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Browsing by department "Maantieteen laitos"

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  • Vuori, Maria (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2009)
    Accessibility is a crucial factor for interaction between areas in economic, cultural, political and environmental terms. Therefore, information concerning accessibility is relevant for informed decision making, planning and research. The Loreto region in the Peruvian Amazonia provides an interesting scene for an accessibility study. Loreto is sparsely populated and because there are few roads in the region, in practice all movement and transportation happens along the river network. Due to the proximity of the Andes, river dynamics are strong and annual changes in water level combined with these dynamic processes constantly reshape accessibility patterns of the region. Selling non-timber forest products (NTFP) and agricultural products (AP) in regional centres is an important income source for local rain forest dwellers. Thus, accessibility to the centres is crucial for the livelihood of local population. In this thesis I studied how accessible the regional centre Iquitos is from other parts of Loreto. In addition, I studied the regional NTFP/AP trade patterns and compared them with patterns of accessibility. Based on GPS-measurements, using GIS, I created a time-distance surface covering Loreto. This surface describes the time-distance to Iquitos, along the river network. Based on interview material, I assessed annual changes to accessibility patterns in the region. The most common regional NTFP/AP were classified according to the amount of time they can be preserved, and based on the accessibility surface, I modelled a catchment area for each of these product classes. According to my results, navigation speeds vary considerably in different parts of the river network, depending on river types, vessels, flow direction and season. Navigating downstream is, generally, faster than upstream navigation. Thus, Iquitos is better accessible from areas situated south and south west of the city, like along the rivers Ucayali and Marañon. Differences in accessibility between different seasons are also substantial: during the dry season navigation is slower due to lower water levels and emerging sand bars. Regularly operating boats follow routes only along certain rivers and close to Iquitos transport facilities are more abundant than in more distant areas. Most of the products present in Iquitos market places are agricultural products, and the share of NTFP is significantly smaller. Most of the products were classified in product class 2, and the catchment area for these products is rather small. Many products also belonged to class 5, and the catchment area for these products reaches up to the edges of my study area, following the patterns of the river network. The accessibility model created in this study predicts travel times relatively well, although in some cases the modelled time-distances are substantially shorter than observed time-distances. This is partly caused by the fact that real-life navigation routes are more complicated than the modelled routes. Rain forest dwellers having easier access to Iquitos have more opportunities in terms of the products they decide to market. Thus, they can better take advantage of other factors affecting the market potential of different products. In all, understanding spatial variation in accessibility is important. In the Amazonian context it is difficult to combine the accessibility-related needs of the local dwellers with conservation purposes and the future challenge lies in finding solution that satisfy both of these needs.
  • Markkula, Katja (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2007)
    In this study the aim of active citizenship was examined in the context of geography teaching in Finnish comprehensive school (grades 7–9). As the background of the study were official and unofficial discourses related to active citizenship: the cross-curricular themes in the curriculum, citizenship education programs and literature on youth, citizenship and civil society. For geography, the background included obligations of the comprehensive school curriculum to pay attention to active citizenship in geography teaching and (mainly British) literature in which shared interests were seen between citizenship education/active citizenship and geography. The purpose of this study was to clarify what active citizenship is in 7–9th grades' geography teaching and to find out how geography teachers feel about their tasks of educating young citizens and being social agents. For this study thematic interviews were made and six comprehensive school geography teachers were interviewed. An attempt was made to find as active teachers as possible. A content analysis was used and the aim was to describe the phenomenon. Based on the interviews, in comprehensive school geography teaching physical geography contents are emphasised more than human geography contents. Contents important to active citizenship, such as the environmental planning and development process and the ways to take part in it, and studying home town or local issues, are paid little attention or not included in the teaching at all. Active citizenship in geography teaching is mainly sharing of information, practising thinking skills and forming opinions, and teaching to be environmentally responsible citizen. Teaching approaches which are central from the point of view of active citizenship are also used, but their use varies. The teachers interviewed don't show much ownership of the cross-curricular themes of the curriculum. For the teachers, educating active citizens is not among the most important tasks of the schools either, however some teachers think that they are social agents as teachers. In teachers definitions the aim of citizenship education, the good citizen, is not a very active or political one. The interviews contain different views in relation to young people as citizens and to activity: On the other hand, young people are not interested in social matters and they are not even expected to be. On the other hand, the base for educating active citizens is good, and active citizenship is represented as small issues in local environments and as belief in joint action. Based on the interviews a conclusion was made that, apart from the environmental education stance of some teachers, active citizenship is not fully realised aim in 7–9th grades' georaphy teaching.
  • Toukola, Maija (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2007)
    Many Finnish municipalities need to control their growth. In this research growth is understood as developments of land utilisation and also as a wide range of other changes that have mainly appeared as a result of a long term growth in population. The development growth control contains four areas: 1. adequate productivity of town planning, 2. stationing the growth to needs led and for sustainable developments, 3. quality of the developing environment, and 4. producing growth with communicative and transparent process. The aim of the research is to represent connection between town planning and development growth control. Research defines the role of town planning in the municipalities development growth control. In addition research focuses on links between town planning and development growth control in history, present and in the development work for the future. According to the hypothesis the extensive examination of town planning enables better growth control and promotes appropriate response to municipal changes regarding housing delivery. As an example there are five outskirt municipalities in the Helsinki region. They are called Kirkkonummi, Vihti, Nurmijärvi, Tuusula and Sipoo. The decision was to use examples based on a contingence theory. According to the theory there is no one correct way to operate. Therefore development should be based on individual municipal needs. In the research, municipality s needs were collected by 20 semi- structured interviews from municipal officials. In addition there were group interviews in Uusimaa Regional Council and in Uusimaa Regional Environmental Centre. There was also secondary material collected from official papers and statistics. Operationalisation was the analysis tool between empiric and literature reviews. The role of town planning has evolved during the 20th century from a more simple town plan level to operative stage in town planning hierarchy. Outskirt municipalities town planning was established during the 1960s. Since then one of the most important aims in the town planning has been to produce growth and building possibilities. Currently the challenge is to reach the satisfying rate of productivity and to meet increased housing demand. Other challenges include locating the appropriate geographical areas for growth; and the balance between required developments and planning permission decisions. Findings concluded that town planning should be more viable and it should have better ability to co-operate and operate in the changing operational environment. Municipality s ability to receive growth can increase and growth control can advance by planned and workable town planning. It is essential to take wide perspective of the each municipality's unique needs to improve productivity rather than to focus simply on productivity.
  • Hämäläinen, Anu (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2010)
    This study examines the interaction between inhabitants and urban planning. In addition to traditional methods of participation there can be seen an increasing need to find new channels and means to influence on one's environment. Hearing of inhabitants during planning is hoped to decrease the amount of claims and this way to speed up the planning process. Discussion that emphasizes competitiveness and innovativeness in planning has brought out the role of inhabitants as selective consumers and end users. This extension of civil perspective completes the thought of participation in city planning and adds the pressure on developing the interaction and user orientation. The aim of the study is to point out the present situation of inhabitant's participation and influencing in Helsinki. Helsinki City Planning Department opened a new information and exhibition hall called Laituri in 2008. Laituri provides the latest information about planning projects in Helsinki and temporary exhibitions as well as it operates as communication channel and information point for the department. In this study Laituri is examined as a case study of interaction between citizen and planner. The study is divided into two principal themes. The aim is to research action and interactivity at Laituri from the inhabitants' and planners 'point of view. The qualitative study has inquiries, interview surveys and observation as research methods. Empirical data of the study consists of three parts which complement each other: Laituri operational reseach, inquiry directed to the members of Laituri team and interviews of three experts. The aim is to find answers to questions like, does Laituri reach the citizens and will the opportunities to participate improve along Laituri. The study examines also how the local knowledge of inhabitants will come across to planners and further to planning. The study combines discussions of inhabitants' influencing in Finnish society and science community. Cornerstones of the study are inhabitant participation, interaction and local knowledge in urban planning. The theory behind the study is communicative planning theory. In addition the theory consists of key concepts. The study introduces a concept of Inhabitant's Helsinki, which reflects the inhabitant as customer-citizen who is an active product developer in participative urban planning. According to the research results the experts of Laituri and majority of inhabitants in Helsinki experience that the inhabitant's possibilities to participate will improve along Laituri. However half of the citizens in Helsinki believe that local knowledge and ideas will only have minor impact on the final plan. According to city dwellers the present practise used by Helsinki City Planning Department supports only partially adequate interaction. The experts of Laituri experience that the role of Laituri is first of all forum of communication and discussion channel instead of effective local data collector. Based on the results the study introduces a model of inhabitant's participation field. According to the model Laituri can be seen as phenomenom in Helsinki urban planning which has the elements of network municipality. The planner is more like diplomatic trend-setter and visionary. The inhabitant of Helsinki is an expert in city living and participative producer of local knowledge. Participation methods are increasingly segmented and tailored in every plan and project. The study argues that Inhabitant's Helsinki is a pluralistic milieu in constant pressure for change. Therefore reaching the everyday life experiencies of inhabintants should be at higher degree in Helsinki City Planning Department's operations.
  • Vilkama, Katja (Helsingin yliopistoUniversity of HelsinkiHelsingfors universitet, 2006)
    The aim of the thesis was to study the extent of spatial concentration of immigrant population in Helsinki and to analyse the impact of housing policy on ethnic residential segregation in 1992-2005. For the purpose of the study, immigrant population was defined based on the language spoken at home. The theory of residential segregation by Andersson and Molina formed the main theoretical framework for the study. According to Andersson and Molina ethnic residential segregation results from different dynamic intra-urban migration processes. Institutionally generated migration, i.e. migration patterns generated by various housing and immigrant policies and procedures, is one of the central factors in the development of ethnic segregation. The data of the study consisted of population and housing statistics and housing and immigrant policy documents of Helsinki municipality. Spatial concentration of immigrant population was studied both at district and building levels using GIS-methods and statistical methods. The housing policy of Helsinki municipality was analysed using a method created by Musterd et al. Musterd et al. categorise two types of policy approaches to residential segregation: spatial dispersion policy and compensating policy. The housing policy of Helsinki has a strong focus on social mixing and spatial dispersion of housing stock. Ethnic segregation is regarded as a threat. The importance of ethnic communities and networks is, however, acknowledged and small-scale concentration is therefore not considered harmful. Despite the spatial dispersion policy, the immigrant population is concentrated in the eastern, north-eastern and north-western suburbs of Helsinki. The spatial pattern of concentration was formed already at the beginning of the 1990's when immigration to Finland suddenly peaked. New immigrant groups were housed in the neighbourhoods where public housing was available at the time. Housing policy, namely the location of new residential areas and public housing blocks and the policies of public housing allocation were key factors influencing the residential patterns of immigrant population in the 1990's. The immigration and refugee policies of the state have also had an impact on the development. The concentration of immigrant population has continued in the same areas in the beginning of the 2000's. Dispersion to new areas has mainly taken place within the eastern and north-eastern parts of the city or in the adjacent areas. The migration patterns of native population and the reasonably rapid changes in the housing market have emerged as new factors generating and influencing the ethnic residential segregation in Helsinki in the 2000's. Due to social mixing and spatial dispersion policies, ethnic segregation in Helsinki has so far been fairly small-scale, concentrated in particular housing blocks. The number of residential buildings with a high share of immigrant population is very modest. However, the number of such buildings has doubled between 1996-2002. The concentration of immigrant population concerns mainly the public housing sector. The difference in the level of concentration between the public housing sector and privately owned housing companies is remarkable.
  • Lappalainen, Anu (Helsingin yliopistoUniversity of HelsinkiHelsingfors universitet, 2002)
    Madagascar is one of the megadiversity countries of the world and its highly endemic flora and fauna is under threat from a rapidly growing population. Over the past few years many conservation projects have combined development goals with conservation, thus supporting the conservation goal by attempting to ease human pressure on the protected area. The objective of this study is to investigate the views and opinions of local people with regard to Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. This study examines the changes the park has brought to peoples’ lives, general attitudes towards the environment and conservation as well as opinions about the park management. The main information presented in this study was obtained from 121 interviews completed in six villages. Three of them are situated close to the park and they have received intentional development interventions from the authorities. Another three lie further away and have no official connections with the park. The study will investigate how distance and interventions affect peoples views and opinions. The information obtained represents independent opinions from a random sample of the resident population. All the schools of each village were visited and over 400 pupils responded to a questionnaire about the environment. In addition to this the NGO's, local authorities, health centres, churches and a family planning clinic, were consulted in order to gain a thorough picture of the communities views. People in the villages closest to the park have obtained employment through tourism and research. Other positive effects include assistance with new farming methods, the introduction of alternative livelihoods and environmental education. Villagers further away from the park mentioned the slowing down of environmental degradation as the major achievement of the park. The major negative effect is restrictions on usage of the natural resources people depend on. Adequate alternatives are not available and direct compensation for economic losses has not been offered. This study presents people’s suggestions on improving education, management of the park, livelihoods and environment. More efficient development projects that geographically reach further would help the park to achieve its development goals and through that the conservation objectives. The results of this study emphasise the importance of education, which increases people’s awareness of the environmental processes. This enables them to understand the consequences of human activities and gives them an awareness of the consequences of continuing unsustainable use of resources. Decreasing poverty near protected areas is also essential in order to reduce pressure on the environment. A third important issue is the slowing down of population growth. Successful combination of conservation and development requires constant reassessment and responses to changing situations. The survival of Madagascar’s rain forests is a global concern so responsibility and costs must be borne globally, too.
  • Himberg, Nina (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2006)
    This study aims at identifying the existing and potential resources, as well as recognizing the hinderances, for community-based ecotourism development in the Taita Hills in south-eastern Kenya. The indigenous mountain rain forests on the hills are rich in biodiversity, but severely degraded because of encroachment caused by the dynamics of increased population, socio-politics and economics. The research problems are based on the hypothesis that there is no tourism in the Taita Hills generating income for the local economy and high population density combined with poverty creates a need for alternative employment opportunities as well as for sustainable ways of forest resource management. The data for this study was gathered during two field trips in Kenya, in January-February 2004 and 2005, as a part of the Taita Project within the Department of Geography at the University of Helsinki. The qualitative methods used consist of RRA and PRA techniques, in-depth interviews, a structured questionnaire and literature analysis as well as attendance on excursions and a workshop with conservation experts and officials. Four case areas in the Taita Hills are studied. The study concludes that alternative livelihoods are needed among the Taita Hills' rural population and community-based ecotourism is seen as a way of bringing financial benefits for households as well as reviving the fading cultural traditions and indigenous knowledge about forest use. The governmental policies, district level development plans and some NGOs support ecotourism development. The Forest Act 2005 forms base for local participation in forest management. The unique natural features, the welcoming Taita-culture and the location in the coastal tourism circle favour Taita Hills. However, this kind of development has its risks, such as too rapid change of sorest usage level and the exposure of communities to an ecotourism treadmill process. The costbenefit ration of marketing for hard ecotourists is generally low and the tourism infrastructure needs upgrading in the Taita Hills. More tight collaboration is important between the different level stakeholders working for conservation and development. Community-based ecotourism in Taita Hills, when carefully planned and managed, could be one opportunity for Kenya to diversify its tourism product supply and for forestadjacent communities to gain tangible benefits on a sustainable basis from forests.
  • Ratvio, Rami (Helsingin yliopistoUniversity of HelsinkiHelsingfors universitet, 2005)
    The urban development of Helsinki Region is characterized by both centralization and decentralization. Concern has recently been expressed in political debate regarding the effects of urban decentralization. Current housing policy has lead to a situation where single-family houses – which are also preferred by wealthy taxpayers – are mainly built in the surrounding municipalities. The growth on the periphery of the region is shaping the city toward a more decentralized, multi-nuclei form. Community structure is organized in region composed of functionally differentiated spaces that are no longer extensions of the traditional city. A functionally differentiated city is suggested to be a new form of urban morphology. These polynucleated areas are not dominated by any central city. Traditional core-periphery relations are replaced by periphery-periphery connections. It has been stated that this emergence of new postsuburban areas has also created a new postsuburban way of life. This research studies urban transformation processes at the periphery of the Helsinki Region. Transformation of urban space is studied through the locations where local residents work, go shopping, make social contacts and concentrate on their hobbies. The study areas are newly built single-family house neighbourhoods Sundsberg in Kirkkonummi and Landbo in Sipoo. The chosen areas are similar for their locational factors but different in their characteristics and thus ideal for a comparative study. The main information presented in this study was obtained from interviews completed in study areas. The data is analysed using quantifying qualitative analysis and presented as maps. Residents’ travel paths seem to follow postsuburban lifestyle patterns closely in both areas, which can be related to urban decentralization. According to this study, if postsuburban neighbourhoods described above become more common, citizens’ moving patterns will change accordingly. Policy on controlling urban decentralization will greatly affect the future of Helsinki Region.
  • Oikarinen, Ilkka (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2008)
    According to the recent studies, the negative attitude of the entrepreneurs is on of the main barriers in the development of the car-free zones in the city centers of Finland. Entrepreneurs in the city center are afraid of losing their income due to the limited private car use in the city centers. The negative attitudes of entrepreneurs are the most common in the larger cities of Finland. Especially the small storefronts have regarded the building of car-free zones as a negative feature. This research explored the development of the planning of car-free zones in the Helsinki city center, the goals of the planning and how the planning and developing of car-free zones and pedestrian streets is seen by the storefronts located in the city center. The main research material was collected by a questionnaire from the storefront owners located in the city center of Helsinki. Other research material consisted of two specialist interviews, empirical observations, studies and researches concerning pedestrian areas and car-free zones, research literature concerning urban planning and urban studies and newspaper articles. The collected questionnaire data was analyzed statistically using cross-tabulation. The development of the car-free zones in the Helsinki city center has been long and winding process. Only two streets from the 1 989 car-free zone guideline plan have been changed to pedestrian streets. However, the development and the building of pedestrian streets is proceeding. Two streets in the city center are about to turn to pedestrian streets within the next three years. Pedestrian areas are under continuous improving as well. The focus of the development of car-free zones is at the moment around the Aleksanterinkatu blocks on the east side of the Central Business District of Helsinki. According to the results, the building and developing of pedestrian areas is seen positively by most of the respondents. Respondents see that the pedestrian areas affect the performance of their business positively. A small majority of the respondents considers that private car use in the city centre of Helsinki should be prevented. The storefronts located in pedestrian streets see the development of the pedestrian areas more negatively than storefronts located outside of the pedestrian streets. The reasons behind the negative attitudes are possibly the problems appeared in the pedestrian streets. The results confirm that in order to develop a functional pedestrian street the strategy has to be comprehensive. In the worst case, pedestrian streets outside of the main pedestrian area may even complicate the business performance of the storefronts. In future it would be interesting to examine how the other firms located in the Helsinki city center, e.g. department stores, shopping centers, developers and real estate firms see the planning of pedestrian areas. City dwellers and people living in the city center would be interesting to integrate in to the study as well and compare the results with results from this study.
  • Eskelä, Elina (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2009)
    The aim of this thesis is to examine the skilled migrants' satisfaction with the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. The examination is executed on three scales: housing, neighbourhoods and the city region. Specific focus is on the built environment and how it meets the needs of the migrants. The empirical data is formed of 25 semi-structured interviews with skilled migrants and additionally 5 expert interviews. Skilled and educated workforce is an increasingly important resource in the new economy, and cities are competing globally for talented workers. With aging population and a need to develop its innovational structure, the Helsinki Metropolitan Area needs migrant workforce. It has been stated that quality of place is a central factor for skilled migrants when choosing where to settle, and from this perspective their satisfaction with the region is significant. In housing, the skilled migrants found the price-quality ratio and the general sizes of apartments inadequate. The housing market is difficult for the migrants to approach, since they often do not speak Finnish and there are prejudices towards foreigners. The general quality of housing was rated well. On the neighbourhood level, the skilled migrants had settled in residential areas which are also preferred by the Finnish skilled workers. While the migrants showed suburban orientation in their settlement patterns, they were not concentrated in the suburban areas which host large shares of traditional immigrant groups. Migrants were usually satisfied with their neighbourhoods; however, part of the suburban dwellers were unsatisfied with the services and social life in their neighbourhoods. Considering the level of the city region, the most challenging feature for the skilled migrants was the social life. The migrants felt that the social environment is homogeneous and difficult to approach. The physical environment was generally rated well, the most appreciated features being public transportation, human scale of the Metropolitan Helsinki, cleanliness, and the urban nature. Urban culture and services were seen good for the city region's size, but lacking in international comparison.
  • Jääskeläinen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2010)
    Human smuggling and trafficking in human beings are phenomena that are often represented as global and growing problems. Human smuggling means that a person is taken to a country illegally which means that smuggling does not exist without states. Trafficking in human beings by contrast means the exploitation of persons which makes it a human rights violation. The news coverage about both phenomena, especially about human trafficking, has grown rapidly during the last decade. However, there has not been research on the news coverage about phenomena in Finland and the news coverage on trafficking in human beings is little researched even in European countries. In this thesis I am comparing critically the newspaper content on the phenomena in Finland and in Sweden from the viewpoint of political and moral geography. Besides the contexts of the news, I paid attention to how identities in different scales, including the scale of the body, were represented in the news and how the boundaries between different identities were drawn in the news. As a methodology I used content analysis to classify the context of the news and discourse analysis to analyze how the different scales and boundaries between them were represented. The results address that in Finland especially the human smuggling is considered as a border issue and Finland's location between East and West is emphasized, which points out that Finland's location is a crucial part of the Finnish identity. In addition the linkages between human trafficking and prostitution are often debated in the news from different aspects. In Sweden meanwhile its' political activeness in the fight against trafficking in human beings and international crime especially in the EU level are emphasized. Trafficking in human beings likewise prostitution according to Swedish law is seen as violence against women and the news are strongly against buying of sex as well. The states themselves, the state authorities and the EU are represented as active actors in both countries whereas international crime is represented as a threat and regions outside EU as chaotic. Additionally, illegal immigrants and the victims of trafficking are stigmatised. According to the results, the news coverage of both phenomena are used in constructing a more integrated national and European identity.
  • Arvonen, Timo (Helsingin yliopistoUniversity of HelsinkiHelsingfors universitet, 1998)
    Tämä työ on talousmaantieteellinen tutkimus, joka käsittelee Itävallan ja Slovakian raja-alueen keskuksia Wieniä ja Bratislavaa. Toisen maailmansodan jälkeen Itä- ja Länsi-Euroopan välille muodostui raja, joka jakoi Euroopan poliittisesti kahtia. 1990-luvun alussa raja murtui. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää kuinka yli 40 vuotta kestänyt poliittinen kahtiajako idän ja lännen välillä on vaikuttanut raja-alueen infrastruktuuriin, valtioiden väliseen ulkomaankauppaan, ja kuinka paikalliset asukkaat kokevat nykyisen tilanteen. Ulkomaankaupan rakenteen vertailussa aineistona on Tšekkoslovakian ja EU:n ulkomaankauppatilastoja. Raja-alueen infrastruktuuria tutkitaan vanhojen ja uusien karttojen avulla. Muuta aineistoa ovat tieteelliset tekstit ja tutkimukset sekä paikallisten asukkaiden ja asiantuntijoiden haastattelut. Valtioiden rajalla kohtaavat kaksi erilaista taloutta: Itävallan länsimainen markkinatalous ja Slovakian itäinen siirtymätalous. Talouksien erot aiheuttavat jännitteitä, jotka pyrkivät tasaantumaan niin, että rajan yli virtaa pääomaa toiseen ja työvoimaa vastakkaiseen suuntaan. Bratislava on Slovakian taloudellinen keskus ja painopistealue. Wien on Itävallan taloudellinen keskus, mutta Itävallan taloudellinen painopistealue sijaitsee Länsi-Itävallassa. Rajan pinnassa sijaitsevat alueet ovat syrjäistä maatalousseutua, koska suljettu raja periferisoi aluetta. Rajan madalluttua itäisen Itävallan tilanne kohentuu ja koko Itävallan talousrakenne tasapainottuu. Slovakiassa tilanne kehittyy päinvastaiseen suuntaan. Bratislava imee kaiken kasvun ja vaurauden itselleen ja kasvaa muiden alueiden kustannuksella: Slovakian talous- ja aluerakenne vääristyy entisestään. Valtioiden välisen ulkomaankaupan vertailussa kävi ilmi, että Itävallan tuonti Slovakiasta on monipuolistunut niin, että nyt tuonti ei nojaa enää vain kahteen suureen tuoteryhmään. Raaka-aineiden ja polttoaineiden osuus Slovakiasta Itävaltaan kulkevasta tavarasta on vähentynyt ja koneiden ja kuljetuslaitteiden osuus noussut. Itävallasta Slovakiaan kulkee vähemmän kemikaaleja ja niihin liittyviä tuotteita kuin ennen. Nämä muutokset kertovat siitä, että Slovakian oma tuotanto on kehittynyt eikä maa ole vain raaka-ainevarasto Itävallan kehittyneemmälle tuotannolle. Raja-alueen rakenteessa näkyy selvästi kylmän sodan aikainen eristyneisyys. Rajanylityspaikat ovat vähentyneet ja rautatieverkko kaupunkien välillä on harventunut. Kaupungeista lähtevät moottoritiet suuntautuvat pääasiallisesti rajalta poispäin. Vaikka infrastruktuuriverkko on harventunut raja-alueella, kaupunkien välinen tavara- ja matkustajaliikenne kasvaa koko ajan. Wien ja Bratislava ovat maiden välisen ulkomaankaupan sillanpääasemia, koska ne sijaitsevat aivan rajan tuntumassa ja käytännössä kaikki tavarat rajan yli kulkevat kaupunkien kautta. Koska liikenne lisääntyy, infrastruktuurin erot rajan eri puolilla vaikeuttavat ulkomaankauppaa. Slovakian puolen vähemmän kehittynyt verkko ei pysty tyydyttämään lisääntyvää kuljetuskysyntää. Ohjaamalla varoja infrastruktuurin parantamiseen Slovakian taloudellinen asema voi parantua ja maa voi siirtyä relatiivisesti lähemmäs länttä. Matkustaminen kaupungista toiseen rajan yli on yleistä. Rajan rooli on muuttunut väljemmäksi verrattuna poliittisen kahtiajaon aikaan, mutta Itävallan EU-jäsenyys on kiristänyt rajamuodollisuuksia.
  • Tommila, Paula (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2009)
    Biofuels are under discussion all over the world today. There are fears that the farming of biofuel plants hurts food production and weakens the food security of the poor. On the other hand, biofuel production could lessen the green house gas emissions caused by transportation, and it could also spread the profits from fuel markets more evenly between countries. The aim of this thesis is to find out how an oil plant called jatropha curcas L., which is used for biodiesel production, can affect the sustainability of livelihoods in Vietnam from the point of view of land use. Special attention is given to the effects of jatropha farming on food production, land productivity, natural resources of livelihoods and global livelihood. Jatropha belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae, and it grows naturally in tropical and subtropical areas. It can be grown on poor soils, its seeds have high oil content, and it cannot be eaten due to its toxicity. The plant grows naturally in Vietnam, and during the past few years it has also begun to be farmed for making biodiesel. Population growth in Vietnam has slowed down, but the population's standard of living and energy consumption are still rising quickly. An interest in the international biodiesel markets has awoken following Vietnam's opening up to international trade. Jatropha diesel plays a significant part in Vietnam's clean fuel strategy, and many companies have set up jatropha plantations to produce raw material for biodiesel. Diesel made from jatropha is planned to be used both locally and for export. This thesis uses a theoretical concept of sustainable livelihoods. According to the theory, the resources that people have shape their livelihood possibilities. Farming of jatropha affects the livelihoods of people especially through land use, as land use changes have effects on many of the livelihood resources. In addition to the written sources, the material of the thesis is based on 14 interviews in Vietnam and Finland, and on observation during a field trip to Northern Vietnam in the spring of 2008. The results of the thesis show that jatropha diesel can support the sustainability of livelihoods at different scales if it is produced with deliberation. However, positive results are only possible if decisions are made carefully and more experience is collected. The possibilities of sustainable jatropha farming depend mainly on the previous land use methods and ways of production. Farming of jatropha does not threaten food production in Vietnam if the farming plans are implemented as planned. Jatropha may take some land from cassava, but at the same time, food production can be increased if mixed farming is used on some farms. Plenty of new research information and practical experiences on jatropha farming has to be collected before results of the real sustainability of the farming are ready. Carefully considered continuation and documentation of present and future projects would help to understand the possibilities of jatropha diesel in Vietnam and elsewhere.
  • Tarvainen, Vuokko (2006)
    In recent years urban hydrology and individual urban streams have been in focus and subjects to research also in Helsinki. However, until now there has been lack of research covering simultaneously the whole area of the city of Helsinki. The aim of this study was to find out the general state of water quality in small urban streams in the city of Helsinki. 21 streams were studied: Mätäjoki, Korppaanoja, Mätäpuro, Näsinoja-Tuomarinkylänoja, Tuomarinkartanonpuro, Kumpulanpuro, Tapaninkylänpuro, Tapaninvainionpuro, Puistolanpuro, Longinoja, Säynäslahdenpuro, Viikinoja, Porolahdenpuro, Mustapuro, Marjaniemenpuro, Mellunkylänpuro, Vuosaarenpuro, Rastilanpuro, Ramsinkannaksenpuro, Skatanpuro and Yliskylänpuro. Water samples were collected from 48 sampling points, each stream having at least one point. Four water samples were collected from each point, sampling periods being 9.-11.2., 26.-28.4., 29.6.-1.7. and 25.-27.10.2004. Field measurements associated with water sampling included water temperature, oxygen concentration, pH and electrical conductivity. Water samples were analysed in the Laboratory of Physical Geography in the University of Helsinki and in the Environmental Laboratory of the City of Helsinki Environment Centre for following properties: suspended solids, dissolved substances, alkalinity, principal anions and cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, F-, Cl-, NO3-, PO43- and SO42-), colour, turbidity, biological and chemical oxygen demand (BOD7 and CODMn-values), nutrient concentrations and bacterial indicators of hygienic quality. The main water quality issues found in this study were low oxygen levels in many streams and poor hygienic quality at least occasionally. E.g. in summer oxygen levels were under 60 % in every stream. Amount of total dissolved substances and nutrients were high in some of the streams studied. Compared to other Finnish streams the values of alkalinity and pH were higher. Although these problems were common, the variation between different streams and sampling points was significant. This was probably due to local conditions. Best overall water quality was found in Mätäpuro and Tuomarinkartanonpuro streams. Seasonal variation was evident in almost all water quality properties. For example the total amount of dissolved substances was largest in winter and decreased during the year. Colour and turbidity were smallest in winter and increased towards the end of the year. The same was true for suspended solids, which had smallest concentration in winter and greatest in autumn. It must be kept in mind that the spring samples were collected after the spring flood otherwise the largest suspended solid concentrations would have been expected in spring. Finnish general water quality classification was used to assess the quality of urban stream waters. Its suitability for small urban streams is not, however, completely trouble-free. This classification does not take into account the quick changes in such small streams but evaluates only the yearly mean values. This can oversimplify the picture of the water quality situation in the streams. Also in order to better reflect the urban environment the analysed water quality properties should also include total dissolved substances and e.g. concentrations of chloride and sodium.
  • Lepistö, Tytti Eveliina (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2006)
    In Helsinki's evangelical lutheran congregations, the share of the people being members of that church compared with all the people living in their specific geographical areas varies from 62,4 per cent in Paavali to 80,7 per cent in Munkkiniemi. The boundaries of the congregations are about to be redrawn to level the differences in the congregations. In this thesis, the reasons of the differences in Helsinki s districts were studied closer. The data consisted of statistical information gathered from the Population Information System of Finland. It included information by age groups about the population register keeper, marital status, native tongue, level of education and gender in the end of 2005. Additional data was gathered from Helsinki Region Statistics web service. It included information about the dwelling, level of income and main activities of the inhabitants in the districts. The main method was stepwise linear regression. Minor methods were crosstabulation and correlation matrixes. The result of the study was a statistical model that explains 72,2 per cent of the variation of the shares in the congregations. The dependent variable was the share of the people being members of evangelical lutheran church in the districts. The independent variables were the share of the people having other than Finnish or Swedish as their native tongue, the share of rented apartments, the shares of apartments including four rooms and a kitchen, the share of detached houses in the districts and the shares of women and people with no income in the districts. The independent variables present in the model depict the amount of foreigners, dwellings, gender and the level of income of the population. The high share of foreigners, people with no income and rented apartments explain the low share of the people being members of evangelical lutheran church. On the contrary, the high share of the people being members of evangelical lutheran church in the district is explained by the large apartments, detached houses and amount of women living there.
  • Lilius, Johanna (Helsingin yliopistoUniversity of HelsinkiHelsingfors universitet, 2008)
    Families with children have traditionally moved to suburbs. In the last 20 years a modest counter process has however been recognized. Families with an urban lifestyle stay in the city centres. This study looks at the phenomenon through two cases, Stockholm and Helsinki. In the first case it has already been observed that the city centre has grown in popularity among families with children. Therefore it serves as a basis for the study and as well as a point of comparison. Stockholm's city centre is expanding as new neighbourhoods have been built and are being planned. In the city centre of Helsinki the building of two large neighbourhoods for 30 000 inhabitants will start in a few years. The first aim of the study is to look closer at what has really happened in the city centre of Stockholm, why families choose to live there with their children and how the City of Stockholm has reacted to the change. The main sources of information are secondary sources, statistics and interviews with planners, politicians and experts in the field. The main object is to look at the situation in the city centre of Helsinki. Can a preference for urban residential environments be observed in Helsinki? What are the reasons for a family to choose the city centre as a living place? How does the everyday life of a family in the city centre appear? How are these families taken into account in the planning of the city? The main sources of information here are statistics, interviews with dwellers in the neighbourhood Kruununhaka and interviews with planners. In Stockholm the birth rate has grown constantly during the 2000s and is highest in the city centre. Some of the families still move elsewhere, but many of them do not. One of the most important reasons for living in the city centre is short working distances which give working parents more time with their children. Another reason is a preference of an urban, active lifestyle. Families prefer to live close to everything, childcare, schools, shops and entertainments. The popularity of the city centre among families with children has taken politicians and planners by surprise. Helsinki has not experienced a baby boom like Stockholm. However the negative changes in the birth rate have been more modest in the central areas than in the suburbs. Statistics show, that many families move away from the city centre as the children grow. Families who stay in the city centre especially appreciate closeness to public and private services and good public transportation which means that they are not dependent on using the car. Further they find that the city centre has a tolerant climate and is a safe and beautiful place to live in. The families enjoy the social life of the neighbourhood and feel that it makes a good climate to raise children in. However they are concerned with traffic safety and the lack of stimulus in the playgrounds of the neighbourhood parks. Two large neighbourhoods with homes for about 30 000 inhabitants are now planned in the former Port Districts in the city centre of Helsinki. The other one, Jätkäsaari has been planned to become an attractive alternative for families with children. Traffic safety has been one of the main objects for the planning. The other, Kalasatama, has been planned to attract all groups in society.
  • Vesama, Klaus (Helsingin yliopistoUniversity of HelsinkiHelsingfors universitet, 1999)
  • Keskinen, Antero (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2007)
    Road transport and infrastructure has a fundamental meaning for the developing world. Poor quality and inadequate coverage of roads, lack of maintenance operations and outdated road maps continue to hinder economic and social development in the developing countries. This thesis focuses on studying the present state of road infrastructure and its mapping in the Taita Hills, south-east Kenya. The study is included as a part of the TAITA-project by the Department of Geography, University of Helsinki. The road infrastructure of the study area is studied by remote sensing and GIS based methodology. As the principal dataset, true colour airborne digital camera data from 2004, was used to generate an aerial image mosaic of the study area. Auxiliary data includes SPOT satellite imagery from 2003, field spectrometry data of road surfaces and relevant literature. Road infrastructure characteristics are interpreted from three test sites using pixel-based supervised classification, object-oriented supervised classifications and visual interpretation. Road infrastructure of the test sites is interpreted visually from a SPOT image. Road centrelines are then extracted from the object-oriented classification results with an automatic vectorisation process. The road infrastructure of the entire image mosaic is mapped by applying the most appropriate assessed data and techniques. The spectral characteristics and reflectance of various road surfaces are considered with the acquired field spectra and relevant literature. The results are compared with the experimented road mapping methods. This study concludes that classification and extraction of roads remains a difficult task, and that the accuracy of the results is inadequate regardless of the high spatial resolution of the image mosaic used in this thesis. Visual interpretation, out of all the experimented methods in this thesis is the most straightforward, accurate and valid technique for road mapping. Certain road surfaces have similar spectral characteristics and reflectance values with other land cover and land use. This has a great influence for digital analysis techniques in particular. Road mapping is made even more complicated by rich vegetation and tree canopy, clouds, shadows, low contrast between roads and surroundings and the width of narrow roads in relation to the spatial resolution of the imagery used. The results of this thesis may be applied to road infrastructure mapping in developing countries on a more general context, although with certain limits. In particular, unclassified rural roads require updated road mapping schemas to intensify road transport possibilities and to assist in the development of the developing world.
  • Mäkitie, Tuukka (Helsingin yliopistoHelsingfors universitetUniversity of Helsinki, 2010)
    This master s thesis examines tourism related housing and related discourses in the village of Kilpisjärvi, Finland. I study the tourism development in Kilpisjärvi and the debate related to this process. My methodology is based on discourse and content analysis. The purpose of this study is to examine and classify the discourses of tourism related housing and what are the lessons learned from the recent development of Kilpisjärvi. Kilpisjärvi is the northernmost village in western Finnish Lapland, located in the middle of the highest mountain area of Finland. The area has been reindeer herding area of Saami people for centuries, but it has lacked permanent settlement until the beginning of 20th century. The first tourist accommodation was built in 1930s, followed by the road in 1940s and the hotel in 1950s. Traditionally the area has attracted skiers and hikers. The area is also known for its extraordinary nature and rare plant life. Tourism development was slow in Kilpisjärvi until the turn of millennium when rapid growth in tourism related housing was triggered by extensive land use planning. Small wilderness village of Kilpisjärvi has grown to a tourism centre with over 800 beds in commercial enterprises, more than hundred second-homes, and two large caravan areas. This development has raised conflicts among villagers. The empirical part of this study is based on the interviews of 17 permanent dwellers of Kilpisjärvi and three Norwegian cottage owners. Six discourses can be distinguished: 1) Nature and landscape, 2) Economy, 3) Place, 4)Reindeer herding, 5) Governance and 6) Possibilities to influence decision-making. The first discourse stressed that tourism development and building should adapt to nature and landscape, while economic discourse stressed the economical importance of tourism to Kilpisjärvi and the municipality of Enontekiö. The third discourse noted the change of Kilpisjärvi as a place due to the boom of tourism development. The discourse of reindeer herding was clearly distinguished from others, seeing tourism development merely negative. Governance was seen as an important tool in regulating development, but many saw that the municipal administration has failed to take into account other aspects of tourism development than economical factors. Many villagers saw their influence in decision-making weak, while landowners and municipal decision-makers were seen as oligarchy in land-use planning regardless of formal participatory planning process enforced by law. I conclude that it is important to take into account the diversity of local discourses in tourism development and land use issues. Transparent and genuine participatory planning process would promote sustainable development, prevent conflicts and allow decisions and development which would satisfy larger number of local dwellers than presently.
  • Lindholm, Mikko (Helsingin yliopistoUniversity of HelsinkiHelsingfors universitet, 2001)