform are given in the public debate. I will try to find out how neoliberalism manifests itself in these debates. The aim of my dissertation is to bring out the public debate around education reforms and education policy. The study of the debate is intended to bring out different perspectives and voices, from education policy experts, academics, students, and individual citizens. I examine the manifestations of neoliberal education policy in the light of these debates. My research is a qualitative study. I search answers to two research questions. My data consists of articles. As a research method, I used content analysis. The data of my research consists of 51 articles by Helsingin Sanomat published in 2015–2019. Articles were analyzed by content analysis. Through content analysis, I found four different themes. I looked at the results in a neoliberal framework. The education reform debate revolved around student selection, industry changers, education cuts, and education policy. The debate around education reforms was controversial. On the one hand, education reforms were justified as profitable and good ideas, but on the other hand, they were criticized and questioned. Educational reforms raised concerns and appeared to pose threats to education and the scientific community, as well as to society. Based on the discussion, neoliberal features emerge in education reforms.
  • Kuronen, Kaisa (2020)
    Objectives. The aim of this research was to address the possible connections between school choice and school segregation. The study covered three countries that were Finland, Sweden and England. The theoretical background of this research was based on the most relevant concepts for this research. These concepts were neoliberalism, New Public Management, school choice, educational markets and segregation. Method. I conducted this research as a systematic literature review which means that the data consisted of other researches. The collection of the material was conducted systematically from three different databases. The final material consists of 17 articles, 7 of them from Sweden and 5 from Finland and 5 from England. After the search I analysed all the articles from the point of my research question. From those results I formed a synthesis about each country. Results and conclusion. According to the results there were segregation between schools and in many cases, it was the result of school choice. In some cases, school segregation was explained to be the cause of residential segregation and the cause of residential segregation and school choice combined. In Finland and Sweden school choice explained school segregation more often than it did in England.
  • Palomäki, Sanni (2021)
    Global education deals with wide-ranging and complex global phenomena. In this dissertation, the theory of global education is examined primarily from a postcolonial perspective. Although global education is a cross-cutting theme in Finnish primary education, its implementation varies in schools as well as in teacher education. The dissertation examines the views of teacher educators, especially about the aims of critical global education and the challenges and opportunities of its implementation in teacher education. The research material acquired on the principles of action research consisted of group discussions of a workshop on critical global education for teacher educators, text material related to the workshop, and registration and feedback forms. The workshop was based in part on a discussion method which utilizes critical literacy issues. The workshop was organized in co-operation with global education organisation Taksvärkki ry and was attended by five (5) teacher educators from three Finnish universities. Most of the participating teacher educators had previous knowledge about the themes of global education. The material was analysed by inductive content analysis. In the speech of teacher educators, global education appeared as a starting point for education and teacher training. However, the discussions highlighted various tensions, for example in relation to the value base of global education, the nature of change and action. In teacher education, opportunities to address broad and complex themes were presented through, for example, dialogue, criticality and changing of perspectives, experiential learning, student encounters, and extensive collaboration. Challenges to the implementation of global education included a solid division of subjects, the ambiguity of global education, efficiency and lack of time, broad learning objectives, and formal learning environments. On the other hand, the introduction of critical thinking through subject didactics, a holistic approach to all teaching and the strengthening of the role of the educator in teacher education were also mentioned as examples. It is important to discuss global education and its goals both inside and outside teacher education and to co-operate in the wide-ranging implementation of global education.