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Browsing by master's degree program "Master 's Programme in Pharmacy"

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  • Suominen, Riina (2022)
    COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global crisis and its effects have also been reflected to pharmaceutical supply in Finland. At the beginning of the crisis the effects were especially evident in the consumption of self-medication analgesics, prescription drugs and drugs related to respiratory diseases. In a global crisis, collaboration between the public, private and third sector is becoming increasingly important, and it is important to consider how to develop the capacity for collaboration between organizations in different sectors during a pandemic. The purpose of this study was to find out how the cross-sector collaboration between the public, private and third sector of the pharmaceutical supply in Finland was organized in the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, what was the role of the cross-sector collaboration and how the preparedness and crisis management of the drug supply could be improved. The study was conducted as a semi-structured interview survey and the interviewees were selected to cover the various sectors of Finnish pharmaceutical care as well as possible. The analysis was performed by the Gioia method and thematic design. Based on the study the organization of cross-sector collaboration was both operator- and authority-oriented and the legislation and environment in the drug supply created the framework for the crisis management. Both the authorities and the advocacy organizations can be described as having acted as hubs for organization. There was no clear crisis organization in drug supply, but different actors were involved in the crisis management at different stages of the crisis. The role of collaboration was emphasized in the sharing of information and resources and in joint solution of problems. The collaboration enabled foresight and preparedness, a focus on core tasks and crisis management, and mutual benefit. Lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic include the need to increase and intensify collaboration, increase crisis plans and crisis training, update the system of security of supply and mandatory reserve supplies, increase self-sufficiency, and increase overall governance. Cross-sectoral collaboration was seen as useful in crisis management of the crisis in the drug supply chain. The collaboration promotes the formation of a common picture of the situation and the flow of information from the field to decision-makers. Comparing the results of this study with the literature it can be said that the results partially support the previous literature. However, crisis management of the pharmaceutical supply chain from the organization of cross-sectoral collaboration point of view has not been studied in the past.
  • Repo, Amanda (2022)
    The use of different methods of extended reality (xR) as a support in teaching has been under research for a long time. Although the use of various xR-technologies in other fields of healthcare, such as medical and nursing education, is already common, their use in pharmacy education is not yet well established. There is evidence that xR-technology has a positive impact for example on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. On the other hand, there are limiting factors that inhibit the technology becoming widespread, such as costs as well as a lack of knowledge about the technology usability. The aim of the study was to investigate usability and advantages of the augmented reality (AR) in a laboratory course as an educational supportive tool by using AR-glasses. The aim was also to investigate the learning outcomes of the students who participated in the study in three different phases: before carrying out the laboratory work (pre), immediately after the laboratory work (post) and in the course exam (delayed). Furthermore, the motivation of the students to use new technology in their studies was studied. The research was done in a collaboration with the Centre for University Teaching and Learning (HYPE) and with Sciar Company Oy. The researchers of HYPE were responsible for the pedagogical point of view, whilst the experts from the Faculty of Pharmacy were responsible for the study measurements of laboratory work related content knowledge. The research was implemented in two laboratory courses in Bachelor of Science level pharmacy studies: Medicinal product II and Pharmaceutical biology and asepsis in the fall of 2020. The students (n=18) prepared eye drops by using AR-glasses in the Medicinal product II -course and reference group (n=14) without AR-glasses. In the course of Pharmaceutical biology and asepsis, students (n=7) used AR-glasses to study the microbiological purity of the eye drops by utilizing membrane filtration method in cleanroom and reference group (n=9) without AR-glasses. ln addition, a serial dilution method was performed on a 96-well plate using an AR mobile application. The effect on learning outcomes was evaluated by using six open-ended questions measuring the understanding of content knowledge underlying the laboratory work, that were answered by the students at three different stages of the study (pre, post, delayed). To measure the usability of the AR equipment, a five-point Likert scale questionnaire studied the experimental groups students’ opinions on whether the AR mobile application could provide sufficient guidance and feedback while performing the laboratory work. In an open question, the students had the possibility to comment on the overall user experience of the AR mobile application. There were no statistically significant differences in learning outcomes between the AR-group and the reference group in both laboratory courses. The results showed indicative differences in short-term and long-term learning, with the AR-group achieving better learning outcomes in the short-term and the reference group in the long-term. In the course of Pharmaceutical biology and asepsis, the learning outcomes were the opposite. Students’ were found to be receptivity to the new technology that together with motivation supports positively the learning process. The use of AR-hardware increased certainty and reduced nervousness about the use of AR technology. As a conclusion, the study could not demonstrate the benefit of AR-technology in student learning outcomes. The study was limited by the small sample size. However, further studies are encouraged due to students’ positive attitudes and motivation towards AR technology. Regarding further studies, it is important to take into consideration the different backgrounds and learning methods of students. Thereby, the effects of xR-technologies on learning outcomes can be assessed as objectively as possible.
  • Hietanen, Jannemarkus (2022)
    The price competition of biological medicines induced by biosimilars has started slower than expected in Europe. One of the main reasons has been the differences in physicians’ attitudes toward biosimilars. Switching biological medicines to clinically comparable alternatives is an important way to enhance the cost-effectiveness of using biological medicines. The focus of the conversation has shifted from the general similarity of biosimilars and the originators to whether frequent switching involves additional risks. The purpose of this master’s thesis was to investigate factors influencing physicians’ prescribing of biological medicines. In addition, their perceptions of the automatic substitution of biological medicines in Finland were explored. The study was based on structured personal interviews of rheumatologists and gastroenterologists including specialising physicians who work at HUS Helsinki University Hospital in the Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (n=48). They had a chance to comment on their responses at any time freely. The interview consisted of four sections: demographics, general attitudes toward biosimilars, factors affecting prescribing biological medicines, and perceptions of the automatic substitution of biological medicines. Study participants had a chance to comment on their structured responses during the interview. The interviews were recorded for further analysis of the comments. The results are based on a descriptive quantitative analysis and an inductive analysis of the comments. The interviewed physicians’ (n=27, response rate 56,3%) attitudes toward biosimilars were highly positive. Most of the physicians (21/27, 78%) also strive to motivate patients to switch biological medicines to clinically comparable but lower-cost options despite the challenges associated with switching, for example the differences in the administration devices. Of the previously determined factors, the ones affecting prescribing biological medicines the most were the willingness to support the price competition between the biological medicines, reimbursement status, and the hospital’s drug formulary when initiating the biological treatment in the hospital. The attitudes toward the automatic substitution of the biological medicines were positive among 13/27 (48 %) physicians. Our study results are in line with the results of earlier studies, but the open responses especially to the automatic substitution of biological medicines might indicate more positive perceptions on the subject among physicians in Finland.
  • Kuosmanen, Hanna (2022)
    More and more drugs for the treatment of lung cancer are entering the market with limited research evidence and high cost. However, health care resources are limited. To provide rationale and sustainable treatment for all patients, the need for health technology assessments has increased. International value frameworks with varying uses, structures, and components have also been developed to help assess the value of drug therapies. The purpose of the study is to illustrate how physicians, authorities, and pharmaceutical industry experts define the value and the effectiveness of drug therapy. The study also aims to chart the attitudes of health care professionals towards international value assessment frameworks and to describe the current challenges in health technology assessments focusing on lung cancer therapy. In addition, the purpose of the study is to evaluate the importance of therapeutic and economic evaluation of lung cancer therapies. The research material includes interviews with physicians (n=2), authorities (n=3), and pharmaceutical industry experts (n=5). The interviews were conducted as an individual (n=8) and pair interviews (n=1). The interview method used was a semi-structured thematic interview. The interviews were analyzed by using inductive and abductive content analysis and theming. The theoretical framework in the study was related to the challenges of assessing the therapeutic and economic value of pharmacotherapies. According to the study, the value and effectiveness of drug therapy are determined in a varied and perspective-dependent manner. The value of drug therapy can be divided into three dimensions, which were therapeutic, social, and economic impact. Treatment’s effectiveness was primarily determined by the health benefits gained and by the effects the therapy has on patients, society and care pathways. Based on the data, the current challenges of the therapeutic and economic evaluation of pharmacotherapies are related to the implementation methods and criteria of evaluation and decision-making, resources, cooperation needs, scientific evidence, ethics, the structure of the health care system and legislation. Based on the results, physicians, authorities, and pharmaceutical industry experts have different opinions of the need for cooperation. The interviewees also evaluated differently the status of the current development activities and the importance of international evaluations. There were also differences in the opinions on how important the therapeutic and economic evaluation of lung cancer therapies was considered. If the importance was considered low, the importance of the evaluations was expected to increase only after the refinement of treatment recommendations and guidelines. According to the data, the international value frameworks are not actively used in Finland and their significance will be considered insignificant in the future as well. The usefulness of the value frameworks was primarily limited due to structural factors, the assessment of reliability and the current evaluation system in Finland. The benefits of the value frameworks were primarily related to the coherence of the evaluation process, easing the evaluation process and improving patient equality.
  • Saavalainen, Anu (2022)
    Medication related risks have been identified as one of the main threats to patient safety, both internationally and nationally. In Finland, implementation of pharmacotherapy in health services system is guided by the Safe pharmacotherapy -guideline. The guideline instructs work units to implement a pharmacotherapy plan, which is a statu-tory quality management document to describe the unit’s pharmacotherapy process and related responsibilities and obligations. However, there is currently limited research data available on pharmacotherapy plans and their impact on medication safety. The aim of this study was to explore the use of pharmacotherapy plans as a tool for promoting medication safety in the Finnish health services system with an emphasis on systems-based risk management. The research was con-ducted as an electronic survey in November-December 2021. The target group of the survey was health care professionals licensed as nurses and pharmacists who are working in wards or clinics or otherwise participate in drawing up or updating of pharmacotherapy plans. The study analyzed 901 responses. Most respondents (90 %) worked as licensed nurses and 10 % as pharmacists. The majority of the respondents’ units (91,5 %, n=824) had a pharmacotherapy plan. Medication safety practices were comprehensively described in pharmacotherapy plans and no significant differences observed between work environments. The multi-professional development processes of pharmacotherapy plans were not complete, only 11,6 % of the units the writing was done in multi-professional collaboration. Medication safety practices were best implemented in university hospitals (m. 3,87, sd. 0,57), with the difference being statistically significant for primary healthcare wards (m. 3,51, sd. 0,63, p<0,001) and social care housing services units (m. 3,63, sd, 0,68, p=0,018). The comprehensiveness of the content in pharmacotherapy plans and the implementation of medication safety practices were correlated (r=0,60, p<0,001). Pharmacotherapy plan is an important tool for systems-based medication safety promotion in the Finnish health services system. There is need for improvement in the multi-professional collaboration when developing the plans and in training the healthcare staff of practices described in the unit’s pharmacotherapy plans. In the future, special emphasis should be placed on the medication safety and development of primary healthcare wards and social care units.
  • Monni, Reetta (2022)
    Safety of pharmacotherapies is an essential part of patient safety that promotes and supports rational use of medicines. Safety of pharmacotherapies can be divided into two areas; Drug safety and medication safety. Drug safety refers to the safety of a medicine as a product, such as the pharmacological properties and the quality of the manufacturing process. Medication safety ensures the safety of a drug therapy process preventing patients from harm during the course of using medicines. Significant inconsistencies have been identified in the terminology related to drug and medication safety. Challenges to terminology are posed by varying synonyms, ambiguity or overlap of concepts, and misclassification of events in the scientific literature. The primary objective of this study was to scope recent peer-reviewed literature related to the drug safety and medication safety terminology from the period pf 2010-2022. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between the concepts as presented in the literature, including overlaps and differences between the terms. The study was conducted as a scoping review by using Scopus and Ovid Medline databases. The literature search covered studies from January 2010 to January 2022. The search was conducted by using the following phrases; "("medication safety" OR "drug safety" OR pharmacovigilance) W/5 (definition* OR terminology*)" in Scopus and "("medication safety" OR "drug safety" OR pharmacovigilance) ADJ/6 (definition* OR terminology*)" in Ovid Medline. The references of the included articles were reviewed for any additional material. The relevant material was selected by two researchers. A total of 71 articles were identified from the databases, of which two articles met the predefined inclusion criteria. In addition, one article was included in the study from outside the actual search. Two of the included articles were based on drug safety terminology whereas one article was based on medication safety terminology. The results revealed that there is still a considerable heterogeneity of the terms in the literature. The literature shows several terms and definitions for the same phenomenon and no noticeable consistency in the terms. It would be important to define what a uniform and systematically used terminology would require and to establish a commonly accepted guidelines for its use.
  • Yliniemelä-Sipari, Sanna (2022)
    Tämän tutkimuksen päätavoitteena oli selvittää Bayer Oy:n Turun tuotantolaitoksella käytettävän CAPA-prosessin kehittämiskohteita. Tutkimuksessa pyrittiin erityisesti selvittämään, kuinka korjaavien ja ehkäisevien toimenpiteiden eli CAPA-toimenpiteiden toteuttamista voidaan tehostaa ja mitkä tekijät vaikeuttavat aikataulussa pysymistä. Lisäksi tavoitteena oli etsiä syitä myös sille, miksi juurisyyanalyysi ja todellisten juurisyiden löytäminen koetaan haastavaksi. Tutkimusmenetelmänä käytettiin puolistrukturoitua teemahaastattelua, johon valittiin tavoitteellisella otannalla 10 tuotantolaitoksella työskentelevää asiantuntijaa. Haastattelut toteutettiin videohaastatteluina etäyhteyden kautta. Aineiston laadullinen analyysi tehtiin deduktiivisesti ATLAS.ti -ohjelmaa apuna käyttäen. Tutkimuksen tulosten perusteella CAPA-prosessin kehittämiskohteet voidaan jakaa neljään pääkategoriaan: suunnittelu ja resurssit, järjestelmä, koulutus sekä yhteistyö ja merkitys. Keskeiseksi kehittämiskohteeksi nostettiin selvitys- ja toteuttamisvaiheiden suunnittelu, niiden toteutumisen seuranta sekä riittävien resurssien (aika, henkilöstö) varmistaminen. Lisäksi sähköistä Dev@com-dokumentointijärjestelmää tulisi kehittää niin, että se tukee CAPA-prosessin eri vaiheita ja on helppokäyttöinen sekä yhteinen kaikille CAPA-tapauksille. Juurisyyanalyysissä hyödynnettävien menetelmien ja työkalujen käyttöön toivottaisiin lisäkoulutusta, jonka lisäksi CAPA-prosessin tavoitteita tulisi selventää. Myös yhteistyön lisääminen yli osastorajojen ja vastuun jakaminen useammalle henkilölle koettiin tärkeiksi keinoiksi kehittää CAPA-prosessia ja lisätä sen merkitystä eri työtasoilla ja koko tuotantolaitoksella. Tutkimuksen tulokset ovat linjassa kirjallisuudessa esitettyjen havaintojen ja mielipiteiden kanssa ja siten mahdollisesti yleistettävissä muihin lääkeyrityksiin tai lääkinnällisiä laitteita valmistaviin yrityksiin. Yleistettävyyttä voitaisiin parantaa vielä laajentamalla tutkimusta muihin lääkeyrityksiin. Tämä tutkimus on yksi ensimmäisistä julkaistuista laadullisista tutkimuksista, jossa saatiin hyödyllistä tietoa siitä, mikä auttaa lääkeyrityksiä tehostamaan CAPA-prosessia ja tukemaan toiminnan jatkuvaa parantamista.
  • Westerholm, Aleksi (2021)
    Poor adherence to and non-compliant use of medications are common in long-term patients, and it is estimated that only half of medication use worldwide is appropriate. Poor adherence to medication undermines public health, reduces the cost-benefit of resources invested in medication care, and burdens health care. Various interventions have sought to improve adherence to drug treatment, but they have not brought about the desired change in medication adherence. The aim of this master's thesis was to develop a method and pilot it to investigate the reasons for the non-compliant use of medications in the context of the medication reconciliation process. The aim of this new method was to find out the reason for non-compliant use of a medicine in a patient-centered way, and the possibility for the pharmacist to motivate the patient to use the medicine according to the instructions. In addition, it was examined whether the method can measure prevalence of non-compliant use of medicines differs according to the ATC classification of medicines and whether the total number of medicines contributes to the non-compliant use of medicines. The pilot study was carried out as part of a standard pharmacist's medication reconciliation process at Vantaa primary health care. The data required for the study were collected on the electronic HUSeCRF platform. Patients were collected to the extent that we were able to verify the functionality of the method and to plan the reporting of the results of the actual study with larger research data. The data were collected during the year of 2021. The theoretical framework of the study was the Medication-Related Burden model and the iceberg model of non-compliant use of medicines. The research material was analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis in IBM SPSS 27. The analysis of the data was done in terms of the functionality and development of the new method. A total of 8 patients participated in the pilot study (women 63% n = 5). Patients had an average of 16 medications per patient (range 8-22), and the last time their medications were reconciliated was on average 1 year ago. Non-compliant use of medicines was observed in 88% of patients (n = 7). In total, there were non-compliant use of medicines in the data for 21 drugs. The most common medicines which were used non-compliant were for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The total number of medicines and the number of non-compliant use correlated with each other (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.472), but the result was not statistically significant (p = 0.238). The most common reason for non-compliant use was a drug-induced side effect. After a motivational discussion which was involved in the medication reconciliation process with pharmacists, in 14 % of non-compliantly used medicines, patients decided to start taking the medication as directed. The pharmacist was able to motivate the patient to use the medicine as directed when the reason for non-compliant use of medicine was unclear instructions. In this study, a method was developed and validated to determine the reasons for non-compliant use of medicines. During medication reconciliation process, the pharmacist was able to find out the reasons for non-compliant use of medicines. Pharmacists may motivate the patient to use the drug as directed, however, most patients did not want to change the use of the medicine as directed. As the total number of medications increase, the probability of non-compliant use of medicines may increase.
  • Tapanila, Tiina (2022)
    Lääkkeiden saatavuushäiriöt ovat yleistyneet Suomessa ja muualla maailmassa aiheuttaen lisätyötä ja -kustannuksia lääkealan toimijoille. Saatavuushäiriöt voivat aiheuttaa katkoksia lääkehoitoon tai saatetaan joutua turvautumaan muihin hoitovaihtoehtoihin, mikä voi johtaa potilasturvallisuuden vaarantumiseen. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli antaa yleiskuva saatavuushäiriöistä ja saatavuushäiriövalmisteiden ominaispiirteistä Suomessa keväällä 2020. Tutkittaviin ominaispiirteisiin kuuluivat mm. lääkkeen terapiaryhmä, myyntiluvan haltija, häiriön kesto, valmisteen hintaluokka, kuuluminen velvoitevarastoitavien valmisteiden tai Maailman terveysjärjestö WHO:n välttämättömien lääkkeiden luetteloon ja myyntiluvan myöntövuoteen perustuva lääkkeen elinkaarivaihe. Saatavuushäiriövalmisteiden (n=879) tiedot kerättiin myyntiluvan haltijoiden Lääkealan turvallisuus- ja kehittämiskeskus Fimealle kahden kuukauden aikana (14.2.–15.4.2020) toimittamista tai voimassa olevista saatavuushäiriöilmoituksista. Aineistoa täydennettiin hinta- ja korvattavuustiedoilla Kansaneläkelaitoksen lääketietokannasta sekä tiedoilla muista markkinoilla olevista pakkauskoista, vahvuuksista ja vaihtokelpoisista lääkevalmisteista. Aineistosta tehtiin kuvaileva tilastollinen analyysi käyttäen perustunnuslukuja ja -jakaumia. Analyysissä keskityttiin pääasiassa avohoidossa käytettäviin reseptivalmisteisiin (n=654). Ihmislääkkeiden saatavuushäiriöt (n=829) koskivat etenkin sairausvakuutuksesta korvattavia reseptivalmisteita (65 % kaikista saatavuushäiriöistä), ja ne keskittyivät suurten potilasryhmien käyttämiin lääkkeisiin, kuten sydän- ja verisuonisairauksien lääkkeisiin (31 %) ja hermostoon vaikuttaviin lääkeaineisiin (28 %). Avohoidon reseptivalmisteiden häiriöistä yli puolet (53 %) kohdistui rinnakkaisvalmisteisiin. Häiriövalmisteet kuuluivat elinkaarivaiheeltaan vanhempiin ja hintaluokaltaan edullisempiin valmisteisiin. Viidennes valmisteista (19 %) kuului velvoitevarastoitavien tai WHO:n välttämättömien lääkkeiden luetteloon. Rinnakkaisvalmiste löytyi 73 prosentille häiriövalmisteista. Vain kolme prosenttia myyntiluvan haltijoista oli tehnyt ilmoituksen saatavuushäiriöstä Fimealle vaadittua kahta kuukautta ennen myynnin keskeytymistä saatavuushäiriön vuoksi. Tulosten perusteella saatavuushäiriöt Suomessa koskevat samankaltaisia lääkevalmisteita kuin muuallakin maailmassa. Tämän osoitti myös tutkielman kirjallisuusosassa toteutettu kansainvälistä empiiristä saatavuushäiriötutkimusta koskenut systemaattinen kirjallisuushaku. Valtaosaan saatavuushäiriöistä on mahdollista reagoida apteekissa toimittamalla rinnakkaisvalmiste, kun taas osa vaatii yhteydenottoa lääkkeen määränneeseen lääkäriin. Saatavuushäiriötiedon linkittämistä sähköiseen reseptijärjestelmään ja lääkevaihdon laajentamista farmasian ammattilaisille voisi harkita toiminnan kehittämiseksi saatavuushäiriötilanteissa. Covid-19-pandemia on lisännyt kansainvälisiä toimia häiriötilanteiden hoitamiseksi. Tätä varten kehitetään yhteisiä toimintatapoja muun muassa Euroopan unionissa, jossa tavoitteena on luoda kaikki jäsenmaat kattava saatavuushäiriöportaali.
  • Sinnemaa, Olivia (2022)
    The package leaflet (PL) is a technical document sheet included in medicine packages to provide guidance on safety and rational use of medicines for the user. The EU is increasingly encouraging the adoption of digital product information, which in time should be seen as the basic medicine information. The outdated package leaflet has for a long time been criticized by both patients and pharmaceutical operators. As a result, it is important to map the perspectives of various pharmaceutical operators on the electronic package leaflet. The aim of the study was to gain broader knowledge and deeper understanding of what opportunities and challenges the electronic package leaflet entails from the perspective of different pharmaceutical operators, and whether there are differences between opinions of the pharmaceutical operators. The study also sought to find out how the electronic package leaflet compared with the printed current leaflet from an environmental perspective. The study was conducted as a questionnaire e-survey, whose target groups were companies in the pharmaceutical industry, The Finnish Medical Agency (Fimea) and hospital pharmacies / departmental pharmacists. The material was collected over a three-week period in April 2022. The data was analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Based on the results of the study, it emerged that 55 experts, broadly across the pharmaceutical field, took part in the study. According to the pharmaceutical operators, the main opportunities of the electronic package leaflet were its ease of use and environmental friendliness. Patient safety, which is always a focal point when discussing medicines, would also increase as the users would have access to the most up-to-date medicine information (75 %, n = 41). In addition, the QR code on the medicine packages could be utilized when introducing ePL. The challenges, however, mainly concerned the user's lack of internet connectivity and incompetence in the use of e-services. Although pharmaceutical operators are of different opinion on the electronic package leaflet, it is highlighted that the majority of respondents (69 %, n = 38) believe that ePL would be an improvement and a more environmentally friendly alternative than the current printed leaflet. The study shown that there are differences in the perspectives on ePL between different pharmaceutical operators. The varying opinions on the electronic package leaflet depends on the respondent's position in the pharmaceutical sector. Despite the disagreement, the majority believe that ePL would be a positive development and a prerequisite for achieving the challenges of the future.
  • Aromaa, Virve (2022)
    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is an insult to the brain caused by an external force. Typically contact sport players and military soldiers are prone to mTBI. TBI events trigger pathological processes in the brain and may cause long-term and progressive damages. Increased formation and accumulation of misfolded toxic protein aggregates in the brain leading to neuronal death has been observed after mTBI. In particular, repetitive mTBIs are a risk factor for the development of many neurodegenerative diseases, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. As there is no curative treatment to neurodegenerative diseases, research regarding neurodegenerative processes is highly important. Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) negatively regulates functions of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). It has been shown that PP2A activity is decreased in the brain of those with neurodegenerative diseases and TBI patients, which is thought to be a contributing factor to the development of pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases. The primary objective of this study was to study behavioural changes after repeated mild TBI in PREP knockout mice. The aim was to model mild repeated brain injuries that are common, for instance, in contact sports and that are not accompanied by skull fractures or brain swelling. The intension was to clarify the involvement of the PREP enzyme in behavioural changes induced by repeated mTBI’s and to elucidate long-term pathological changes in the brain. The injury was induced as a closed-head injury with an electromagnetic impactor with one hit every 24 hours and altogether 5 times. A locomotor activity test was performed before the induction of brain injury and was repeated 3 times after mTBI induction. Barnes maze test was used to assess memory and learning functions. In this thesis the brain samples from a previous study were included to also determine the accumulation of total tau protein in wild-type mice. The wild- type mice were administered with either the PREP inhibitor KYP-2047 or HUP-46 10 mg/kg (i.p.) immediately after each hit. After euthanasia, the Western blot assay and immunostaining were performed to study the amount of phosphorylated tau, neuroinflammation, activity of PP2A and autophagy. No differences were found between the sham group and TBI group on the locomotor activity and Barnes maze tests in PREP knockout mice. There was no consistency in total tau protein in wild-type mice treated with PREP inhibitors. In PREP knockout mice there was an upward trend in PP2A levels after mTBI. Repeated mTBI increased markers of phosphorylated tau and neuroinflammation significantly. No significant difference was observed in autophagic function. The results of this thesis are indicative. Due to the low number of animals, the results need to be confirmed in subsequent studies with greater amounts of animals. Based on the results, it seems that absence of the PREP enzyme protects from memory impairments after repeated mTBI. Increased tau protein phosphorylation and neuroinflammation were observed in the TBI group which indicate that PREP alone is not responsible for the development of pathological changes.
  • Karumo, Suvi (2022)
    Liposomes are biocompatible spherical nanosized vesicles consisting of hydrophobic phospholipid bilayer encasing an aqueous core. They can be utilized as drug carriers by either encapsulating molecules inside the core or embedding them in the bilayer accordingly to achieve numerous advantages such as prevention of rapid clearance and reduction of adverse effects as systemic exposure is reduced. Despite the marked efforts in designing the liposomes to improve therapeutic outcomes, only limited drug concentrations are achieved at the target sites such as in solid tumors. Stimuli-responsive liposomes could be applied as potential delivery systems to achieve spatiotemporally controlled drug delivery, i.e., the drug release could be pinpointed and restrained to the target site. In this thesis, the objective was to study the light-activated indocyanine green (ICG) liposomes as nanocarriers for peptide-based anti-tumor agents. The physicochemical characteristics, stability and functionality of the prepared liposomes were determined alongside optimizing the formulation as needed and utilizing different model peptides as encapsulated compounds. Additionally, the peptide stability during near-infrared (NIR) light illumination and the effects of the anti-angiogenic model peptides in vitro were investigated. The stability of the liposomes was assessed by monitoring the size of the liposomes, intactness of ICG, and passive leakage of the peptides over time, and by determining the phase transition temperatures of the different formulations. The liposomes remained adequately stable in different relevant conditions, and the observed phase transition temperatures did not indicate the lipid bilayer becoming permeable in physiological temperatures. However, the rate of passive leakage was rather high in all formulations, although with stiffer lipid bilayer in the “rigid” formulation, the unintended release was able to be decreased slightly in comparison to the other formulations. On the other hand, light-triggered release upon illuminating the liposomes remained considerably low in all formulations. The intactness of peptides seemed to not be impacted by the illumination. Also, no cytotoxic effects were observed after exposing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to the peptides. The final “rigid” formulation showed the best functionality out of those included in the studies. It remains to be investigated whether the formulation could be improved further for optimal functionality and stability, and to what degree do the properties of the cargo molecule affect the performance of the liposomes.
  • Qvist, Teo (2022)
    Ahmintahäiriö on epätyypillinen syömishäiriö, johon liittyy toistuvia ahmintakohtauksia, joiden aikana syödään hallitsemattomasti suuria määriä ruokaa, vaikka olo olisi jo epämiellyttävän täysi. Mantelitumake on ohimolohkon pohjukassa sijaitseva pelon ja tunteiden, mutta myös ruokahalun ei-homeostaattisen säätelyn, kannalta tärkeä rakenne. Mantelitumakkeen sentraalisen tumakkeen lateraalisen osan (CeL) solut säätelevät muun muassa ruoan palkitsevuutta ja tyydyttyneisyyden tunteen muodostumista ruokailun aikana. Suurin osa CeL:n kolinergisista hermoyhteyksistä on aivorungon pedunculopontisesta tegmentaalisesta tumakkeesta (PPT) projisoituvia hermoratoja. PPT:een kolinergisten hermopäätteiden in vivo optisen aktivaation on aikaisemmissa tutkimuksissa havaittu säätelevän opittua välttämiskäyttäytymistä, mutta optisen aktivaation vaikutusta ruoankulutukseen koe-eläimillä ei ole vielä tutkittu. Tämän pro gradu -tutkielman kokeellisen osan tavoite oli tutkia PPT:sta CeL:aan projisoituvan kolinergisen hermoradan in vivo optisen aktivaation vaikutusta ruoankulutukseen C57BL/6N -hiirillä. Optisen aktivaation vaikutusta tutkittiin sekä homeostaattiseen että ei-homeostaattiseen ruoankulutukseen. Ei-homeostaattisen ruoankulutuksen tutkimiseksi hiirille indusoitiin ahminnan kaltaista syömiskäyttäytymistä tarjoamalla hiirille rasvapitoista ruokaa viikoittain 24 tunnin jaksoissa. Tämän lisäksi tutkittiin ovatko optisen aktivaation vaikutukset kumottavissa asetyylikoliinireseptorien antagonistien mekamyyliamiinin tai skopolamiinin intraperitoneaalisella annostelulla. In vivo optisella aktivaatiolla ei havaittu olevan tilastollisesti merkitsevää vaikutusta ruoankulutukseen C57BL/6N -hiirillä. Tästä johtuen myöskään asetyylikoliinin antagonistien annostelun vaikutusta optisen aktivaation vaikutuksiin ei voitu arvioida. Tulokset viittaavat siihen, että PPT:een ja CeL:n välinen kolinerginen hermorata säätelee koe-eläimillä opittua välttämiskäyttäytymistä, mutta ei ruokahalua. Näin ollen on myös epätodennäköistä, että optisen aktivaation vaikutukset edellyttävät CeL:n proteiinikinaasi C deltaa ilmentäviä soluja. PPT:een kolinergisten hermosolujen vaikutus CeL:n toimintaa hermosolutasolla tulee kuitenkin varmistaa tarkemmissa jatkotutkimuksissa. Vaikka tutkimuksessa ei havaittu tilastollisesti merkitsevää vaikutusta, havaintoihin on kuitenkin suhtauduttava varauksella, sillä tutkimuksen toteuttamiseen liittyneet haasteet voivat rajoittaa havaittujen tuloksien luotettavuutta.
  • Kauppinen, Elisa (2021)
    Polypharmacy in older adults is common and there are many things to be corrected in their medication. Medication reviews can be used to identify and address these problems using interprofessional collaboration. Renal insufficiency is common in older adults and its consideration contributes to medication safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of renal insufficiency in Lohja home care clients over the age of 65, for whom medication review or comprehensive medication review had been done. The purpose was to investigate from medication review reports how many observations pharmacists made about the drugs that should be avoided or dose reduced. In addition, it was investigated whether the medications of the subjects could be changed during the intervention and whether the plasma creatinine values correlated with the GFR values. The material consisted of the medication review reports of 60 home care clients in the intervention study launched in Lohja year 2015. Medication reviews were done in 2016–2017. Half (n = 30/60) of the subjects had at least one drug for which pharmacist proposed a medication change due to a reduced GFR. Proposals for changes (n=60) were presented 1–7 per subject. The majority of the proposed changes, (52 %, n= 31/60), concerned dose reduction, and 22 % (n=13/60) discontinuation. Other proposals totaled 26 % (n= 16/60). 42 % (n=13/31) of the dose reduction proposals were implemented. Almost all of the drug discontinuation 92% (n=12/13) proposals were implemented. In total, 47 % (n = 28/60) of the proposals were implemented. Nervous system drugs formed the largest group (30 %, n = 18) for which a change was proposed. The second highest number of proposals was for drugs for cardiovascular system (27 %, n=16) and the alimentary tract and metabolism (27 %, n=16). Based on GFR, 93 % (n = 56) of subjects had declined renal function (GFR <90 ml/min). Mild kidney damage (GFR=89–60 ml/min) was the most common; 73 % of men (n=11) and 47 % of women (n=21). In 65 % (n=39) of subjects, plasma creatinine was within or below reference range. Plasma creatinine was above reference value in 25 % (n=15) of subjects. The study confirms that plasma creatinine is not suitable measure of renal insufficiency in the elderly.
  • Lahti, Aapeli (2022)
    Lääkeaineiden niukkaliukoisuus on yhä enemmän esiintyvä ongelma lääketeollisuudessa. Erityisesti BCS ryhmän II lääkeaineet ovat potentiaalisia liukoisuusominaisuuksia parantaville menetelmille. Tässä työssä näistä menetelmistä keskitytään nanokiteen, ko-kiteen ja ko-amorfisen systeemin muodostukseen ja lääkeaineena käytetään inodmetasiinia (BCS ryhmä II). Kyseisillä menetelmillä on onnistuttu parantamaan indometasiinin liukoisuusominaisuuksia, mutta vertailevia tutkimuksia ei ole aiemmin tehty. Nanokide valmistettiin märkäjauhamalla käyttäen poloksameeri 188 -stabilisaattoria. Ko-kiteen valmistuksessa käytettiin liuottimen haihdutus -menetelmää ja ko-muodostajana sakariinia. Ko-amorfisten systeemien ko-muodostajina käytettiin l-tryptofaania ja sitruunahappoa ja valmistus toteutettiin kuulamyllyllä jauhamalla. Karakterisointimenetelmillä (DLS, DSC ja XRPD) oli mahdollista todentaa nanokiteillä ja ko-kiteillä halutut ominaisuudet (partikkelikoko ja kiderakenne). Ko-amorfinen systeemi ei työssä käytetyllä menetelmällä saavuttanut amorfista rakennetta kummallakaan ko-muodostajalla. Vaikka jauhe osittain muuttui kellertäväksi (viitaten amorfiseen indometasiiniin) olivat XRPD:n ja DSC:n tulokset kiteiselle aineelle tyypillisiä. Nanokiteellä ja ko-kiteellä saavutettiin puhdasta indometasiinia parempi ominaisliukenemisnopeus sekä liukenemisnopeus jauheesta lapamenetelmällä. Systeemien välisessä vertailussa huomattiin, että nanokiteellä oli parempi liukenemisnopeus molemmissa kokeissa. Ero on selkeämmin nähtävissä lapamenetelmässä: pieni partikkelikoko mahdollistaa suuren suhteellisen pinta-alan liukenemista varten. Systeemien fysikaalista stabiilisuutta tutkittiin yhdeksän kuukauden ajan suljetussa muoviastiassa laboratorio-olosuhteissa (huoneenlämpö ja normaali ilmankosteus). Kummassakaan systeemissä ei ollut nähtävissä kiderakenteen muutoksia. Nanokiteillä oli havaittavissa lievää partikkelikoon kasvua, mikä on selitettävissä ennen koetta tehdyn sekoituksen tehottomuudella
  • Kaukovuori, Jouni (2021)
    Johdanto: Terveydenhuollon tietojärjestelmiin potilaista kertyvää tieto on hyvä esimerkki massadatasta. Se muodostuu lukuisista yksittäisistä, irrallisista tapahtumista. Potilastiedon toissijaisella hyödyntämisellä tarkoitetaan tiedon käsittelyä muuta tarkoitusta kuin potilaan terveyden edistämistä ja hoitamista varten. Toisiokäytölle on tyypillistä, että pääasiallisena kiinnostuksen kohteena ei ole yksilötason tiedon hyödyntäminen, vaan isommasta potilasjoukosta saatava summatieto, josta yksilön tunnistetiedot on poistettu. Toisiokäyttö mahdollistaa potilastiedon hyödyntämisen esimerkiksi tieteellisessä tutkimuksessa ja tietojohtamisessa. Tavoite: Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin HUSin tietoaltaasta louhitun aineiston avulla, onko tietoaltaaseen tallennetun aineiston avulla mahdollista tutkia lääkehoidon turvallisuutta ja rationaalisuutta sekä selvittää, millaisessa muodossa tietoaltaan data saadaan käyttöön ja millaisia toimenpiteitä datalle tulee tehdä, jotta sitä voidaan hyödyntää potilastiedon analysoinnissa. Aineisto ja menetelmät: Massadatan hyödyntämistä pilotoitiin rekisteritutkimuksessa, jossa esimerkkinä käytettiin opioideja. Rationaalisen lääkehoidon toteutumisen tutkimiseksi määriteltiin lääkeindikaattorit eli tunnusluvut, jotka oli tarkoitettu opioidien lääkehoidon kokonaiskuvan tarkasteluun. Indikaattoreiden avulla luotiin pohja hakuparametreille ja lausekkeille, joita tietoallashaussa käytettiin. Aineisto louhittiin tietoaltaasta maaliskuussa 2020 ja se muodostui opioideja koskevista lääkemääräysmerkinnöistä, jotka oli kirjattu potilastietojärjestelmään 1.1.2015-31.12.2019. Tulokset: Tietoallashausta saatiin 321 000 potilaan opioidimääräysdataa yhteensä noin 1,73 miljoonaa riviä. Kotiutumisen yhteydessä annetut opioidireseptit rajattiin jatkoanalyysin ulkopuolelle, sillä niitä koskeva tieto ei ollut rakenteisessa muodossa. Sairaalassa annettuja säännöllisiä opioidilääkemääräyksiä koskeva aineisto oli noin 258 000 riviä. Dataa siivottiin, järjesteltiin ja validoitiin data-analyysiä varten. Toimenpiteistä huolimatta data ei soveltunut indikaattorien laskentaan. Johtopäätökset: Tietoallasaineiston käytön mahdollisuudet rationaalisen ja turvallisen lääkehoidon tutkimukseen olivat tämän tutkimuksen perusteella rajalliset. Massadata-aineiston saattaminen tutkimuksellisesti hyödynnettävään muotoon vaatii menetelmän, joka pitää sisällään useita työvaiheita ja niiden kehittäminen vaatii tietoteknistä erityisasiantuntemusta. Vaikka dataa saatiin paljon, yksittäisen potilaan opioidilääkehoidosta ei saatu kokonaiskuvaa, koska merkittävä osa datasta oli rakenteettomassa muodossa. Potilastiedon toissijaisen hyödyntämisen kannalta aineiston rakenteisen osan merkittävimmät käytön esteet liittyivät datan laatuun ja luotettavuuteen. Jotta tietoaltaasta saatava aineisto soveltuisi toisiokäyttöön tai tieteelliseen tutkimukseen, pitää sekä potilastietojärjestelmän merkintä- ja kirjaamistapoja yhtenäistää sekä data tulisi tallentaa tietoaltaaseen yhä rakenteisemmassa muodossa.
  • Haapalainen, Joonatan (2022)
    Traditional 2D cell cultivating vessels and experimental models cannot often simulate natural chemical and physical environment of different cell types. For example, availability of oxygen, chemical gradients, messaging molecules, fluid pressure, flow and surface topography are factors that may affect significantly in cell differentiation, growth, cellular structure, and metabolism. Modular bioreactors like Quasi-Vivo® -system can be used to simulate these factors. Liposomes are particles of phospholipid bilayer with aqueous space enclosed within. They can be modified in numerous ways, like loading them with hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules, changing their transition temperature or coating them according to different needs. Doxorubicin is effective and widely used cytostatic agent, but when administered as a free drug it has often severe side-effects, like cardiotoxicity. Goal of this thesis is to determine appropriate manufacturing parameters and verify adequate shelf-life of ICG-Doxorubicin liposomes, that they are applicable for future in vitro experiments. Then survival of HepG2 cell line under flow in Quasi-Vivo®-equipment is determined, after which A549 and HepG2 will be then combined into one two-cell model. Finally, a simple illumination experiment in this cell model with previously made liposomes is conducted, and the effect in whole system is examined. Using protocol presented in this thesis it is possible to produce successfully and repeatedly liposomes with both ICG and doxorubicin encapsulation over 70%. Their shelf-life was at least 14 days when stored in 4°C protected from light. This was determined to be sufficient for in vitro testing. Cultivating A549 and HepG2 cell lines combined in the same system with shared media and fluid flow conditions was successful. Neither of the cell lines show significant difference in viability when compared to static control. When light-activating liposomes are administered to the system and then illuminated, from preliminary results we can see significant difference in drug effect. Both illuminated chambers and off-target chambers connected via Quasi-Vivo® show increased suppression, which shows promise that this in vitro model would be useful for future experiments.
  • Ollinkangas, Joni (2022)
    The problems caused by hypromellose in sterile filtration of ophthalmic products in the pharmaceutical industry were investigated. The research project was performed at NextPharma Oy's ophthalmics manufacturing facility in Tampere during the autumn of 2020. Hypromellose is an excipient commonly used in ophthalmic products as a viscosity enhancer to prolong the contact time of the preparation on the eye surface. In the ophthalmics compounding process, hypromellose is first dispersed by slowly sprinkling it into a hot solution and thoroughly mixing, after which the solution is cooled to room temperature. During cooling, the hypromellose dissolves and gels, increasing the viscosity of the solution. Incomplete dispersion or dissolution of hypromellose during the manufacturing process can slow down the filtration rate or even clog the filter completely due to undissolved hypromellose polymer material. Hypromellose is an industrially produced cellulose derivative that often contains some amounts of unreacted cellulose and other sparingly soluble polymer particles as impurities, which can also cause problems in filtration processes. Sterile filtration is a commonly used sterilization method for ophthalmic products, in which the prepared bulk solution is filtered through a 0.1 to 0.2 µm pore size filter membrane into a sterile receiving vessel. Due to the very small pore size, sterile filters are easily clogged if the solution contains poorly dissolved material. The purpose of this work was to collect additional information on the possible causes of clogging caused by hypromellose and to determine whether the filterability of a solution containing hypromellose can be improved by optimizing the manufacturing process parameters. The design of experiments was prepared, creating a two-level full-factorial test matrix without replicates and with three centre points. Four different process parameters were used (mixing time, mixing speed, dispersion temperature, and cooling temperature). Minimum and maximum levels for the parameters were obtained in the initial tests, after which the test solutions were prepared and filtered in a randomized order according to the test matrix. The aim of the screening was to find out which parameters were affecting the filterability and what would be their optimal combination that would maximize the filtration rate and the yield of filtration. Finally, the optimized parameters were used to test different batches of hypromellose, comparing the results to previous filtration tests. Additionally, an alternative hypromellose dispersion method was tested to minimize the amount of insoluble material remained during the dispersion and cooling steps. Of the parameters tested, mixing speed was the least significant, while cooling temperature had the most effect on the filtration results. The solutions with lower cooling temperature had better filtration results, which may be due to reduced aggregation of hypromellose due to increased hydration of the polymer chains. The temperature behaviour of hypromellose solutions could be an interesting subject for further investigation. Longer mixing times and higher dispersion temperatures produced slightly better filtration results on average, but the differences were not statistically significant. Most challenging in the study was controlling the temperature and mixing of the solutions, and the retention of insoluble hypromellose material at the walls of the compounding vessel. The alternative dispersion method gave promising preliminary results, but the method still requires further testing. It would be important to also find the root cause of the filter clogging mechanism e.g., by further analysing the clogged filter membrane. The study provided additional useful information of the behaviour of hypromellose solutions in solution preparations and during sterile filtration, which has been helpful in solving production problems.
  • Monola, Julia (2022)
    Native nanofibrillated cellulose is wood-derived, animal-free biocompatible biomaterial which has proved the suitability of nanoscale cellulose fiber based hydrogels for 3D cell culturing and wound healing applications. The problem of freeze-drying nanofibrillated cellulose hydrogel (NFCh) has been the aggregation of the hydrophilic fibrils of the NFC during freeze-drying, which leads deformed freeze-dried cake and unsuccessful reconstitution of the sample. Molecular Dynamic (MD) simulations have been earlier applied in formulation design of NFCh for freeze-drying successfully by screening excipients based on their attraction to the surface of NFCh. The weakness of MD simulations is it can only model the fresh formulation system intend to freeze-dry, but not the actual freeze-drying process and the effect of it and the excipients to the material. To evaluate the protecting properties of excipients and therefore the accuracy of the MD simulations detailed information about changes in the physical state and molecular orientation of the formulation before and after freeze-drying is needed. Non-invasive and label-free Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine vibrational modes of molecules to investigate changes in molecular orientation of the material. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible molecular changes induced by freeze-drying of NFCh-based formulations utilizing Raman spectroscopy and evaluate the connection of the results to MD simulations. NFCh with different excipients was freeze-dried and physicochemical properties, rheology and Raman signal were measured before and after freeze-drying and compared to the literature of MD simulations. The principal component analysis (PCA) was done to the Raman spectra and differences evaluated. The spectra of all formulations differed before and after freeze-drying, and more detailed analysis was done to two most potential 0.8% NFCh based formulations, lactose 300 mM and lactose 250 mM + glycine 50 mM. They had great attraction to NFCh in MD simulations and very similar rheological properties before and after freeze-drying and reconstitution. The spectra of different state of both formulations different on areas between 400 - 500 cm-1 and 850 - 900 cm-1 based on PCA analysis contributing the mutarotation of lactose during freeze-drying and reconstitution. Freeze-drying and the absence of water molecules in NFCh formulation favor different ratios of β and α anomers than the fresh hydrated state which could be detected utilizing Raman spectroscopy. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy was confirmed to be a sensitive option to assess subtle changes in molecular orientation in fresh, freeze-dried, and reconstituted NFCh-based formulations, resulting in a detail knowledge of the molecular behavior of excipients which could be applied in MD simulations and design of better freeze-drying formulations in future.
  • Reponen, Sannamari (2021)
    Biologisten lääkkeiden tarjonta ja käyttö ovat lisääntyneet voimakkaasti viimeisen vuosikymmenen aikana. Biologiset lääkkeet voivat parantaa reumasairauksien ja useiden muiden pitkäaikaissairauksien hoitotuloksia. Biologiset lääkkeet ovat yleensä perinteisiä pienimolekyylisiä lääkkeitä kalliimpia, ja siksi biologisen alkuperäislääkkeen kanssa kliinisesti samanarvoiseksi kehitettyjen edullisempien biosimilaarien käyttöä pyritään edistämään osana rationaalista lääkehoitoa. Potilaan näkemyksillä ja niiden huomioimisella on hoitoon sitoutumisen ja hoidon tulosten kannalta suuri merkitys. Potilaiden näkemyksistä ja kokemuksista biologisista lääkkeistä ja niiden vaihdosta on melko vähän tutkimuksia. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tutkia reumapotilaiden tietämystä ja näkemyksiä biologisista lääkkeistä ja biosimilaareista sekä kokemuksia niiden ei-lääketieteellisestä lääkevaihdosta. Lisäksi tutkittiin reumapotilaiden uskomuksia omasta lääkityksestään, halukkuutta osallistua lääkitykseen liittyvään päätöksentekoon lääkärin kanssa ja biologisten reumalääkkeiden käyttäjien lääketiedon lähteitä. Tutkimus toteutettiin sähköisenä kyselynä Yliopiston Apteekin kanta-asiakkaille ja kertomalla siitä Reumaliiton ja IBD- ja muut suolistosairaudet ry:n viestinnässä 18.–30.1.2021. Kohderyhmänä olivat aikuiset avoterveydenhuollon reuma-, IBD- ja muut suolistosairaus-, sekä ihopsoriasispotilaat, jotka käyttivät adalimumabin tai etanerseptin alkuperäistä biologista lääkettä (BA) tai biosimilaaria (BS) tai ainoastaan perinteisiä pienimolekyylisiä lääkeitä (PL). Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin vastauksia 260 reumapotilaalta, joista biologisia lääkkeitä oli käyttänyt 75 (BA-käyttäjiä 35, BS-käyttäjiä 40) ja perinteisiä lääkkeitä 185. Ei-lääketieteellisen lääkevaihdon kokeneita oli 17. Tutkimuksen teoreettisena viitekehyksenä käytettiin terveysuskomusmallia. Ensisijaiset lopputulosmuuttujat olivat faktorianalyysillä muodostettuja summamuuttujia. Erot lääkekäyttäjäryhmien (BA, BS, PL) välillä ja taustamuuttujien vaikutukset testattiin tilastollisilla analyyseillä. Vastanneista potilaista 94 % tunnisti biologisen lääkkeen käsitteen, mutta biosimilaari-käsite tunnettiin huonommin (34 %). Suurin osa potilaista (73–78 %) luotti biosimilaarien olevan ominaisuuksiltaan samankaltaisia alkuperäisvalmisteiden kanssa. Lääkärin tekemään biologisten lääkkeiden vaihtoon luotettiin enemmän (89 %) kuin mahdollisesti apteekissa tehtävään vaihtoon (40 %). Tutkimuksessa todetut kokemukset biologisten lääkkeiden vaihdosta biosimilaariin olivat pääosin positiivisia. Tutkimuksen reumapotilailla oli hyvä tietämys biologisista lääkkeistä, mutta he tunsivat huonommin biosimilaarin käsitteen ja mitä biosimilaarit ovat. Heillä oli yleisesti ottaen luottavainen näkemys siitä, että biosimilaari on ominaisuuksiltaan alkuperäisvalmistetta vastaava lääke. Biologisten ei-lääketieteelliseen vaihtoon suhtauduttiin melko myönteisesti, mutta lääkärin toteuttamaan lääkevaihtoon suhtauduttiin luottavaisemmin kuin mahdollisesti apteekeissa tehtävään vaihtoon. Lisää tutkimustietoa tarvitaan muun muassa potilaiden biosimilaareihin kohdistuvan epävarmuuden syistä.