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  • Silva, Andre Tavares (2016)
    This study focuses on the developments of the Roman Catholic Church, particularly its emergence as a persecuted sect, all the way to becoming a respected institution, the official religion of the Empire, which gave continuity to the role of imperial power with global ambitions and dimensions. It is generally agreed by historians that the Holy Roman Empire started in the year 800 AD, via the coronation of Charlemagne by pope Leo III at the St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. This thesis argues that such empire, even if at first devoid of bona fide structures that would render an imperial title appropriate, in fact had its beginnings much earlier than in the 8th century. Throughout this study, key dates are presented and shed light upon, so as to support the claim that already in the 4th century a Church establishment was growing exponentially, in terms of membership, wealth, and reputation, particularly through crucial imperial decrees that lent further credence to religious authorities in their claims of legal basis and divine right to govern the west. With focus on political measures and achievements on the part of the Church authorities, with special attention to the papacy, the concept of imperial regency is used to explain the many centuries necessary for the empire to be brought back. It was the Church the one actor capable of maintaining the Roman imperial legacy in the west after it fell in the 5th century. Despite having re-created the title of emperor, via an alliance with the powerful Franks, the Church, led by the pope, acted as the sole and real governor of a renovated, overwhelmingly Christian Empire.
  • Mikkonen, Kasperi (2019)
    Playing video games is a popular way to spend time and mobile gaming is one of the most growing entertainment industries in the world. Gaming is often associated with high level of motivation from the user as well as many negative and positive outcomes. Commitment towards games has invited countless of researches to examine what makes them so intriguing and motivating. This growing understanding gives developers more tools to design even better games and allows game-like features to be used in other contexts as well. This master’s thesis examines automatically gathered early log-data (n=100 000) from two free-to-play mobile games in order to create a model for retention. A model created using early log-data (first three days of play) creates opportunities to recognize potential players in an early phase and to evaluate early iterations of games that are in development. Furthermore, individual features are analyzed to study, what are the factors that influence coming back to the game at a later point (30 days after the installation of the game). The research questions in this thesis are: 1) Can commitment towards mobile games be modeled using early log-data? 2) How accurate predictions the created model can do? 3) What are the most important in-game features that predict retention? The model is created using a decision tree analysis, which was selected as a method due to its transparency and because it has been used before in earlier studies with similar designs. In both games, the rate of coming back to the game after 30 days of installation was 7.6%. A working model for retention was formulated which was able to predict coming back to the game with 33% accuracy. The most important in-game features that affect retention were the number of victories, the number of starts and the number of in-app-purchases during the three-day period after the game’s installation. Surprisingly, in-game rewards and achievements were the most insignificant features when predicting retention although they are often specifically designed to elevate user motivation. These results can influence design decisions made in game development by setting the focus on the factors that influence player commitment and behavior. Achievements and in-game rewards might feel too artificial and superficial compared to winning in game. If the system gives direct feedback of the effect of time and monetary sacrifice to the player’s performance, one might be able to reduce the number of players that decide to leave the game. The results also can be used to examine how game-like features are used in non-game systems where the goal is to tie together the high-level of motivation seen in games and socially impactful endeavors. Further studies of in-game behavior might also give new insights on game addiction and its negative effects on player well-being and business.
  • Mustonen, Neea (2018)
    Background: The etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is largely unknown. Infections and microbial exposures are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis and in the development of islet autoimmunity in genetically susceptible individuals. Objective: To assess the relationships between early childhood infections, islet autoimmunity, and progression to T1D in genetically predisposed children. Methods: Children with HLA-conferred disease susceptibility (N=790; 51.5% males) from Finland (n=386), Estonia (n=322), and Russian Karelia (n=82) were observed from birth up to the age of 3 years. Children attended clinical visits at the age of 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. Serum samples for analyzing T1D-associated autoimmune markers were collected and health data recorded during the visits. Results: Children developing islet autoimmunity (n=46, 5.8%) had more infections during the first year of life (3.0 vs. 3.0, mean rank 439.1 vs. 336.2; p=0.001) and their first infection occurred earlier (3.6 vs. 5.0 months; p=0.005) than children with no islet autoimmunity. By May 2016, seven children (0.9%) had developed T1D (progressors). Compared to non-diabetic children, T1D progressors were younger at first infection (2.2 vs. 4.9 months; p=0.004) and had more infections during the first 2 years of life (during each year 6.0 vs. 3.0; p=0.001 and p=0.027, respectively). By 3 years of age, the T1D progressors had twice as many infections as the other children (17.5 vs. 9.0; p=0.006). Conclusions: Early childhood infections may play an important role in the pathogenesis of T1D. Current findings may reflect either differences in microbial exposures or early immunological aberrations making diabetes-prone children more susceptible to infections.
  • Keegan, Orla (2020)
    Tutkielma käsittelee toiminnallisia tehtäviä varhennetun englannin opetukseen suunnatuissa oppikirjoissa Jump in ja Go. Vuosiluokkien 1-2 A1-kielen opetussuunnitelman perusteissa korostetaan, että opetuksessa tulisi korostua toiminnallisuus ja työtavoissa tulisi yhdistyä leikinomaisuus, musiikki, draama, pelit ja liike sekä eri aistien hyödyntäminen. Tutkielman tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten paljon ja millaisia toiminnallisia tehtäviä varhennetun englannin oppimateriaaleissa on, sekä millaisia elementtejä nämä toiminnalliset tehtävät sisältävät. Aiemmat tutkimukset ovat osoittaneet, että toiminnalliset työtavat voivat tukea oppimista ja ovat myös varhennettua kieltä opettavien opettajien suosimia tehtävätyyppejä. Aineistona tutkimuksessa käytettiin Otavan Jump in -oppimateriaalia sekä Sanoma Pron Go -oppimateriaalia, jotka on molemmat suunnattu varhennetun englannin opetukseen. Tutkielmassa analysoitiin oppilaille tarkoitettuja oppikirjoja sekä opettajan digiopetusmateriaalia, mutta vain oppikirjojen sisältämät tehtävät analysoitiin yksityiskohtaisesti. Oppikirjojen toiminnalliset tehtävät analysoitiin fokusoiden niiden sisällöllisiin elementteihin. Analysoidut sisältöelementit olivat liike, musiikki, kirjoittaminen, lukeminen, draama sekä värittäminen/piirtäminen. Pelit luokiteltiin toiminnallisiksi tehtäviksi, mutta ne analysoitiin erikseen niiden suuren määrän vuoksi. Tutkimuksen pohjalta voidaan todeta, että molemmat oppimateriaalit sisälsivät toiminnallisia tehtäviä, mutta tehtävät ja niiden elementit olivat erilaisia. Liike ja puhuminen olivat yleisimmät elementit toiminnallisissa tehtävissä, kun taas peleissä puhuminen oli yleisin elementti. Oppimateriaalien välillä oli myös eroavaisuuksia, sillä Go -oppikirjan toiminnalliset tehtävät sisälsivät enemmän draamaelementtejä, kun taas Jump in -oppikirja otti paremmin huomioon oppilaat, joiden lukutaito ei ole vielä vahva.
  • Metsälä, Charlotte (2017)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää millaisia opetusmenetelmiä ja työtapoja käytetään ensimmäisen luokan varhennetun englannin kielen opetuksessa suomalaisissa kouluissa, sekä verrata miten ne eroavat kolmannen luokan A1-englannin kielen opetuksesta. Lisäksi tutkin millä tavoin ikäspesifiset vaatimukset on huomioitu opetuksessa; mikä on äidinkielen ja kohdekielen suhde opetuksessa ja opetusaktiviteeteissa; millaisia aktiviteetteja näihin opetusmenetelmiin ja työtapoihin sisältyy; mitä opetusmateriaaleja käytetään varhennetussa englannin kielen opetuksessa; sekä millaisia motivaatiostrategioita on mahdollisesti nähtävissä varhennetussa kielenopetuksessa. Tutkielman teoriaosuudessa käsittelen niitä opetusmenetelmiä ja työtapoja, joita aineistossa on käytetty tai jotka ovat aineiston analyysin kannalta tärkeitä. Näistä merkittävimmät ovat viestinnällinen kieltenopetus, kielisuihku/kielisuihkutus, Total Physical Response (TPR) -menetelmä sekä Audiolingvaalinen menetelmä. Lisäksi esittelen aiempia tutkimuksia varhennetusta kieltenopetuksesta. Tutkielma on laadullinen tapaustutkimus. Aineisto kerättiin äänittämällä, videoimalla ja havainnoimalla kolmea varhennetun englannin kielenopetuksen ryhmää kahdessa koulussa sekä havainnoimalla kahta kolmannen luokan A1-englannin ryhmää. Havainnoinnin apuna käytettiin observointilomaketta, jossa oli valmiita kategorioita. Observointien jälkeen näiden luokkien opettajia haastateltiin täydentämään havainnointia sekä selvittämään heidän näkemyksiään ja asenteitaan. Aineisto kerättiin marras-joulukuussa 2015. Aineisto litteroitiin opettajan osalta kokonaan ja oppilaiden kohdalla osittain. Tämän jälkeen havainnointiaineisto luokiteltiin, observointilomakkeen kategorioita päivitettiin sekä analysoitiin etsien vastauksia tutkimuskysymyksiin. Haastattelut litteroitiin, käännettiin suomenkielisten vastausten osalta englanniksi ja analysoitiin. Tuloksista käy ilmi, että varhennetussa englannin kielenopetuksessa käytetään ensisijaisesti kielisuihkutusta, TPR-menetelmää ja toistamisharjoituksia. Tutkimukseen osallistuneella kolmannella luokalla sen sijaan ei ollut käytössä mitään selkeää opetusmenetelmää ja opetus oli oppikirjalähtöistä. Varhennetussa kieltenopetuksessa ikäspesifiset vaatimukset oli huomioitu painottamalla suullisia taitoja ja pelillisyyttä. Varhennetussa kieltenopetuksessa koulussa B äidinkielen ja kohdekielen suhde oli n. 50/50, mutta koulussa A äidinkieltä käytettiin runsaammin kuin kohdekieltä. Tyypillisimmät aktiviteetit koulussa A olivat kulutetun ajan mukaan pelit ja leikit sekä kertojen mukaan erilaiset toistamisharjoitukset. Koulussa B erilaiset pelit olivat yleisimmät aktiviteetit sekä ajallisesti että kertojen mukaan. Koulussa A käytettiin runsaasti interaktiivisen valkotaulun ohjelmistoa, digitaalista ääntä tai musiikkia, sekä kuvia. Koulussa B käytettiin myös interaktiivista valkotaulua, mutta ohjelmisto oli suppeampi. Koulussa B oli hieman laajemmin erilaisia opetusmateriaaleja.
  • Suikkanen, Sandra (2022)
    Tutkielma tutkii varhentamisen hanketta alakoulun englanninopetuksessa. Vuodesta 2020 lähtien tuli voimaan muutos, jonka mukaan A1 kielen opiskelu alkaa Suomessa jo ensimmäiseltä luokalta lähtien. A1 kieli on useimmiten englanti, mutta se voi olla myös jokin muu kieli, kuten saksa tai ranska. Varhennettua kieltä opetetaan yleensä yksi tunti viikossa. Joissakin kouluissa varhennettua kieltä on opetettu jo aikaisemmin, mutta maanlaajuinen muutoksesta on tullut vasta viime vuosina. Kielenopetuksen aloittaminen jo ensimmäiseltä luokalta lähtien perustuu oppimisen eri herkkyyskausiin. Joidenkin tutkimustulosten mukaan kielitaito tarttuu lapsiin parhaiten mahdollisimman nuorena. Koska aihetta ei ole vielä tutkittu paljoa opettajien tai opetusharjoittelijoiden näkökulmasta, tutkimukseni keskittyy heidän asenteisiinsa varhennetun englannin opetusta koskien. Tutkin myös, mitä hyötyjä ja haittoja varhennetun kielen opetuksesta on löydetty aiemmissa tutkimuksissa. Käsittelen sekä Suomen kontekstiin sijoittuvia tutkimuksia, että kansainvälisiä tutkimuksia. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää lisäksi, miten varhennettua englanninopetusta Suomessa voitaisiin kehittää tulevaisuudessa. Opettajien ja opetusharjoittelijoiden mielipiteiden keräämiseksi loin sähköisen kyselyn Google Formsilla. Aineisto kerättiin tammi-helmikuussa 2022. Kysely koostui kahdesta osasta, joista ensimmäinen osa oli suunnattu opettajille ja toinen opetusharjoittelijoille. Kyselyllä kartoitettiin molempien kohderyhmien näkemyksiä varhennetun englannin kielen opettamiseen alakoulussa. Kysymykset koskivat varhennetun kielenopetuksen kokemuksia, kuten oppilaiden motivaatiota kielen oppimiseen ja opettajien kokemia haasteita luokassa. Tutkimuksen tulokset osoittavat, että kielenopiskelun aloittaminen aikaisemmin on kannattavaa, jos tietyt kriteerit oppimiselle otetaan huomioon. Sekä oppilaille että opettajille tulee tarjota optimaaliset olosuhteet varhennetun kielenopetukseen kouluissa. Tämä koskee muun muassa oppimisympäristöä, ryhmäkokoja sekä englannin opettamista lapsille soveltuvalla tavalla. Suuria ryhmäkokoja tulisi välttää, sillä ne johtavat eriyttämiseen ja sen tuomiin ongelmiin. Lisäksi englantia tulisi opettaa 1. – 2. luokalla suullista ilmaisua sekä toiminnallisuutta painottaen. Opettajien mielipiteistä käy ilmi, että vaikka suurin osa kokee varhennetun englannin opettamisen mielekkääksi, tarjotaan myös useita parannusehdotuksia varhennettuun opetukseen. Opettajat toivoivat pienempiä ryhmiä, lisää sopivaa opetusmateriaalia sekä selkeitä toimintatapoja varhennettuun opetukseen. Tutkimustuloksista käy myös ilmi varhennetun englannin opetuksen hyödyt ja haitat kouluympäristössä sekä aiempien tutkimusten suhde nykytutkimukseen.
  • Kukkonen, Aleksi (2021)
    Objectives: Bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly used plasticizer that has endocrine disrupting properties. Fetal exposure to BPA has been associated with offspring behavioural problems. These associations may be mediated through BPA-induced alterations in the offspring DNA methylation (DNAm). This study examined whether fetal BPA exposure associates with behavioural problems and whether DNAm biomarker score for early pregnancy BPA exposure is linked with behavioural problems in the offspring. Methods: Participants were 442 mother-child pairs of the Finnish PREDO-cohort. I measured BPA from the early pregnancy urine samples and assayed DNAm in the cord blood with Illumina 450k or EPIC array. Mothers reported behavioural problems of their offspring with the Child Behaviour Checklist/1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5) at the mean child age of 3.8 years (SD = 1.0 years). I used LASSO regression to create a DNAm score for early pregnancy BPA exposure and tested the associations between BPA exposure, the DNAm score, and CBCL/1.5-5 scores with linear and logistic regressions. Results: After adjustments, early pregnancy BPA exposure was associated with higher risk for clinically meaningful internalizing (p = .02) and externalizing (p = .04) behavioural problems in the offspring. The DNAm score included eight CpG sites, explained 4.8% of the BPA variation, and was borderline significantly associated with a risk for clinically meaningful internalizing (p = .05) and externalizing behavioural problems (p = .06). Conclusions: Early pregnancy BPA exposure associated and DNAm biomarker for BPA exposure borderline associated with offspring behavioural problems. DNAm biomarker score for fetal BPA exposure showed promise and should be studied further in subsequent studies.
  • Ojansivu, Tiina (2014)
    Natural disturbances are important for regeneration and biodiversity of forests. Restoration imitates natural disturbances in order to return ecosystems towards its natural state. Knowledge is lacking about the efficiency of restoration, as well as early tree successions. The objects of this study were to investigate the effects of fire and coarse woody debris (CWD) increment on early tree succession and tree species diversity along forest – gap gradient 10 years after restorative partial cuttings in southern Finland. Seedling densities and heights, microhabitat distributions and tree species diversity were compared between four restoration treatments; unburned treatments with 5 and 60 m3 CWD ha-1, and burned treatments with 5 and 60 m3 CWD ha-1. Total seedling densities were tested with two-way analysis of variance. Species diversity was analyzed by species richness and Shannon index, which were tested with two-way analysis of variance. In general, the burned treatments included higher seedling densities and higher seedlings. The different amounts of dead wood revealed differences in deciduous tree species. The density of birch was higher in the treatments with 60 m3 CWD ha-1 and the heights of birch and other deciduous tree species were higher in burned treatment with 60 m3 CWD ha-1. Pine and birch were abundant in the burned treatments. The densities of spruce were very high in the unburned treatment with 5 m3 CWD ha-1, but fairly low in the other treatments. The seedling densities and heights were the lowest in the forest. Seedling densities did not vary significantly between the edge and gap segment. Microhabitat distributions of the coniferous seedlings differed between the unburned and burned treatments, but no clear differences were observed between the low (5 m3 ha-1) and high amount (60 m3 ha-1) of CWD. Microhabitat distributions of seedlings between forest, edge and gap did not differ noticeably, except with spruce in the burned treatments between the edge and gap. Tree species diversity of regeneration was slightly higher in the burned than in the unburned treatments. Different amounts of CWD did not affect the tree species diversity. The tree species diversity was significantly lower in the forest than in the treatment area, but it did not differ between the edge and gap. The results indicate that early tree succession is likely to be more abundant after burning than without. Fire as a restoration tool can be suggested for the regeneration of pine and birch. Dead wood appears to be insignificant for early tree succession. The limited size of restoration areas does not impede the tree succession, since the densities and heights of seedlings were generally the highest near the forest edge. Fire might increase tree species diversity.
  • Leinonen, Nea (2021)
    Earnings insurance is a measure of how much earnings of a worker change relative to idiosyncratic shock to firm performance. In case of full earnings insurance, shocks are not passed onto earnings at all and otherwise earnings insurance is partial. Linked employer-employee data is widely used in this recent empirical research interest due to its rich nature. This paper explores earnings insurance in Finland by focusing on three aspects: how much firms in Finland provide earnings insurance, are there differences in levels of earnings insurance between industries and whether partial earnings insurance is driven by hours worked or hourly wage. The main findings are that firms in Finland provide partial but substantial earnings insurance in all industries and that hours worked play a smaller role than hourly wage in determining partial earnings insurance. Because data on hours worked is not available in many countries, this paper is able to bring new insight on the role of hours worked and hourly wage in the composition of partial earnings insurance. However, hours worked and hourly wage explain only around half of partial earnings insurance, so the result should be considered with caution.
  • Tapper, Aleksis (2018)
    Earnouts are used as a risk-allocation mechanism in M&A transactions, whereby a certain amount of the purchase price is deferred and calculated based on the performance of the target company over a specified time period following the closing of the acquisition. Earnouts are normally utilized in situations where the seller’s and buyer’s disagreement and expectations of the true value of the target company are not aligned and too far from each other in order to be resolved through typical post-closing purchase price adjustments. Additionally, earnouts are an attractive solution for incentivizing the management that will continue to run the target company after the closing or are of significant value in the post-closing integration of the target company into the business operations of the buyer. The core focus of my research is to examine earnout mechanisms and their applicability to acquisitions of early stage companies. This implies that the contractual nature of the earnout mechanism has to be tailored according to the stage and nature of the target company. The performance of target companies of this nature should not always be measured or tracked in financial numbers, but instead in tailored operative and non-financial achievements. The fundamental methodology in my research is law in context and the analysis of a new phenomenon within contract law, as well as the contractual relationship between a buyer and a seller of a target company. My research revolves around a new mechanism of M&A contracting and analyses how this mechanism should be structured and understood, in order to guarantee the ideal use thereof. The goal with my research is to describe, analyze and interpret earnouts, and examine the development and applicability thereof in the field of M&A contracting of early stage companies. The research therefore involves a broad examination of the legal subjects, by using evidence and sources from other social sciences, and from all other relevant disciplines that support the aim of understanding the process as well as the elements of earnouts contracting in practice. The technical approach of contracting earnout provisions is of great importance and requires a thorough analysis of each provision used therein. The provisions used for earnouts will and should vary widely, depending on the concerns and contingencies of each transaction in question, and typically involves provisions relating to: the length (in time) of the earnout, the size and structure of the earnout, performance metrics that the earnout is tied to, the operational entity or object that is to be measured, as well as the governance of the target company post-closing. Early stage companies do by definition not have a long operating history or sufficient data of their financial performance, and the value of the company’s key resources are therefore not adequately reflected in a codified form, such as financial statements. The value of an early stage company at closing is typically tied to circumstances relating to potential growth options, market shares and exit opportunities, rather than financial information or assets in place. The information at hand, provided by the target company, tends to be more difficult to verify, and therefore inflates with future projections. In opposite to established companies with operating history and clear financial projections based on future performance, the performance of early stage companies should often typically be tied to other parameters than financial metrics. This implies that the earnouts used for start-ups and the measurement of their performance should be benchmarked to non-financial or other operative metrics. Non-financial metrics applicable for early stage companies might include, but are not limited to: regulatory approvals, licenses and operative permits, SaaS-metrics, as well as milestones related to research and development. The operative uncertainty of early stage companies tends to be fragmented and cannot be identified and measured in one single metric. The contracting parties might find balance and benefit from using multiple metrics for measuring either one or multiple types of performance metrics relevant to the operations of the target company. Earnouts can and should be divided (where possible) into smaller thresholds or measured in percentages of the maximal possible earnout amount.
  • Myllylä, Anna-Leena (2016)
    Pro gradu -tutkielmani tarkastelee Itä-Afrikasta Suomeen muuttaneiden naisten käsityksiä seksuaalisuudesta. Kehitysyhteistyön ja suomalaisen valtavirtafeminismin viitekehyksissä afrikkalaisten naisten seksuaalisuus näyttäytyy ongelmakeskeisenä ja suomalainen tasa-arvo voimauttavana. Tutkielmani keskittyy selvittämään sitä, kuinka Suomessa asuvien itäafrikkalaisten naisten käyttämät diskurssit tukevat tai haastavat näitä hallitsevia diskursseja ja pohtimaan, kuinka naisten käsitykset seksuaalisuudesta suhteutuvat voimaantumisen käsitteeseen. Tutkielma sijoittuu jälkistrukturalistisen tutkimusperinteen kenttään. Seksuaalisuus teorisoidaan sosiaalisesti rakentuneeksi ja valtasuhteiden muokkaamaksi. Eri diskursseja asetetaan kontekstiin jälkikolonialistista feminististä teoriaa hyödyntäen. Tutkielman aineisto koostuu neljästä puolistrukturoidusta haastattelusta, joihin osallistui yhteensä yhdeksän Tansaniasta, Keniasta tai Ugandasta Suomeen aikuisiällä muuttanutta naista. Lisäksi työssä on hyödynnetty haastatteluprosessin aikana tehtyjä muistiinpanoja. Haastattelumateriaalin analyysissä käytettiin Norman Faircloughin kehittämää kriittistä diskurssianalyysiä, jonka mukaisesti keskusteluja tarkasteltiin tekstin tasolla, tekstin tuottamista määrittävien diskurssikäytäntöjen tasolla ja osana laajempaa sosiokulttuurista kontekstia. Naisten keskusteluissa seksuaalisuus rakentuu moninaiseksi. Haastattelumateriaali osoittaa kuinka naiset vastustavat patriarkaalisia rakenteita. Tätä tehdään kyseenalaistamalla patriarkaalisia moraalikäytäntöjä, rakentamalla erilaisin keinoin kuvaa aktiivisesta feminiinisestä seksuaalisuudesta sekä vastustamalla kuvaa naisesta, jonka velvollisuus on pyyteettömästi palvella miestään. Keskusteluissa rakentuu myös kuva suomalaisista, jotka eksotisoivat afrikkalaisia naisia. Tutkimuksen tekemisen aikana kävi ilmi, että useat afrikkalaiset maahanmuuttajat tunnistavat afrikkalaisiin seksuaalisuuksiin liittyviä negatiivisia ja rasistisia stereotypioita. Materiaali osoittaa, että ei voida puhua yhdestä itäafrikkalaisesta lähestymistavasta seksuaalisuuteen ja itäafrikkalaisilla naisilla on resursseja vastustaa patriarkaalisia rakenteita ja käytäntöjä tavoilla, jotka haastavat Suomessa hallitsevassa asemassa olevia diskursseja. Naisten keskusteluissa esiintyvä vastarinta eroaa monelta osin suomalaisen valtavirtafeminismin ja kehitysyhteistyön puitteissa rakentuvasta vastarinnankäsityksestä. Näin ollen keskustelu osoittaa myös näihin hallitseviin diskursseihin piiloutuvan kolonialismin perinnön ja moralismin. Naisten diskurssit haastavat kuvaa ’maahanmuuttajanaisesta’ ja osoittavat erilaisia vastarinnan ja voimaantumisen mahdollisuuksia naisten omista lähtökohdista käsin.
  • Paukkonen, Nikolai (2018)
    In this work I study the orientations of buildings excavated in Tel Kinrot in Galilee in Israel. Generally it has been thought that the east was a preferred orientation in the regional Iron Age culture, whereas the west was averted. Reasons for this are not clear, though. In my thesis I examine if this suspected anomaly is also present in Tel Kinrot. In addition, I also study which factors could determine this phenomenon. The reasons for this could vary, and my goal is to find out whether this was influenced by so called rational factors, such as climate, lighting or topography, or whether the main determinant was actually religion and cosmology. I assess the buildings excavated in Iron Age layers in Tel Kinrot on their doorway orientation based on the archaeological plans available, followed by examination of the results in tables and binomial distribution. My study shows that of the 10 doorways discernible in Tel Kinrot only one is aligned towards the western part of the compass, whereas the rest are oriented towards the eastern side. Thus it seems clear that the phenomenon of eastern preference is present in Tel Kinrot as well. The influence of cosmology for building orientations can be identified all around the world in different cultures, present with both every day dwellings and temples and palaces. In the Near East the East is favored also from the linguistic perspective, since the words denoting east have often positive connotations, and west is often related to negative concepts. These dichotomies include sunrise–sunset, birth–death, front–back or future–past. The Hebrew Bible contains this kind of thinking as well: for example, Ezekiel 44 contains a description of the temple in Jerusalem, where its main gate is said to be directed towards the east. Examining the possible practical factors reveals that the preference for east is probably not based on them. For example, to maintain colder temperatures inside the buildings should be oriented towards north or northwest. The eastern wind can be extremely hot and dry, whereas the western wind is pleasantly chilling, so in that case as well the east should be avoided, rather than preferred. Thus it seems clear that the phenomenon is determined by factors related to religion and cosmology.
  • Haltsonen, Tytti (2014)
    The emotional instability and the risk of being socially excluded are growing all the time among the children and young people. The chances of physical activities improving the quality of life is an interesting and current study, as for a human being the physical activities play a big role in one's psychological well-being, and there is a good chance to prevent children's and young people's social exclusion with sports. This study was purposed to find out what kind of children take part to Helsinki's EasySport -easy access sport clubs. The study is supposed to find out if the EasySport -action is reaching the right children, which are in threat of being socially excluded or are the participating children mainly already having experience in sport clubs and sport as a hobby. I am also analyzing if participating a sport club is improving child's social interaction or if it's bringing more friendships. I also think it's very important to know the children's opinion about how this easy access action differs from a traditional sport club action and physical education at school. The study's theoretical frame of reference forms from the social exclusion and it's prevention as well as the affection of sports in psychological and social development of a person. The sport club action and physical education in relation to easy access sports are also handled in the theory part. The research questions were: What kind of children are participating the EasySport-clubs? Is the EasySport-action reaching the right children to support the prevention of the social exclusion? How do the EasySport-clubs differ from the traditional sport club action? What makes the EasySport an easy access action? Are the EasySport-clubs encouraging children's social development? The target of the research was, therefore, the children participating the Easy Sport -ball clubs. The study was carried out in form interview by visiting eight Easy Sport -ball clubs. A total of 71 children from age 7 to 13 responded to the survey. The study was conducted as a qualitative case study and the data was analyzed using content analysis. Based on the study it became clear that the children participating the EasySport-clubs are mainly boys with immigrant background. The activity supports the integration of immigrants, which is part of the prevention of the exclusion. Ball clubs also develops children's communication skills and the regular participation in the club can improve the children's quality of life and ignite the enthusiasm of exercise. The results of the operation can also be seen as contributing to children's social development and friendships. The children participating the Easy Sport -ball clubs experience the activity meaningful and different from the school sports or sport club activity, because the children have the opportunity to decide what the program includes and the activities are considered more free.
  • Autio, Roosa (2022)
    This Master’s Thesis aims to explore evaluative language directed at Chinese culture in an online context upon the appearance of COVID-19. To achieve this objective, this study was guided both theoretically and methodologically by the stance triangle (Du Bois 2007). The stance triangle acknowledges three stance acts—evaluation, positioning, and alignment—that co-occur in each stance. An additional objective of the present study was to gather all info obtained from the stance triangle in order to determine the discursive construction of Chinese culture. Thus, the concrete research questions were as follows: 1. How do Twitter users evaluate Chinese culture on Twitter and position themselves in relation to other Twitter users and Chinese culture? 2. How do interlocutors align with each other's utterances on Twitter? 3. How do interlocutors represent Chinese culture on Twitter at the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak? As hypothesized at the early stages of this research, in addition to issues within the immediate realm of well-being or survival of people, the emergence of COVID-19 surfaced much fear and confusion online. To inspect the opinions of people regarding Chinese culture upon the appearance of COVID-19 online, Twitter was chosen as the platform of interest. The data consisted of a tweet posted on Bill Maher’s Twitter account, which contained a video clip from YouTube promoting an episode of the late-night tv-show as an addition to the text. Additionally, a total of 52 responses were also included in the study. The results of the present study show that, overall, stances on Twitter were versatile both in their content and intensity. In relation to the first research objective regarding evaluation and positioning, it was observed that even though the stances were versatile, the vast majority evaluated different entities of Chinese culture in a negative manner. In regard to the second research question, the Twitter users sought alignment by referring to statements made beforehand or by high-ranking officials or prestigious institutions. In terms of representation, this thesis argues that Chinese culture is presented as unsanitary, unethical, and as a future threat to the rest of the world.
  • Lehtonen, Sofia (2017)
    Aim. The aim of this Thesis was to find out what kind of needs for well-being the working-age Finns have and how they experience work-engagement. The Research problem was that even though the well-being need have been proved to be universal it is motivated to study the connection between well-being and work-engagement out of a subjective perspective on needs. The Classical Well-being model the Subjective Well-being Theory, SWB and Self-Determination Theory, SDT were used as the Theoretical Reference frame of this Thesis. Methods. The study was conducted in a qualitative manner. Eight people took part in this study and were interviewed. The respondents were interviewed and filled in a questionnaire regarding their background information. The interviews were conducted using a half-structured theme interview. The data was coded with the Atlas.ti programme and analyzed with the theory bound content analysis method. Results. The results confirmed that the pursuit of well-being is a value of great meaning to the respondents in this study. The results showed that well-being according to the respondents consists mainly of the satisfaction of basic needs like nurture and rest - but also of satisfying the higher level needs like self-fulfillment. Part of the basic needs were seen even as important as the higher-level needs hence, diet and working out were given a lot of attention. Work engagement was mostly affected by how one sees oneself or how other people see oneself. The results even showed that most of the working-aged people have experienced exhaustion or burnout at some point of their lives.
  • Svento, Nicklas (2020)
    This Master’s Thesis will examine the role of the European Central Bank (ECB) as a banking supervisor under the Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM) of the Banking Union (BU), focusing on the ECB in its new role as an applier of national legislation of the BU Member States under the SSM Regulation. During the course of the thesis, I will also analyze if, in my opinion, the BU and the conferral of the broader supervisory powers on the ECB has been enough to counter the issues that arose during the last financial crisis. Special focus will be given to the issues arising from these new institutions, especially pertaining to fragmented implementation of the single-rulebook legislation, accountability issues, judicial protection issues and so called fit and proper assessments as a manifestation of most of the issues arising from the ECB as an applier of national legislation. Fragmented implementation of the directives that often stipulate minimum harmonizing provisions, leads to situations where the ECB in its role as a banking supervisor and applier of national legislation is encountered by largely differing legislation in different BU Member States. Accountability issues relate to the opaque decision-making structures of the ECB and the rather unclear reviewability of ECB decisions by EU Courts. These problematic factors might lead to equality, uniformity, democracy and judicial protection issues. Judicial protection issue relates to Court review in the larger scale of things, where e.g. the CJEU might not be able to review all factors pertaining to a certain ECB decision, as the decisions can be multileveled and might include National Competent Authority decisions as well. Fit and proper assessments are corporate governance rules that measure the suitability of candidates to managing positions in banks. In the CRD IV -directive that governs these rules, the provisions are minimum harmonizing and e.g. a suitable candidate in one Member State might be deemed unsuitable in another Member State. The fit and proper assessments manifest a lot of the issues with the ECBs supervisory and “applier of national legislation” -role. Some of these issues could be solved by smaller fixes, whereas issues relating e.g. the fragmented implementation of BU Directives, would require for the whole single-rulebook legislations to be put together to a broad directly applicable regulation. Accountability issues could be fixed by imposing stricter transparency and reporting requirements on the ECB. Broader judicial review of ECB decisions might be paved for by the CJEU in its judgements, by e.g. allowing for a direct effect of directives in certain situations. Fit and proper assessment issues could be solved by broadening the powers of the ECB and further harmonizing the single-rulebook legislations. This thesis aims to analyze de lege lata if the changes made after the last financial crisis have been sufficient and if they work properly. As will be seen, there are a lot of issues arising from the new and significant, but problematic revisions. The methodology or theory in this thesis is going to be that of legal theory, focusing on EU Law. This thesis aim is to examine the single-rulebook regulation de lege lata with a rather critical approach and conclude in a de lege ferenda analysis, backed by legal literature, case law as well as personal analysis based on the aforementioned materials. As for the structure of this thesis, it will commence by an introductory chapter, where the contextual and constitutional base and background of the BU will be explained. The following chapters will focus on the main issues in the ECBs supervisory role, i.e. fragmented implementation of directives, accountability issues, judicial protection issues and fit and proper assessments as a manifestation of many of these issues. The last chapter concludes.
  • Tervonen, Annika (2022)
    Sydämen kantasoluterapia on tutkimuksessa oleva hoitokäytäntö, jolla yritetään sydämeen kantasoluja siirtämällä saada aikaan arpeutuneen kudoksen paranemista, ja siten sydämen pumppauskyvyn parantumista. Tämä kirjallisuuskatsaus on osa isompaa tutkimusprojektia, jossa tätä kantasoluterapiaa yritetään toteuttaa sydämen omilla eteiskorvakkeen kantasoluilla. Tässä kirjallisuuskatsauksessa selvitimme, miten sydämen ultraääntä voidaan käyttää sydämen kantasolututkimuksissa vasteen seurannassa, ja mitkä menetelmät ovat luotettavia ja mitkä eivät, sekä miten tulosten luotettavuutta voidaan parantaa. Kirjallisuuskatsauksessa selvisi, että sydämen ultraäänellä voi saada luotettavia tuloksia jotka toimivat hyvin kardiologisten ja sydänkirurgisten kliinisten tutkimuksien seurannassa, kunhan käytetään oikeita mittausmenetelmiä, ja minimoidaan tekijät, jotka vaikuttavat tulosten luotettavuuteen negatiivisesti. Selvitimme myös, milloin sydämen ultraääni tulokset ovat epäluotettavia, ja mitkä tekijät tähän johtavat. Vertasimme myös sydämen ultraääntä ja sydämen magneettitutkimusta, ja havaitsimme, että ultraäänellä voidaan välillä saada lähes yhtä luotettavia tuloksia kuin magneettikuvauksella, jos mittausmenetelmä on oikea. Sydämen ultraäänen käytöstä sydämen kantasoluterapiatutkimuksissa ei ole kuin muutama julkaisu, ja aihe vaatiikin lisää tutkimista.
  • Örn, Richard (2022)
    Aortic stenosis is the most important type of valvular heart disease among elderly patients, that often lead to valve replacement interventions. As the age structure shifts towards older age and life expectancy continues to rise, the prevalence of aortic stenosis is presumed to rise, resulting in more patients and additional expenses. Echocardiography is the most important tool for assessing aortic stenosis among patients. An experienced clinician can determine the severity of the disease with echocardiography alone, although the complete picture of a patient’s health must be evaluated during examination. The choice of intervention and timing thereof should be done by a heart team consisting consists of cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, radiologists, interventional radiologists and anaesthesiologists. Intervention is done by replacing the stenotic aortic valve with a functional synthetic valve either by surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or by transcatheter aortic valve implant (TAVI). Echocardiography is used for evaluating prognosis and selecting type of care for each patient, based on the ECHO findings. This overview presents the use of transthoracic echocardiography as a tool for assessment of disease severity among patients with aortic stenosis, as well as advantages and limitations. The overview incudes a study of the clinical outcome of 30 patients with aortic stenosis treated with surgical aortic valve replacement and transcatheter aortic valve implant within the AS-AMYL study at the Helsinki University Hospital.
  • Ehnström, Elvira (2022)
    Caryl Churchill is a renowned playwright whose plays concern a wide range of social and political issues. In her plays Far Away (2000) and Escaped Alone (2016) Churchill brings forth depictions of ecological disaster which complexify the relationship between humans and their nonhuman environment. In this thesis, I argue that the plays in question offer a new perspective on the division between humanity and the nonhuman environment, which prompts the reader to question their own anthropocentric view of human exceptionalism. The plays’ bizarre events and absurdist form criticise the arbitrary division between human and nonhuman animals, underlining the intrinsic value of all beings and the nonanimated environment. It is evident that the plays are part of the Theatre of the Absurd, in their deviation from traditional conventions for narration and plot, as well as in the untraditional depiction of humans and the nonhuman environment. Utilising the typology of animal representation by Greg Garrard (2012) it becomes clear that nonhuman animals are increasingly depicted as anthropomorphic and certain groups of humans as increasingly zoomorphic in Far Away. Furthermore, the importance of the effects of the capitalist economic system in the climate crisis is prevalent in both plays. In Far Away, the characters work under a capitalist government which does not value human wellbeing. Escaped Alone, on the other hand, depicts ecological catastrophes as instigated by entities strongly connected with the capitalist system. Thus, both plays reveal the significance of capitalism as a driving force in ecological destruction, as well as its negative impact on individuals. Escaped Alone emphasises the individual perspective on the climate crisis by offering a female perspective and showing the characters as resilient despite the looming catastrophes. By depicting the ecological crisis as a complex and multifaceted issue, Churchill establishes her plays as works of deep ecology.
  • Maisila, Salla-Mari (2018)
    Biological diversity has been decreasing since industrial revolution, and the loss of biodiversity has become a com-mon topic in different groups from environmental organizations to consumers worldwide. Different goals for biodiver-sity conservation have been set both at the global and domestic level, but the continuous postponement of the tar-gets indicates that the government institutions establishing rules for protecting biodiversity are no longer sufficient, and new methods must be developed. One way how biodiversity can be protected is different ecological compensa-tion mechanisms. Ecological compensation is a process where project developers compensate for conservation efforts by creating ecologically equivalent profits or credits elsewhere. Globally, different ecological compensation mechanisms have been used for a long time as a part of nature conser-vation activities. In many countries, these activities are often based on legislation and regulations, such as in the US, Australia, and Germany. Additionally, every EU member state belongs to Natura 2000 network, where various com-pensation regulations have been implemented by the EU’s Habitat Directive. Voluntary-based compensation activi-ties on the other hand are newer way to protect nature and this study focuses on the use of these voluntary activities in Finland. One target group of potential users of ecological compensation mechanisms in Finland are companies that weaken or use different natural resources in their operations. Each company undertakes environmental responsibility in different ways, but ecological compensation as a way to conserve nature could be a powerful tool for companies to show their environmental responsibility. The aim of this study is to determine companies' perspectives on voluntary ecological compensation and analyze critical factors that affect companies’ willingness to participate in voluntary compensation projects in Finland. Three main objectives of this research include: 1) identifying the attractiveness of voluntary ecological compensation from private companies’ perspective 2) defining the most attractive compensation mechanisms and structures from the companies’ point of view and 3) further analysis of the risks and opportunities affect target companies that partici-pate in voluntary compensation projects. This study was conducted by using a qualitative research method. Re-search material was collected in the meetings with companies by using the participant observation mechanism. Study results highlighted, that the attractiveness of ecological compensation is based on multiple different factors that companies consider as important and which should be included in the compensation project. These factors are such as specific location of compensation area and certain ecosystem services in the compensation area. Most importantly, compensation must be related to companies’ operations at some level. Businesses do not get involved if the projects are not targeted to them, and especially if those are not approved by the relevant stakeholders.