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Browsing by master's degree program "Master 's Programme in Pharmacy"

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  • Toivonen, Laura (2021)
    Abstract Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy Degree programme: Master of Science in Pharmacy Study track: Social pharmacy Author: Laura Toivonen Title: Deficiencies and risks related to medication use management in nursing homes identified by Regional State Administrative Agencies during their inspection visits Level: Master´s thesis Month and year: November 2021 Number of pages: 94+7 (appendice) Keywords: Medication safety, medication use process, nursing home, older adult, risk management, guidelines for safe medication practices Supervisor or supervisors: M.Sc. Pharm, PhD student Suvi Hakoinen, University of Helsinki, Keusote; Professor, PhD Marja Airaksinen, University of Helsinki Where deposited: ethesis.helsinki.fi Additional information: Abstract: Nursing home residents are often characterized by older age, multimorbidity and polypharmacy. Medication safety has become an issue as part of client/patient safety in nursing homes in Finland. Still, little is known about medication safety risks and their management in this care context. The aim of this study was to identify deficiencies and risks associated with medication use management in nursing homes using inspection visits by the Regional State Administrative Agencies (AVIs) as a data source. In addition, the aim was to evaluate what issues the AVI-authorities pay attention to in the medication use management during their inspection visits in nursing homes. The data consisted of the latest inspection reports (n = 24) prepared by the Regional State Administrative Agencies (n = 6) on the basis of their nursing home visits (nursing homes for older people). The data were analysed by deductive content analysis methods. In addition to qualitative documentary analysis, quantitative indicators were used to illustrate the frequency of the risks and deficiencies -observed in different phases in the medication use process to identify phases posing risks most commonly. Reason´s system-based risk management theory was applied as a theoretical framework for the study. A total of 372 deficiencies and risks related to medication use process were identified from the inspection reports (n = 24) of Regional State Administrative Agencies. The largest proportion (58,9 %, n = 219) of the deficiencies and risks concerned the management and quality management of the medication use process. Particularly, deficiencies and risks related to lack and competence of personnel were emphasized. Deficiencies and risks were also identified in the self- assessment guidelines for safe medication practices used in the inspected nursing homes. The second highest number of risk observations (26,9 %, n = 100) was reported for ordering, delivery and storage of medicines. In particular, the deficiencies and risks were reported for the storage and warehousing practices. Reported risk observations in other phases of the medicines use process were rare. This study showed that the medication use process in Finnish nursing homes includes deficiencies and risks endangering the safety of the older nursing home residents. In order to manage the risks, both self-assessment and inspection practices by the authorities need development. One way to improve and harmonize both self-assessment and inspection practices could be use of a comprehensive checklist covering of all the relevant issues required for the safe medication practices in nursing homes. Increasing collaboration with pharmacists could also be a way to improve medication safety in nursing homes.
  • Eronen, Sini-Tuulia (2022)
    Introduction: When people age, the composition of sleep changes and sleep becomes more sensitive to external disturbances, making insomnia also more common. Medication is not the first-line treatment option for insomnia. Benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine receptor agonists for the treatment of insomnia have been in the focus of past studies. The content of the dosing instructions for the supplied medicines has not been studied. The dosing instructions should provide clear instructions on how to dose the medicine prescribed to the patient. The aim of this study was to investigate the content and quality of dosing instructions prescribed for the treatment of insomnia for Finns aged ≥75 years in 2020 based on the prospective reimbursement register data by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland (Kela). Materials and methods: The reimbursed purchases of all medicines by persons aged ≥75 years from 1.1.2020 to 31.12.2020 were selected by ATC code from the medicines data according to the Insomnia: Current Care guidelines. The data was gathered from Kela’s dispensations reimbursed under the National Health Insurance scheme. The dataset consisted of 1,080,843 delivery lines, which were screened, and 328,285 lines were included in the analyses. Dosage instructions were reviewed according to the following predetermined five categories: frequency of use, dose, timing, warnings or remarks, and inappropriate instructions. In addition, 1000 dosing instructions were randomly derived to study the phrasing and appropriateness of the dosing instructions in more detail. Results: In 2020, an average of 3.8 reimbursed hypnotic drug deliveries were made per elderly person. Of the deliveries, 68% were for women. 52% of drug deliveries were partially made later and not by original prescription. In the hypnotic dataset, the three most administered drugs were zopiclone (41%), mirtazapine (34%) and zolpidem (12%). The dosage was prescribed in 98–99% of the dosage instructions. Dosing schedule was reported in 83% of dosing instructions and regularity of use was reported in 57% of them. Only 3-6% of the dosing instructions had comments or warnings. 1–2% of the dosing instructions were vague. The duration or regularity of use was clearly indicated in 5% of the dosing instructions. Only 0.1% of dosage instructions contained instructions for discontinuation or reduction. Discussion: The dose and timing of administration were well reported, but the frequency of use was reported in only about half of the dosing instructions. Only few dosing instructions contained remarks or warnings even though hypnotics are at risk for the elderly. Among the three most administered drugs for the treatment of insomnia were two benzodiazepine receptor agonists, zopiclone and zolpidem. However, they may not be suitable for the elderly according to Beers criteria and their use should be avoided. During 2020, an average of four drug deliveries were made per elderly person for the treatment of insomnia, which may indicate prolonged hypnotics use. In addition, more than half of the deliveries were partially made later and not by original prescription. Thus, several drug packages are prescribed for prescriptions, although the drug-based treatment of insomnia should only be short-lived. Conclusions: There are significant deficiencies in the contents and quality in the dosing instructions for drugs delivered to the elderly for insomnia. Minimum information on dose, timing and duration of use was not found in all dosing instructions in this study. Understandable dosing instructions and the reduction in the amount of medication in the prescription could have a further effect on reducing the long-term use of hypnotics, also increasing the safety of medicine use in the elderly.
  • Hämäläinen, Klaus (2022)
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an incurable autoimmune demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Although the detailed pathogenesis remains unclear, recent research has highlighted the involvement of B cells. For decades, however, MS research was based on T cell-focused animal models of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which do not reflect the involvement of B cells in the pathogenesis. Therefore, B cell-dependent EAE models are hypothesized to allow a better understanding of MS immunohistopathology and may therefore lead to the development of efficient treatments. In our spontaneous relapsing-remitting (RR) EAE model, B cells are recruited from the endogenous repertoire by transgenic myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) -reactive T cells, causing the development of EAE in 3–4-month-old mice. Interestingly, MOG-specific antibodies are present long before actual onset of clinical disease and can be detected already in 5-week-old RR mice and disease development in RR mice is dependent both on the presence of (presumably MOG-specific) B cells as well as on stimuli provided by intestinal microbiota. Firstly, we evaluated the broader usability of induced germinal center cell (iGB) culture as a model for B cell repertoire studies. Then, by using iGB culture, we studied whether MOG-specific B cells are present in secondary lymphoid organs of younger than 4-week-old and germ-free RR mice. Finally, this study aimed to investigate whether the repertoire of MOG-specific B cells undergoes significant qualitative changes from young healthy mice to older acutely sick RR mice, and whether at the time of disease onset the recruited MOG-specific B cells expand and mature in the cervical nodes (cLN) or in the CNS. To do so, following the hosting-lab’s previous single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of B cells derived from cLN of 5-week-old RR mice, we performed the scRNA-seq of B cells from CNS, spleen, and cLN of acutely sick RR EAE mice. We demonstrated that iGB culture is an unsuitable tool to expand pre-activated B cells, and hence, in our hands it was inappropriate for repertoire studies. However, iGB culture proved to be useful for screening different organs for MOG-specific B lymphocytes, and we found that anti-MOG antibodies were firstly detected in 3-4-week-old RR mice, and MOG-specific B cells were present also in germ-free RR mice. Our scRNA-seq results revealed many highly expanded MOG-specific B cell clonotypes in acutely sick RR mice. Moreover, the B cell repertoire of sick RR mice was more diverse, including IgG1, IgM, IgG2b, IgG2c, and IgG3 isotypes, compared to healthy 5-week-old RR mice that had only IgG1 or IgM isotypes. Two-thirds of the expanded clonotypes were primarily detected in the CNS in sick RR mice, indicating that clonotypes develop further and continue isotype switching within the CNS. We also detected more somatic mutation in the variable region of expanded clones of sick RR mice compared to 5-week-old RR mice. The results of this study clearly show an antigen-driven evolution of the MOG-specific B cell repertoire from healthy young to acutely sick RR mice, which seems to occur mainly in CNS itself. In contrast, cLN are the major initial priming site of MOG-specific B cells in healthy RR mice, even under germ-free conditions. This suggests that commensal microbiota is not required for initial recruitment of MOG-specific B cells, but for the development of EAE. To further validate our encouraging scRNA-Seq results, it is necessary, in future experiments, to confirm the MOG-specificity of expanded clonotypes.
  • Pihlajakoski, Marjo (2022)
    Operations of pharmaceutical supply chain and medication management practices will be evaluated as part of the ongoing social and health services reform in Finland. One of the goals is to develop digital medication management tools and services to meet the needs of both healthcare professionals and medicine users. The aim of this study was to examine population's willingness to use on new digital services by community pharmacies to promote rational pharmacotherapy and to support cooperation between those involved in the medication use process. The material for this study consisted of the national population survey conducted in 2020 for the VN TEAS report “Activation of price competition for pharmaceutical products and the population's expectations for pharmacy operations” (online survey for 18–79-year-old adults, n = 1650). The survey respondents represented well the target population expect those with higher educational level were over-represented. The current study focused on questions related to digital medication management services provided by community pharmacies, which were divided into the following 4 topics to form sum variables: 1) purchasing and dispensing process of medicines (4 items), 2) customer`s communication with pharmacy and health care personnel (2 items), 3) pharmacy and healthcare personnel`s communication with the customer (4 items) and 4) support services for medication self-management (12 items). The associations of the background variables to the sum variables were calculated using cross-tabulation and the Chi-Square test. Frequencies and percentages were used to present. The majority (85–90%) of the respondents were in favor of the possibility of sending messages electronically between the customer, the community pharmacy and other healthcare personnel by using a shared communication channel, such as My Kanta to update medication information online. Multimorbidity, medication use, and higher medication costs increased the respondent’s positive attitude towards the electronic communication channel. Three-quarters (76%) of respondents were willing to use electronic medicine purchasing and dispensing services. Younger respondents (18–34 years) were more interested in these services than older ones. The electronic medication self-management support services had more discrete opinions among respondents. More than half of the respondents indicated their strong willingness to use at least one of the medication self-management support online services listed in the survey instrument. Those aged 18–34 years (69%), those with higher education (62%), those living in the Province of Southern Finland (60%) and those living in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (67%) were more positive than others. Of the respondents who opted for pharmacy's remote online services, 55% were willing to seek advice for reconciling their medication list. According to the survey, Finnish adults are willing to use new electronic services by community pharmacies. In particular, they were willing to use a shared electronic communication channel between the customer, the pharmacy and other healthcare personnel, such as MyKanta to update information related to their medication. The willingness to have support self-care support for medication self-management primarily from the pharmacy's online services was lower than the willingness to use online purchasing and dispensing services. Of the remote medication self-management services medication reconciliation had the highest demand. Future research should focus on enhancing use of electronic medication self-management services provided by community pharmacies. Further research should also be targeted to understand medicine user needs for support as it may vary between patient groups, requiring segmentation of services.
  • Lindevall, Mari (2021)
    The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the usage of artificial intelligence in the pharmaceutical industry in the fields of pharmaceutical manufacturing, product development, and quality control. Today, developing and getting a new drug on the market is time-consuming, ineffective, and expensive. Artificial intelligence is seen as one possible solution to the problems of the pharmaceutical industry. From 734 articles 77 academic study articles were included. Included articles showed artificial neural networks to be the most used artificial intelligence method between 1991 and 2021. The search was conducted from three databases with the following inclusion criteria: studies using AI in either pharmaceutical manufacturing, product development or quality control, English as the language, and Western medicine-based pharmacy as a branch of science. This systematic literature review has three main limitations: the possibility of an important search word missing from the search algorithm, the selection of articles according to one person's assessment, and the possible narrow picture of the used artificial intelligence methods in the pharmaceutical industry, as pharmaceutical companies also research the subject. The use of artificial intelligence in product development has been studied the most, while its use in quality control has been studied the least. In the studies, tablets were a popular drug form, while biological drugs were underrepresented. In total, the number of studies published increased over three decades. However, most of the articles were published in 2020. Nearly half of the articles had some connection to a pharmaceutical company, indicating the interest of both the academy and pharmaceutical companies in the use of artificial intelligence in manufacturing, product development, and quality control. In the future, the efficacy of artificial intelligence, as well as its limitations as a method, should be investigated to conclude its potential to play a key role in reforming the pharmaceutical industry. The results of the study show that a wave of artificial intelligence has arrived in the pharmaceutical industry, however, its real benefits will only be seen with future research.
  • Kylkilahti, Sanni (2022)
    Chilit ovat Capsicum-sukuun kuuluvia yleensä korkean kapsaisiinipitoisuuden omaavia paprikalajeja. Niitä käytetään mausteena. Lisäksi chilien sisältämillä kapsaisinoideilla on todettu olevan useita farmakologisia ominaisuuksia, kuten analgeettisia ja antioksidanttisia vaikutuksia. Niiden antimikrobisia ominaisuuksia on myös hieman tutkittu, mutta tutkimuksia on vielä verrattain vähän. Tämän työn tarkoituksena oli selvittää muutamien eri chililajikkeista valmistettujen uutteiden antimikrobisia vaikutuksia Escherichia colia ja Staphylococcus aureusta vastaan. Uutteet testattiin dimetyylisulfoksidiin (DMSO) ja veteen liuotettuina. Lisäksi testattiin myös kahden puhdasaineen, kapsiaatin ja solaniinin, vaikutuksia kyseisiä bakteereita vastaan. Antimikrobiakokeet suoritettiin 96-kuoppalevyllä noudattaen aseptisia työtapoja. Testattuja chiliuutteita oli 19. Uutteita valmistettiin eri chililajikkeiden versoista (1 kpl) siemenistä (3 kpl), lehdistä (10 kpl) ja hedelmistä (5 kpl). Dimetyylisulfoksidiin liuotetut uutteet testattiin pitoisuuksilla 2,0 mg/ml ja 4,0 mg/ml. Veteen liuotetut uutteet testattiin pitoisuudella 4,0 mg/ml. Solaniini- ja kapsiaattiuutteet testattiin kahdeksalla eri pitoisuudella (0,001172–0,15 μg/ml). Tutkimuksen tuloksena on, että testatut chiliuutteet eikä solaniini- ja kapsiaattiuutteet estäneet E. colin tai S. aureuksen kasvua. DMSO:iin liuotetuista uutteista korkeimmat estoprosentit kumpaakin bakteeria vastaan saatiin nuorilla Pimento-lehdillä. Veteen liuotetuista uutteista korkein estoprosentti E. colia vastaan saatiin Dulcen versoilla (30 % esto) ja S. aureusta vastaan Dulcen hedelmillä (50 % esto). Aiemmat tutkimustulokset chilien antimikrobisista vaikutuksista ovat ristiriitaisia, joten yhteneviä johtopäätöksiä chilien vaikutuksista bakteereihin ei voida tehdä. Johtopäätöksenä voidaan todeta, että chileillä on lukuisia terveysvaikutuksia. Antimikrobisen tehon varmistamiseksi tarvittaisi kuitenkin lisää tutkimuksia. Antibioottiresistenssi on maailmanlaajuinen ongelma, koska yhä useammat bakteerit ovat resistenttejä käytetyille antibiooteille. Tulevaisuudessa onkin erittäin tärkeää löytää uusia yhdisteitä bakteerien tappamiseksi, joten tutkimuksia uusien antimikrobisten aineiden löytämiseksi tarvitaan jatkuvasti lisää
  • Sipola, Kirsi (2021)
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by degeneration of motor neurons in brain and spinal cord. The degeneration of motor neurons leads to muscle atrophy and paralysis. Currently there is no cure for ALS. Available drugs for ALS can lengthen the survival time by a couple of months. Several factors involve the pathophysiology of ALS, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress and neuroinflammation. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a protein which has shown neuroprotective effects on animal models of Parkinson disease and brain ischemia. C-terminal fragment of MANF can cross the blood-brain barrier, allowing it to be administered subcutaneously instead of injected directly into the brain. The experimental part consists of two parts. The aim of the first part was to study the pharmacokinetic properties of next generation MANF (C-MANF). The aim of the second part was to elucidate the effect of twice a week administered subcutaneous injection of C-MANF in genetic SOD1-G93A mouse model and its neuroprotective effects by assessing protection of lumbar motor neurons. Pharmacokinetic properties of C-MANF were determined in wild type mice after a single subcutaneous injection of C-MANF at different time points by using indirect ELISA assay. The effects of C-MANF in SOD1-G93A mouse model were assessed by subcutaneous injection of either C-MANF or PBS twice a week and by monitoring clinical score and motor behavior of mice from 10 weeks of age to clinical endpoint. Hematoxylin eosin staining was used to study neuroprotective effects of C-MANF. C-MANF administered subcutaneously is absorbed into the blood circulation and the highest serum concentration of C-MANF is after 60 minutes of dosing. Subcutaneously injected C-MANF also crosses the blood-brain barrier and reach the brain in 120 minutes. C-MANF did not preserve motor function or ameliorated ALS symptoms in SOD1-G93A mouse model. In this study C-MANF did not increase the survival of SOD1-G93A mice. C-MANF did not significantly protect motor neurons from degeneration even though there was a slight trend between the groups. No beneficial effects were observed with C-MANF in SOD1-G93A mouse model and therefore the dose and frequency of administration of C-MANF were not optimal. Subcutaneously injected C-MANF provides a safer dosing option for neurodegenerative disorders.
  • Laurikkala, Nella (2022)
    Digitalization of health care and the corona pandemic have increased availability and use of online services provided by community pharmacies. In Finland, willingness to use online pharmacy services has been studied from population approach. Less is known about the user satisfaction with the core online pharmacy services such as dispensing and medication counseling services. This study aimed to investigate satisfaction with the University Pharmacy’s online services (ya.fi) from customers’ approach. Primarily, customer satisfaction with dispensing and medication counseling services was assessed. In addition, characteristics affecting customer satisfaction were analyzed. The conceptual framework of the study was Andersen's Model of Health Services Use. The data for this study was collected by a cross-sectional survey conducted in August 2020 among University Pharmacy’s online pharmacy customers who had made a purchase during the last three months. The survey instrument consisted mainly of structured Likert-scale questions, which were used to form two sum variables: satisfaction on online dispensing services (3 variables, Cronbach's alpha 0.803) and satisfaction on online counseling services (2 variables, Cronbach's alpha 0.883). Satisfaction on online dispensing services was studied through willingness to recommend and use the services in the future. Satisfaction on online counseling services was studied through a comparison of medication counseling on an online pharmacy and a conventional pharmacy. IBM SPSS (28) -software was used for statistical analysis consisting of bivariate (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests) and multivariate (generalized linear model) analyses to identify factors affecting satisfaction with dispensing and medication counseling services. Of 15 172 invitations sent to fill out the survey, 2555 eligible responses were received (16 %). Of the respondents, 92 % had concomitantly used the services of a conventional pharmacy. . The mean of satisfaction on online dispensing services on a scale from 1 to 5 (5 being the most positive option "completely agree") was 4.3 (SD 0.8). Similarly, the mean of satisfaction on online counseling services was 3.7 (SD 0.9). According to the multivariate analyses, significant characteristics affecting satisfaction on online dispensing services were age, form of living (alone/family with children/couple), purchase of prescription or OTC medicine, frequency of internet use and previous visits to a conventional pharmacy. Characteristics affecting satisfaction on online counseling services were education, purchase of prescription medicine, use of chat information service, frequency of internet use and previous visits to a conventional University Pharmacy outlet. The services on ya.fi online pharmacy rated most important by the respondents were services about medicine availabilities (in conventional University Pharmacy outlets and during a shortage) and information about medicines (prices, Kela reimbursements and information about customers' prescriptions). Customers were satisfied with online dispensing and counseling services. Online dispensing services received a higher satisfaction rate than online counseling services. Customers who had used the chat service and purchased a prescription medicine online were more likely to assess online counseling services to be equal or better than in a conventional pharmacy. Active use of internet and purchases of medicines online were factors connected to higher satisfaction with online dispensing services. Most online pharmacy customers had also visited conventional pharmacies. The results from this study can be utilized in the development of online and other pharmacy services.
  • Granqvist, Riikka (2021)
    Parkinson´s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world after Alzheimer´s disease. There is still no drug that alters the state of the disease. It has been found that Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one mechanism in PD. ER stress occurs due to accumulation of unfolded proteins. ER stress triggers Unfolded protein response (UPR) that protects against ER stress by decreasing unfolding of proteins. In the beginning, UPR has protective effect, but in prolonged ER stress UPR triggers apoptotic cell death. There are several key mediators in the UPR pathway. Characterisation of ER stress in PD models may be important for the current and future drug development of PD. If ER stress is a significant factor that affects the disease development, it would be important to find a drug that alters these mechanisms and UPR. This may be a way to halt the disease development. Different animal models of PD, like 6-OHDA (6-hydroxydopamine) and MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) model, have similarities in their mechanisms. It has been found that ER stress occurs both in the brain of PD patients and animal models of PD. That is why studying and further characterisation in animal models is relevant. The aim of this study was to characterize ER stress in 6-OHDA rat model. The expression of some key mediators of the UPR were determined in this study. There were male and female Spraque Dawley rats in this experiment. 6-OHDA or saline was injected intrastriatally in 3 spots by stereotaxic surgery. Two weeks after 6-OHDA lesions, amphetamine-induced rotation test was conducted to the rats. The rats were divided into groups based on lesion size according to the results. For this study, the rats were euthanised at week 2 or week 4 post lesion. The rats were euthanised by carbondioxide, and the death was confirmed by decapitation. The brains were collected and stored in -80°C. Striatum and substantia nigra were collected later. Total RNA was isolated from these samples. Part of the RNA sample was used to conduct cDNA synthesis. Finally, the gene expression of Atf4, Ire1α, Xbp1s, Xbp1t, Grp78 and Chop was measured from these cDNA samples by qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction). The qPCR data describes the expression of exact gene. The data was processed prior to statistical analysis. By statistical analysis, it was possible to compare the expression of these genes between 6-OHDA group and vehicle group. In addition, comparison was made between 6-OHDA treated groups at week 2 and 4. According to the results, only Chop expression had increased in 6-OHDA lesioned rats at week 2 compared to the vehicle group. In other genes there were no statistical differences, unlike in several other studies where the expression was found to be increased. Thus, the characterisation of this model requires further studying, possibly by increasing the sample size and studying later time points as well.
  • Järvelä, Jasper (2021)
    Lääketieteen kehittyessä yksilöllisen lääkehoidon tarpeeseen on kiinnitetty enemmän huomiota kuin aikaisemmin ja etenkin lapsille lääkkeiden tarkka annostelu on erityisen tärkeää. Kaupallisilla valmisteilla tarpeeksi pienet annokset eivät usein ole mahdollisia eikä tablettien puolittaminen takaa tarkkaa lääkkeiden annostelua. 3D-tulostamista on ajateltu mahdollisena vaihtoehtona ex tempore -lääkkeiden tuotantoon ja sen mahdollisuuksia on tutkittu laajalti viime vuosien aikana. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, miten ekstruusiomenetelmällä tulostetut varfariinikalvot vertautuvat sairaala-apteekin käyttämiin varfariiniannosjauheisiin, sekä olisiko kyseistä menetelmää mahdollista hyödyntää sairaala-apteekeissa. Tutkimuksessa valmistettiin puolikiinteän aineen ekstruusiolla 0,1 mg:n, 0,5 mg:n ja 2 mg:n varfariinikalvoja, jotka kuivattiin 85 ℃:ssa valmistusprosessin nopeuttamiseksi. Kalvoja verrattiin saman vahvuisiin varfariinia sisältäviin sairaala-apteekin valmistamiin annosjauheisiin. Kalvoissa käytettiin hydroksipropyylimetyyliselluloosaa kalvonmuodostaja-aineena ja glyserolia tuomaan plastisuutta. Annosjauheet koostuivat kaupallisesta 5 mg:n Marevan-valmisteesta ja täyteaineena käytetystä laktoosista. Molemmista lääkevalmisteista mitattiin liukenemisnopeus ja annosyksiköiden yhdenmukaisuus. Molempien valmisteiden toimivuus nenä-mahaletkussa tutkittiin myös, sillä kalvojen on tärkeää soveltua erilaisille potilasryhmille. Kalvot olivat kovia, mikä aiheutti niiden hitaan liukenemisen. Puolikiinteän aineen valmistus ja tulostuksen toteuttaminen tavoitteiden mukaisesti osoittautui oletettua vaikeammaksi. Kalvoissa mitattiin annosjauheita tasaisempi lääkeainepitoisuus. Molempien lääkevalmisteiden kohdalla huomattiin, että kaikki varfariini ei pääse nenä-mahaletkujen läpi. Tärkein huomio oli, että hyvin yksinkertaisella formulaatiolla on mahdollista tuottaa lupaavia lääkevalmisteita. Tämä tutkimus esittelee syitä, joiden vuoksi 3D-tulostusta on hyvä tutkia mahdollisena ex tempore -valmistuksen menetelmänä.
  • Korventausta, Susanna (2022)
    Etätyö yleistyi maaliskuussa 2020 äkillisesti COVID-19 pandemian seurauksena maailman terveysjärjestö WHO:n suosituksesta. Etätyö on ollut ennen koronapandemiaa harvinaista lääketeollisuudessa, joten etätyötä lääketeollisuudessa on tutkittu hyvin vähän. Etätyön on arvioitu jäävän pysyväksi ratkaisuksi, joten on ajankohtaista tutkia etätyön soveltuvuutta ja tehokkuutta lääketeollisuudessa. Etätyöntekijöiden tuottavuus kasvaa yleensä huomattavasti. Työpaikalla koetaan jatkuvasti keskeytyksiä, melua ja muita häiriötekijöitä, joiden lisäksi työmatkat kuormittavat työntekijöitä. Etätyöntekijät säästyvät suurimmalta osalta näistä ongelmista, jolloin suurempi osa heidän työpäivästään kuluu varsinaiseen työntekoon. Valtaosa etätyöntekijöistä tekee etätyötä osan työajastaan. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää kokemuksia etätyöstä, etätyön soveltuvuutta ja etätyön tehokkuuteen vaikuttavia tekijöitä lääketeollisuudessa. Tutkimus on toteutettu Orion Oyj:n Suomen toimipisteissä. Tutkimuksen toteuttamistapa oli kvantitatiivisen ja kvalitatiivisen kyselytutkimuksen yhdistelmä. Yhdistämällä kvantitatiivisia ja kvalitatiivisia kysymyksiä pyrittiin saamaan tarkempia tietoja kuin pelkällä kvantitatiivisella tutkimuksella voitaisiin saada. Kysely oli avoinna 15.11.–26.11.2021. Vastausprosentiksi saatiin 34,9 %. Etätyön merkittävimmiksi hyödyiksi havaittiin työ- ja vapaa-ajan joustavampi yhteensovittaminen ja se, että etätyössä keskittyminen on parempaa. Kommunikaation koetaan onnistuvan hyvin etätyössä, mutta kasvokkain tapahtuvaa kommunikaatiota pidetään myös tärkeänä. Esimerkiksi kehitys- ja ideointipalaverit olisi hyvä järjestää mahdollisuuksien mukaan kasvokkain. Lisäksi hiljaisen tiedon siirtyminen on vähäisempää etätyössä. Etätyö soveltuu hyvin tutkimus- ja tuotekehitystyöhön, eikä sen koeta heikentävän merkittävästi kykyä innovoida. Tulosten perusteella etätyötä haluttaisiin tehdä enemmän kuin 40 % työajasta ja etätyötä pidetään tehokkaana työskentelytapana. Kyselyssä ei selvitetty, minkälaisia etätyömääriä vastaajat ovat tehneet vahvan etätyösuosituksen aikana. Osa vastaajista on saattanut olla muita enemmän lähitöissä, mikä voi vaikuttaa tuloksiin. Saadut tulokset olivat kuitenkin samansuuntaisia kuin aikaisemmissa tutkimuksissa. Suurin osa tähän kyselyyn osallistuneista oli erittäin kokeneita ja työnsä hyvin osaavia työntekijöitä, mikä voi lisätä etätyömyönteisyyttä tuloksissa.
  • Mäkinen, Heljä (2022)
    Municipal case management is an activity that assesses various functional capacity indicators, utilizing the elderly’s state of health and coping in everyday life. The goal of case management is to refer clients to suitable services, such as home care or a doctor's visit. The problems related to drug treatments are only superficially reviewed. The involvement of a pharmacist in the assessment of case management would provide an opportunity to address the problems of pharmacotherapy and to provide adequate support for the implementation of pharmacotherapy. In this thesis, a remote service of a pharmacist was piloted for new clients over the age of 65 living at home as part of case management. Pharmacist reviewed medications remotely using medication risk management checklist LOTTA. The study examined the suitability of the LOTTA for medication reviews and the problems associated with medications of the elderly participating in case management. In addition, the suitability of pharmacovigilance assessments as a remote service as part of a comprehensive assessment of functional capacity and coping with everyday life was examined. The research material was collected at the case management unit of the city of Turku. The study involved 50 volunteer Finnish-speaking customers over the age of 65, for whom were assessed for a case management at Turku's case management unit. In addition to the assessment of normal case management, two pharmacists with comprehensive medication review qualifications reviewed medications using the medication risk management checklist LOTTA. Subjects were interviewed by telephone. If the pharmacist estimates that the subject will benefit from a multi-professional comprehensive medication review, the physician and pharmacist collaborated to conduct a review using a videophone application. Subjects background information, responses, observations made by pharmacists, and actions taken by physicians were recorded on an electronic form and analyzed. The mean age of the study participants (n = 50) was 82 years (range 67–98). Of these, 36 were women (72%) and 14 were men (28%). Most subjects were multidrug-treated (average medication 10.3, range 3–28). Each subject had at least one drug can be used with consideration for use in the elderly, as defined in the Fimea Drug 75 + database (Class C). 30% of subjects did not have a medication list and 34% reported lack of regular medication monitoring. 96% of the subjects had experienced a symptom on the LOTTA list that repeatedly interferes with their lives. The most common of these were problems such as constipation (54%). Pharmacists proposed changes for medication for 96 % of subjects. The most common proposed change was a change in the time of dosing (46%). Pharmacists estimated that 14 (28%) subjects would benefit from a multi-professional comprehensive medication review. In these cases, pharmacists made an average of 8.1 proposed changes for the physician, and the physician made an average of 6.9 changes for each subject. The most common challenges in coping with medication were symptom, which may be due to adverse drug reactions, a lack of follow-up to medication, and the absence of a treating physician. The results suggest that medication should be reviewed during the case management. The LOTTA list made it possible to identify and address the pharmacological problems of the elderly. The participation of a pharmacist in the assessment of the need for a multi-professional service remotely was possible, but it must be further developed. More research is needed on the benefits of multi-professional case management with a larger sample size.
  • Valve, Kiia (2021)
    Background and objectives: Pharmaceutical services provided by community pharmacies have the potential to improve medication safety and support the implementation of rational pharmacotherapy. The pharmaceutical services are internationally an underused resource to support functioning of social and health care services. The literature review of this Master’s thesis provides an overview of pharmaceutical services, - their funding and remuneration. The primary objective of the empirical study was to create an overview of the development of the pharmaceutical services in Finnish community pharmacies in 2010-2020. The secondary objective was to study differences in the service provision between Finnish provinces. Materials and methods: The study was carried out as a retrospective descriptive survey study annually conducted by the Association of Finnish Pharmacies. Åland was excluded from the provincial review so that individual pharmacies could not be identified. The data was analyzed using Microsoft Excel. The number of pharmacies providing pharmaceutical services annually and the annual number of customers using these services were counted at the national level. At the provincial level, the corresponding data for the prescribing review, medication review, comprehensive medication review and assessment of inhalation technique were analyzed for the years 2017-2020. Results and conclusions: The most common service with the highest number of customers was automated dose dispensing. The second most common service was prescription review. As a whole, the provision of services and the number of customers had increased during the study period in Finnish community pharmacies. Manual dose dispensing was a diminishing service. Differences were found between provinces in the prevalence of services and in the number of customers. It was possible to identify provinces with lower service provision activity, such as Lapland. The service provision prevalence and number of customers varied widely within provinces. The number of customers for a certain service in an individual pharmacy had a large effect on the provincial average, thus, the average number of customers in the provinces does not reflect the provinces' success in implementation of services. Pharmaceutical services, with the exception of the automated dose dispensing, are not well implemented.
  • Niemelä, Akseli (2022)
    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), a key enzyme in maturating high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, has been targeted to promote the efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport by small molecular positive allosteric modulators (PAM) of Daiichi Sankyo. For a set of these compounds their Vmax and EC50 values and binding site in the membrane-binding domain (MBD) of LCAT have been determined. Through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we previously found a metric that qualitatively described which compounds were active, so in this study we aimed to improve it by finding a quantitative metric. This led to the discovery of the Cα distance between CYS50 and ASN65, which correlates with this set’s Vmax values and which can be utilized to predict the Vmax values of novel compounds. Additional simulations were performed to discover whether this metric is changed by a lipid interface present, and to reveal a likely entry pathway PAMs take. As LCAT activation is likely a benign and potentially overlooked effect, we performed a virtual screen of FDA-approved compounds and secondary metabolites associated with LCAT. From secondary metabolites, a key finding was that flavonoids were overwhelmingly associated with LCAT and had a high binding potential to the MBD in docking simulations. The best binding compounds were subjected to MD simulations to discover their Vmax values using the discovered metric. This provided us with a set of compounds, which can be used to validate our in silico model in vitro. Should this model be validated, it can be used in optimising and discovering novel PAMs of LCAT, and it would bring evidence to the benefit of MD in drug discovery processes in general. Furthermore, if our discovered compounds can activate LCAT in vitro, they may be used as precursors for novel PAMs or as therapies by themselves not only for LCAT deficiencies, but perhaps for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases as well.
  • Natri, Ossi (2022)
    Coronary heart disease is a number one killer in westernized countries and the costs from it will continue to grow in the future. It is caused by atherosclerosis, build-up of plaque and chronic inflammation in the arteries of heart, and endogenous lipoproteins have a special role in its development. Among other atheroprotective properties, High density lipoproteins (HDL) have a role in intrinsic mechanism of the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), of gathering and removing excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues. There have been several HDL raising strategies in the past for the treatment of atherosclerosis, but their success has been modest. Synthetic HDL (sHDL), comprising of various types of phospholipids and proteins or peptides, have been developed to mimic the properties of endogenous HDL. Despite some success in animal studies, failures in clinical studies have turned the focus on the HDL’s interaction with a specific enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT), responsible for cholesterol esterification, a key step in RCT. ApoA-I, the most abundant protein component of HDL, acts as LCAT cofactor in cholesterol esterification, and many LCAT activating peptides have been developed to mimic the features of apoA-I. The molecular level understanding behind LCAT activation is however still foggy. During enzymatic activation, LCAT goes through conformational changes specific regions, which are generated by interactions with apoA-I or synthetic peptides. These mechanisms have been studied widely with molecular dynamic simulations, in vitro experiments, and imaging. In this study, we investigated 22A (PVLDLFRELLNELLEALKQKLK), apoA-I mimetic peptide known for its as good LCAT activation potency as apoA-I, and four variations of it (21A, 22A-P, 22A-K22Q, and 22A-R7Q), and combined them with phospholipid DPPC to create sHDL nanodiscs by thermal cycling method. We examined the effect of small changes in peptide sequence on LCAT-sHDL binding strength with quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The interest was to further test the suitability of thermal cycling method on nanodisc assembly, test the binding strengths against the hypothesis of the role of salt-bridge forming amino acids R7 and K22 in peptide dimerization and its effect on LCAT binding and activation, and to see if QCM could act as a suitable method for the research of sHDL-LCAT interactions. All peptides formed similar sized sHDL particles with diameter of ~10 nm with thermal cycling method. As expected, the LCAT binding tendency of 22A-sHDL was highest, about double compared to four other peptide nanodiscs with almost identical results. The QCM results suggest that binding tendency between LCAT and sHDL is affected by small, one amino acid change in peptide sequence, but it does not necessarily have a big impact on LCAT’s esterification activity, but based on this experiment alone, we cannot make any further conclusions. Electron microscopy revealed exceptional breakdown of 21A-sHDL incubated with LCAT compared to 22A-sHDL. This phenomenon could indicate high lipolytic rate of LCAT but needs further investigation. There were some challenges with the measurement parameters in the beginning, and the variability between parallel measurements with QCM-D was high, which cause a little doubt about the method’s suitability for these kinds of precise measurements. More research for revealing the molecular mechanism behind LCAT activation is needed for the development of more effective treatments.
  • Salminen, Veera (2021)
    Continuous monitoring of the safety profile of medicinal products is essential also after marketing authorisation approval to ensure the patient safety. Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions is one of the most important methods to collect post-approval safety data of medicinal products. The advantages of spontaneous reporting system include reaching large population throughout a long period of time for many medicinal products, however, it also has some limitations. One commonly recognized problem of the system in many countries is under-reporting of adverse drug reactions. The national reporting scheme in different countries slightly vary, even between Nordic countries. The main aim of this study was to find out what improvements should be done to the current reporting scheme in Finland so that it would better encourage healthcare professionals to report in relevant situations, which respond to the purpose of the spontaneous reporting system. Physicians (n=20), pharmacists (B.Sc.) (n=78), pharmacists (M.Sc.) (n=21) and nurses (n=13) responded to the anonymous open voluntary online questionnaire. Close-ended questions were analyzed and results summarized in graphs and tables. Statistical analysis was done using chi-squared test. Content analysis was performed for open-ended questions by utilizing both, inductive and deductive approach. In the study, we found some differences in healthcare professionals’ opinions what kind of adverse drug reactions should be reported. Some of the healthcare professionals were also aware that they had not reported all suspected adverse drug reactions that came into their knowledge and several reasons were recognized for this. Seriousness of the reaction was considered the most motivating factor for healthcare professionals to report about suspected adverse drug reactions. The results of this study suggest that in healthcare professionals’ opinion, the most important factors that should be considered to improve reporting in Finland are training for healthcare professionals and simplifying the reporting as much as possible. Some differences were noticed between the occupational groups regarding preferences in the reporting route and especially physicians seemed to prefer formation of the report from the information system as a reporting method more than open web-based reporting form. Mobile application for reporting was not preferred that much among Finnish healthcare professionals. The results of this study support the hypothesis that under-reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions is also present in Finland. The reporting instructions should be clarified, training availability should be considered and reporting should be simplified as much as possible to improve the reporting.
  • Lindstedt, Hanna (2022)
    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a relatively rare hepatic condition that can be classified as predictable and unpredictable. However, DILI is a primary reason for drug withdrawals, post-marketing warnings, and restrictions of use. DILI is a problem for the drug users but also for the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory bodies. From the perspective of patients' and clinicians', DILI is the major cause of acute liver injury. At present, a major problem predicting DILI in drug discovery is a poor understanding of its mechanisms as well as the complexity of DILI pathogenicity. The main mechanism behind DILI are alterations in bile acid homeostasis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. More than 50 % of drugs causing DILI are causing mitochondrial impairment. If the normal function of mitochondria is disturbed, the energy production of the cell decreases, and cell function decline leading eventually to the cell death. In this study prediction of mitochondrial toxicity was studied using cryopreserved primary hepatocytes of humans and rats. The aim of the study was to clarify if there are interspecies differences in the prediction of toxicity but also investigate possible differences in the mechanisms behind hepatotoxicity by using three well-known compounds toxic to mitochondria. To determine these differences, total cellular ATP was measured after 2- and 24- hour exposure time to gain information on overall viability and possible adaptive responses. Mitochondrial energy pathways were studied as a real-time monitoring acute exposure of test compounds. Morphology, location, and possible adaptive response of mitochondria were studied using a fluorescent probe and antibody staining combined with high content imaging (HCI). Overall, primary rat hepatocytes were more sensitive to the test compounds than human hepatocytes. Also, there were differences between human hepatocyte batches that may reflect the metabolic differences between hepatocyte donors. Immunolabeling did not bring any additional values compared to the fluorescent probe staining in the study of morphology of mitochondria. Additionally, it was noticed that treatment with paraformaldehyde significantly changed the hepatocyte mitochondria morphology. Overall, more effort is needed to develop image analysis of mitochondria morphology. Finally, studying mitochondrial morphology has proven to be difficult, and this study did not unfortunately reveal any information about the adaptive responses of mitochondria for drug-induced liver injury.
  • Böhling, Linda (2021)
    Tablet is the most common pharmaceutical dosage form due to ease of administration, chemical and physical stability, and relatively low manufacturing cost. Direct compression is the preferred method for tablet production. Direct compression formulations typically contain a considerable amount of excipients. Therefore, excipients can have a significant effect on the tableting properties of formulations. More research is needed for better comprehension of the compression behaviour of different materials. The objective of this work was to investigate tableting properties of different excipients and their binary mixtures with two different laboratory scale tableting devices; the Gamlen® D1000 Powder Compaction Analyzer and the FlexiTab®. The excipients used were microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), lactose, mannitol, starch, and dicalcium phosphate (DCP). Different compression pressures were used to survey the compression behaviour of the excipients at a wide pressure range. In addition, potential effects of compression speed, dwell time, and lubrication method were considered. The excipients and their binary mixtures were characterised based on compressibility (solid fraction vs. compression pressure) and tabletability (tensile strength vs. compression pressure). The results obtained with the devices were compared to enhance process understanding. Based on the compressibility curves, it appeared that plastic deformation was the main compression mechanism of MCC and starch and fragmentation the main compression mechanism of lactose, mannitol, and DCP. The tabletability of MCC was excellent, and also the tabletability of mannitol was good. The tabletability of DCP was intermediate, whereas lactose and starch had inferior tabletabilities. In general, the tabletabilities and compressibilities of the binary mixtures were more or less what was expected based on the results of the individual materials. The results obtained with the different speed parameters and lubrication methods were mainly in line with the perceptions of the compression mechanisms of different materials. In overall, the results obtained in the Gamlen and FlexiTab experiments were quite similar. However, tensile strengths appeared generally slightly lower in the FlexiTab experiments. Probable explanations are the higher compression speed of the FlexiTab and differences in hardness measurements. This study indicated that the FlexiTab and Gamlen devices have different benefits. The Gamlen device is clearly very suitable for investigating tableting properties during formulation development, but the FlexiTab device has the advantages of higher compression speed and automatic powder feeding mechanism. Tabletability results were slightly better with the Gamlen, but more experiments are needed for solving the reasons (e.g. compression speed and hardness measurements). More information of the compression behaviour of different materials could be obtained by analyzing punch displacement data and by using different compression equations.
  • Heininen, Susanna (2022)
    The medication-use process in hospitals includes several risks which can lead to medication errors. Medication errors can be prevented and managed by adding automation and technology solutions to the medication-use process, such as clinical decision support system (CDSS) integrated into electronic medication administration record (eMAR), unit dose drug distribution system (UDDDS), automated dispensing cabinet (ADC) and bar-code medication administration (BCMA). A closed loop medication management process can be created by integrating different methods and technologies seamlessly. It improves medication safety by decreasing human errors and allows the access to the patient’s medication information in real time. The closed loop medication management process is not yet fully in use in any Finnish hospital, but parts of it have already been implemented. Helsinki University Hospital (HUS) wants to improve the closed loop medication management process by piloting the use of unit dose (UD) bags in the medication- use process and to study its effects on medication safety. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of the medication dispensing errors and procedural errors, the working time of the nurses, and the nurses' opinions on the current drug dispensing model in a hospital ward before the introduction of the unit dose drug distribution system. The study was conducted as a mixed-method study, which utilized an observational method and an online survey. The data were collected at HUS internal medicine inpatient ward by observing the dispensing of morning medicines for ten days and through an electronic survey sent to the ward’s nurses. The overall incidence of dispensing errors in the current drug dispensing process was 40,1 % (553/1379). Of these, 3,2 % (44/1379) were medication dispensing errors, and after the excluding prescribing errors (n=22), the incidence was 1,6 %. These prescription errors were mainly related to prescribing medications outside the hospital's formulary. In addition, the incidence of procedural errors was 37 % (509/1379). Of the procedural errors, 57 % (292/509) were related to the unattached or missing barcodes and 37 % (186/509) to hygiene deficiencies in drug dispensing. On average, nurses spent 4,5 minutes per patient on medication dispensing and patients had 7 morning medications. The results of the survey also revealed problems related to barcodes as well as hygiene deficiencies, which supported the results of the observations. Significant safety risks, such as unattached barcodes, missing barcodes, and deficiencies in hygiene were identified in the current drug dispensing process. The study indicates that system-based risk management approach is not yet fully understood in hospital units. The root cause of procedural errors should be investigated more and review the ward's instructions with staff, to reduce their incidence in the future. At the end of 2021 a unit dose drug distribution model will be piloted in the ward, which may be one possible way to reduce errors related barcodes and hygiene. In addition, to improve the medication safety, physicians should order medications from hospital's formulary, so that generic substitution would no longer need to be made at the distribution stage. It would be useful to include a category of incorrect orders in the future research setups that investigate medication errors in the dispensing phase to identify such potential risk situations.
  • Suominen, Riina (2022)
    COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global crisis and its effects have also been reflected to pharmaceutical supply in Finland. At the beginning of the crisis the effects were especially evident in the consumption of self-medication analgesics, prescription drugs and drugs related to respiratory diseases. In a global crisis, collaboration between the public, private and third sector is becoming increasingly important, and it is important to consider how to develop the capacity for collaboration between organizations in different sectors during a pandemic. The purpose of this study was to find out how the cross-sector collaboration between the public, private and third sector of the pharmaceutical supply in Finland was organized in the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, what was the role of the cross-sector collaboration and how the preparedness and crisis management of the drug supply could be improved. The study was conducted as a semi-structured interview survey and the interviewees were selected to cover the various sectors of Finnish pharmaceutical care as well as possible. The analysis was performed by the Gioia method and thematic design. Based on the study the organization of cross-sector collaboration was both operator- and authority-oriented and the legislation and environment in the drug supply created the framework for the crisis management. Both the authorities and the advocacy organizations can be described as having acted as hubs for organization. There was no clear crisis organization in drug supply, but different actors were involved in the crisis management at different stages of the crisis. The role of collaboration was emphasized in the sharing of information and resources and in joint solution of problems. The collaboration enabled foresight and preparedness, a focus on core tasks and crisis management, and mutual benefit. Lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic include the need to increase and intensify collaboration, increase crisis plans and crisis training, update the system of security of supply and mandatory reserve supplies, increase self-sufficiency, and increase overall governance. Cross-sectoral collaboration was seen as useful in crisis management of the crisis in the drug supply chain. The collaboration promotes the formation of a common picture of the situation and the flow of information from the field to decision-makers. Comparing the results of this study with the literature it can be said that the results partially support the previous literature. However, crisis management of the pharmaceutical supply chain from the organization of cross-sectoral collaboration point of view has not been studied in the past.