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Browsing by study line "Yleinen ja aikuiskasvatustiede"

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  • Kinos-Järvinen, Anne (2019)
    The research task of this Master's thesis is to describe, analyze and interpret how the principals of Finnish elementary schools and high schools experience their workload and their job satisfaction. These are examined by the workload and resource factors of principal’s job. In addition, the ways of how the workload appears and ways of recovery are discussed. The thesis is a qualitative pilot study for a broader welfare research conducted by the Finnish Principals Association, which will be implemented during 2019. Previous studies on the work of a Finnish principal have shown that his job description is extensive, that the workload is high and job satisfaction is put to the test every day. This research was guided by the following research questions: How do principals experience their workload and work satisfaction? What are the factors that the principals feel stressing them on their work and how does the workload show? What do the principals feel are resource factors in their work and how and by what means do they recover? The material consists of interviews with sixteen Finnish principals of elementary schools and high schools. The interviews were conducted as a semi-structured theme interview. The interview questions related to the principal’s own experience of their job satisfaction, workload, the ways in which the workload appears, their experience of the resources of their work, and how they feel they success to recover, and how do they recover. The material was analyzed phenomenographically because the subject of the research were the subjective perceptions and experiences of the principals. According to the material, the Finnish principals are very satisfied with their work, despite its relatively high workload. The experience of satisfaction arises especially through the independence, significance and influence of the work. The principal's experience and attitude also seemed to be relevant to how the workload was experienced. Generally, the workload was described high and the load was described to appear as typical stress-induced warning signs, but the principals, however, judged the workload as being reasonable. The workload was considered to be a natural part of the principal's work and the respondents tended to have a constructive attitude towards it. The principals also reported that their own recovery was generally successful, which according to respondents was of great importance to coping with work.
  • Lipponen, Elsa (2020)
    The aim of my Master’s Thesis was to find out what kind of tasks were set for education in the 2019 parliamentary election programs. For years, researchers in the United States and Europe have studied the educationalization of social problems, which refers to the tendency to look to educational institutions in resolving the pressing social problems. In Finland, this phenomenon has rarely been studied under its own concept. Previous studies on the change in educational policy towards more individual-centered and market-oriented thinking suggested that educationalization also takes place in the Finnish context as well. In my research, I try to find out the kind of tasks political parties assign to education in their election programs and how they present the educationalization of social problems. The aim of my research is to create a picture of the most common tasks to be set for the education in the spring 2019 parliamentary election programs and to analyze the educationalization associated with the programs. The material of my research is the election programs of the parties elected to Parliament in the 2019 parliamentary elections. In my study, I relied on a frame analysis, which I use to structure the most common tasks and ideals set for education. After compiling the frames, I analyze each frame based on previous research. In my analysis, I seek to highlight the educationalization that appears in the election programs. The tasks given by the parties were very much in line with each other. The results showed a clear educationalization, which identified various complex societal problems as the responsibility for education, without specifying in more detail how education could actually solve the problem. More extensive research on educationalization is needed in the Finnish context, for example, to find out whether the resources given to education are in line with the increased number of tasks.
  • Parman, Marlene (2020)
    Based on previous studies, neoliberal features have been observed in Finnish education policy. The government has made education-related reforms in recent years. My research examines the recent public debate surrounding education reforms in a neoliberal framework. I examine what themes, goals, rationales, and attitudes toward education reform are given in the public debate. I will try to find out how neoliberalism manifests itself in these debates. The aim of my dissertation is to bring out the public debate around education reforms and education policy. The study of the debate is intended to bring out different perspectives and voices, from education policy experts, academics, students, and individual citizens. I examine the manifestations of neoliberal education policy in the light of these debates. My research is a qualitative study. I search answers to two research questions. My data consists of articles. As a research method, I used content analysis. The data of my research consists of 51 articles by Helsingin Sanomat published in 2015–2019. Articles were analyzed by content analysis. Through content analysis, I found four different themes. I looked at the results in a neoliberal framework. The education reform debate revolved around student selection, industry changers, education cuts, and education policy. The debate around education reforms was controversial. On the one hand, education reforms were justified as profitable and good ideas, but on the other hand, they were criticized and questioned. Educational reforms raised concerns and appeared to pose threats to education and the scientific community, as well as to society. Based on the discussion, neoliberal features emerge in education reforms.
  • Kuronen, Kaisa (2020)
    Objectives. The aim of this research was to address the possible connections between school choice and school segregation. The study covered three countries that were Finland, Sweden and England. The theoretical background of this research was based on the most relevant concepts for this research. These concepts were neoliberalism, New Public Management, school choice, educational markets and segregation. Method. I conducted this research as a systematic literature review which means that the data consisted of other researches. The collection of the material was conducted systematically from three different databases. The final material consists of 17 articles, 7 of them from Sweden and 5 from Finland and 5 from England. After the search I analysed all the articles from the point of my research question. From those results I formed a synthesis about each country. Results and conclusion. According to the results there were segregation between schools and in many cases, it was the result of school choice. In some cases, school segregation was explained to be the cause of residential segregation and the cause of residential segregation and school choice combined. In Finland and Sweden school choice explained school segregation more often than it did in England.
  • Palomäki, Sanni (2021)
    Global education deals with wide-ranging and complex global phenomena. In this dissertation, the theory of global education is examined primarily from a postcolonial perspective. Although global education is a cross-cutting theme in Finnish primary education, its implementation varies in schools as well as in teacher education. The dissertation examines the views of teacher educators, especially about the aims of critical global education and the challenges and opportunities of its implementation in teacher education. The research material acquired on the principles of action research consisted of group discussions of a workshop on critical global education for teacher educators, text material related to the workshop, and registration and feedback forms. The workshop was based in part on a discussion method which utilizes critical literacy issues. The workshop was organized in co-operation with global education organisation Taksvärkki ry and was attended by five (5) teacher educators from three Finnish universities. Most of the participating teacher educators had previous knowledge about the themes of global education. The material was analysed by inductive content analysis. In the speech of teacher educators, global education appeared as a starting point for education and teacher training. However, the discussions highlighted various tensions, for example in relation to the value base of global education, the nature of change and action. In teacher education, opportunities to address broad and complex themes were presented through, for example, dialogue, criticality and changing of perspectives, experiential learning, student encounters, and extensive collaboration. Challenges to the implementation of global education included a solid division of subjects, the ambiguity of global education, efficiency and lack of time, broad learning objectives, and formal learning environments. On the other hand, the introduction of critical thinking through subject didactics, a holistic approach to all teaching and the strengthening of the role of the educator in teacher education were also mentioned as examples. It is important to discuss global education and its goals both inside and outside teacher education and to co-operate in the wide-ranging implementation of global education.
  • Parikka, Laura (2022)
    Finnish grammar schools were partly gender-segregated during the independence time, because 35 finnish-language girls’ schools operated in Finland and at the most approximately 40% of all pupils studied in these girls’ schools. The task of this thesis is to find out, using the methodology of oral history, the significance of the girls’s schools as an educator in the memories of pupils from 1930s to 1970s. My thesis is based on qualitative research, where I describe and analyze school memories with a phenomenon- and event-focused research method and I use oral history to interpret broad cultural and social phenomena and events. The focus of my thesis is school history and social development viewed from a microhistorical perspective. With the oral history data I form a longitudinal picture of the individual as part of the girls’ school culture and I examine the transitions of the education culture across generations and find out what the girls’ school’s education has meant to different generations of women in the past. The source of my thesis is the survey material on girls’ and boys’ schools experiences collected in the Finnish Literature Society’s folk poetry archive’s tradition and contemporary culture collections in 2005-2006, which consists of girls’ school memories written by 26 women. The research material includes seventeen different girls’ schools located in ten different cities. The school memories I studied represented a strong narrative of experiences of teachers’ educational practices towards their pupils. The girls’ school pupils of 1930s and 1940s took the educational ideas of the school to be humility, necessary submission and the interest of the homeland as a matter of course. The teachers in the school memories were harsh and demanding, the punishments were based on blaming and creating shame. In 1950s the school’s educational culture sought uniformity and unity, and the teachers’ educational task emphasized the maintenance of the school’s operating culture with strict discipline and control of order. Restrained behavior was a demand internalized by the pupils from the school of the time. In 1960s the educational culture of the school began to change, although the teachers’ actions were still based on restrictive pedagogy and eradicating arrogance from the pupils. It was only at 1970s that the democratization of the school changed the teachers’ attitude towards their pupils and they were met as individuals. Throughout the decades, special sexual morality education was emphasized in the educational mission of the girls’ school. The pupils saw the schoool’s mission to raise kind, obedient, innocent and well-mannered girls.
  • Niinistö, Sari (2021)
    Objective of the study. The objective of the study was to research students learning experiences in mindfulness. I studied the experiences of students in the Faculty of Medicine about learning and the structuring of learning in the context of the mindfulness skills course. My perspective was intrapersonal and individual. There is little research data on the learning process of mindfulness because the mainstream of the study has concentrated on the clinical purposes of use and effects of mindfulness skills. I studied learning experiences using three questions: How do students describe conscious orientation of attention and selfaccepting perception (learning mindfulness)? How do students describe the effects / consequences of learning mindfulness for themselves? What meanings do students give to mindfulness learning? Methods. The research material was collected as part of the mindfulness and well-being course 2020. Participants in the Faculty of Medicine course practiced mindfulness skills during the course and returned learning diaries and a learning reports as part of the course. Among those who issued research permits, seven students (N = 7) were randomly selected in proportion to the population in the field of medicine and two students in psychology. The analysis of the learning diaries and the report was carried out with the help of theory-guided content analysis. The analysis identifies the impact of previous theoretical knowledge and research. Results and conclusions. Students described the objects, body, emotions, and thinking of directing attention on a general level. An accepting attitude towards self and practice was the most prominent attitude in the trainings of mindfulness skills although neutral, negative, judgmental, and ambivalent attitudes were seen. Students had very varied experiences of the effects and consequences of learning mindfulness. The effects were concrete changes in the operation or the control of the feelings and thinking. The effects of the learning process showed mindfulness as balancing experiences and a stress reliever. Insights and the development of self-confidence emerged, but anxiety and prejudice were also seen. Mindfulness was perceived as a meaningful stress management tool, a professional tool, an enabler of a conscious lifestyle and self-education. The progress of learning as a process was reflected in the results
  • Rautakorpi, Milla (2021)
    Aims. The aim of this thesis was to examine and describe from the perspective of the lifespan model of motivation how Finnish late adolescents navigate the post-high school transition, that is, how they channel, choose, and compensate career goals. The theorydriven, exploratory hypotheses assumed that the current situation in education or employment is associated with the career goal content (H1); the underlying meaning behind the career goal is associated with the career goals young people prioritise (H2); current situation in education or employment is associated with the change in career goals (H3); changes in career goals are associated with the importance of the career goal (H4). The results confirmed hypotheses H1, H2, and H3. Methods. The data were collected in 2019 using an intensive longitudinal setting. The weekly questionnaire was sent to sixty young Finns for thirty-nine consecutive weeks. At the start of the study, participants were 18 or 19 years of age. The qualitative data were analysed by means of content analysis and aggregated into key domains and core themes. The associations between categorical variables were examined using crosstabulation and χ2 test of independence. The associations between variables were also displayed graphically. Results and conclusions. Our findings were in line with previous literature revealing that the participants’ situation in education or employment was associated with the career goals they engage with. Studying was associated with prioritising goals concerning education, for example, high school graduation or university admission. In turn, working predicted goals concerning work or finances. Finnish late adolescents value higher education, and that was reflected in the results, as the career goals concerning university admission were prioritised among participants in almost every group. In general, our results reflected what are the expectations of the Finnish young people, but also what they expect of themselves. Based on the results, it seems that students state different reasons for career goal change than those who were working or neither working nor studying.
  • Aalto, Sanna (2022)
    Language skills are an important asset in the global world, so it is important to promote language learning. Music and language learning have been shown to be interconnected. However, most of the studies have been conducted with adult language learners and in laboratories. This study is an experimental study carried out in natural learning context with intervention paradigm. The aim of the study is to explore whether using a song as a tool in learning second language vocabulary in a bilingual preschool differs from using a nursery rhyme or prose. The null hypothesis is that children in bilingual preschool learn second language vocabulary as well with song as with nursery rhyme or prose. The alternative hypothesis is that children in bilingual preschool learn second language vocabulary better with song than with nursery rhyme or prose. Seven foreign language children from the preschool took part in the study. In study paradigm children were presented in learning phase a Finnish version of a well-known nursery rhyme Simple Simon as continuous stimuli in the form of a nursery rhyme, a song and prose. In EEG test phase they were presented same stimuli with some changes in vowels and syllables and their EEG was recorded. Event-related potentials to those changes were then compared between a nursery rhyme, a song and prose situation. In behavioral testing, children were presented words from the learning material and pseudowords formed from those words. We compared how well the children recognized words in the nursery rhyme (poem), the song and the prose situation. The data were analyzed in both research methods using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The null hypothesis could not be rejected. So, it cannot be stated that second language vocabulary is learned better with song than with nursery rhyme or prose. We detected a difference between the prose and the nursery rhyme stimuli in favor of the prose option measured with EEG. However, the sample size was too small to generalize the results. In discussion the results and used research methods are primarily examined on theoretical level considering previous studies. In conclusion, based on the previous studies, it is feasible to recommend using music in education especially in language learning but also in every phase of life due to music’s positive effects on motivation and togetherness to name but a few.
  • Ikäheimonen, Ada (2020)
    Constantly changing work life has placed new demands and challenges on the Finnish education system. The respond to these demands and challenges is a General Upper Secondary reform, which was launched in 2017. The General Upper Secondary reform includes renewal of curriculum, a new Act on General Upper Secondary Education and amending the regulations for the matriculation examination. The reform challenges the traditionally strong autonomous position of teachers as teachers are expected to adopt new ways of working. According to previous studies, the change in teacher work towards a team work culture requires new professional skills from teachers. The purpose of my study was to find out what possible changes and challenges the renewal of curriculum (LOPS) might have on the LOPS-tutors work. Furthermore, I wanted to map out whether the competencies of teachers need to be updated after possible changes in competency requirements. I studied the phenomenon qualitatively by interviewing six LOPS- tutors who, in addition to their teacher work, are working closely on reform of General Upper Secondary Education. The material of this study was collected by semi-structured theme interviews. As a theoretical part, I defined the General Upper Secondary Education in the Finnish context, the history of school development, teachership and teachers work. In addition, I presented the key themes of the reform, the new Act on General Upper Secondary Education and renewal of curriculum. The method of analysis in this study was theory-guided content analysis. According to the results of my study, the teacher work life will change due to the new curriculum (2019). The most essential changes affecting to teachers’ work were increasing amount of team work and interaction, multidisciplinary study modules and the expansion of supervision. Lack of time, concern for well-being of teachers, as well as the structural challenges and bureaucracy emerged as key challenges in the implementation of the reform. Interviewees did not agree on whether teachers would need in-service training. My study supports the view that teachers have a contradictory attitude towards school changes. Although school development was seen as an important and necessary factor, the changes did not appear to be realistic taking into account the everyday reality of the school.
  • Salonen, Jaana (2020)
    Aims. In this study it was examined what kind of identity profiles are found in the high school data. The theory background was Luyckx's and colleagues' (2008) theory of identity development through five dimensions. These dimensions were exploration in breadth, commitment making, exploration in depth, identification with commitment and ruminative exploration. In this study it was expected that different combinations of the dimensions form different identity profiles. In earlier studies five or six profiles have been found. Furthermore, the second objective of the study was to investigate if the identity profiles differ from each other in relation to school burnout. A previous study showed the troubled diffusion identity profile scored highest on school burnout. Methods. The survey data analysed in this study was collected in 2019. The data consisted of 932 respondents of whom 605 (65%) were girls, 306 (33%) were boys and 18 (2%) were non-binary. The respondents were third year high school students in the Helsinki area who participated in an electric questionnaire. To find the identity profiles, cluster analysis was performed to the sum variables of identity dimensions. The connection of the identity to school burnout was analysed with a one-way variance analysis. Results and conclusions. The high school students were divided into five profiles based on the contents of the cluster analysis. The profiles were named as follows: troubled diffusion, ruminative moratorium, achievement, carefree diffusion and searching while committed. A fifth of the students had found their identity. Identity was unclear for about the 60 % of the students. The students had a lot of ruminative exploration. The identity profiles were connected to school burnout. The school burnout averages were significantly different between the identity profiles. The achievement profile scored lowest on school burnout and the troubled diffusion scored highest on school burnout.
  • Lyden, Hanna (2020)
    According to the self-determination theory, motivation consists of top of three innate psychological needs; need of autonomy, competence and relatedness. If these needs are fully satisfied we experience intrinsic motivation. If not, motivation is extrinsic and externally regulated. Intrinsic motivation should be strived for because it leads to a better performance, learning and well-being. This study compares the motivation of high school students between their study situations and free time situations in the context of self-determination theory. The participants were Finnish second year high-school students from the Helsinki metropolitan area. Within the context of self-determination theory, this study explored external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation and intrinsic regulation. The research data consisted of the answers from 150 students and 3431 completed questionnaires. The data was collected using an experience sampling method by the Bridging the Gaps study. The data survey lasted from 11 to 12 days and it was collected in different schools in sequential order. The data was collected from March till May in 2018. The first point of this research was to examine if there is difference in the motivation between studying and free-time and how much variation there is in the motivation. The method used for this was a linear regression. The study found that the smallest coefficient of determination was within the identified regulation. Studying and free time managed to explain 8.6% of the variation in the motivation when it comes to the identified regulation. The largest coefficient of determination was with the introjected regulation. Studying and free time explained 42.5% of the variation in the motivation when it comes to the extrinsic regulation. The second goal of this research was to examine if there is variation in the motivation between students when study time and free time are not taken into consideration. The method used for this was a multilevel modeling approach on level zero. The smallest variation between the students was within the intrinsic motivation. The variation in motivation was then 6.79% between the students. The largest variation in motivation was within the introjected regulation. The variation in motivation was 23.01%. The third focal point of the research was to examine how the motivation is correlated with study situations and free time situations with a multilevel modeling approach (mixed linear model). The study found that the studying situations were positively correlated with the extrinsic regulation and the introjected regulation. The study situations were negatively correlated with the intrinsic regulation. The free time situations were positively correlated with the intrinsic regulation and negatively correlated with the extrinsic regulation and the introjected regulation. The results indicated that the participants experienced more intrinsic motivation during their free time than during their studies. The benefits of the intrinsic motivation are evident when it comes to the school performance and well-being of the students. For this reason, it would be beneficial to see if the intrinsic motivation experienced at free time could be transferred and explored also in the studying situations.
  • Kuusi-Naumanen, Anna (2020)
    Multidimensional perfectionism is characterised by a combination of two individual tendencies: perfectionistic strivings, which refer to striving for excessively high personal standards, and perfectionistic concerns, which refer to evaluating overly critically one’s own accomplishments. Achievement goal orientations refer to individuals generalized tendencies to favour certain types of goals in achievement settings. Together these frameworks address both the level and the quality of goals students set for themselves. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between perfectionism and achievement goal orientations among upper secondary school students. This study ultilized a group-based approach and classified students based on their patterns of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. In previous studies, subgroups of perfectionists have differed in their achievement goal orientations. Here, it was further investigated whether these subgroups show meaningful differences also in their subject-specific (i.e., mathematics and English) achievement goal orien-tations. The participants in the present study were 434 general upper secondary school students from Southern Finland, who completed online questionnaires. Students were classified by using TwoStep cluster analysis, and group differences in achievement goal orientations in two different school subjects were examined through analyses of variance. Four distinct perfectionism profiles (perfectionists 21,3%, ambitious 23,8%, concerned 35,6% and non-perfectionists 19,2%) were identified. The ambitious students highlighted mastery-intrinsic, mastery-extrinsic, and performance-approach orientations, while the concerned highlighted relatively more performance-avoidance and avoidance orientations. The perfectionists displayed high values in all orientations, while the non-perfectionists had relatively low value in all orientations, except for the avoidance orientation. Differences in subject-specific orientations were rather similar in both subjects, yet small differences were found. High concerns seemed to be linked with performance- and avoidance orientations. Especially the perfectionists, but also the concerned, are at the risk of adopting maladaptive goals and it might be useful to consider this in teaching and student counselling.
  • Eira, Emma (2020)
    Goals. The purpose of this study was to find out what kind of social media groups can be identified among high school students and what kind of gender differences exist in the use of social media. This study also examined whether the social media user groups differ in self-esteem and how gender and socioeconomic background are related to the relationship between social media use and self-esteem. It is important to examine adolescents’ social media user habits in order to gain more detailed information about the association between adolescents’ social media use and self-esteem. Methods. The data (N = 1203) was collected from high school students in 34 Helsinki schools in spring 2018. Participants filled in questionnaires that measured social media use, self-esteem and questions regarding family background. Gender differences in social media usage were evaluated with Independent Samples t-Test and the relationship between with the preliminary variables were analyzed using Pearsons’ correlation factors. Respondents were divided into groups based on participation in social media by using the Two Step Cluster analysis. One-way analysis of variance examined whether groups differed in self-esteem. The one-way analysis of variance also examined whether socioeconomic background and gender influence how user groups differ in self-esteem. Results and conclusions. Four distinct groups were identified from the data: socially networked, knowledge-oriented, academically oriented, and active users. Differences in the use of social media by girls and boys were observed. Girls were found to use more social media for social networking compared to boys. Boys, in turn, were found to use more social media for knowledge-oriented and academically oriented purposes than girls. In addition, gender differences in the distribution of social media user groups were examined. The group of active users and socially networked were more popular among girls, while the knowledge-oriented and academically oriented groups were more popular among boys than girls. The group of active users was the largest group in the material and the most popular user group among girls and boys. Based on this, it can be stated that most girls and boys use digital media in a very diverse way. Social media user groups were not found to differ significantly in self-esteem, and gender or socioeconomic background did not explain the differences in user groups in self-esteem.
  • Korhonen, Julia (2021)
    Objective of the study. Assessment is a central part of academic teacher education studies and supporting the development of professional agency a key objective of assessment in tertiary education. Therefore, understanding students’ experiences of being assessed and the development of professional agency in assessment situations is important. Teachers’ professional agency is an integrative concept consisting of three dimensions: motivation, self-efficacy and classroom strategies. Previous studies have shown that the teaching practice periods and social interaction situations during teacher education are important in the development of student teachers’ professional agency. Furthermore, previous studies have suggested that assessment practices are related to students’ motivation, self-efficacy and learning. Previous studies have not explored students’ assessment experiences in relation to the development of their professional agency. The purpose of the present study is to find out what kind of assessment situations student teachers identify as important, and how these assessment situations are related to the development of teachers’ professional agency. Methods. The data consisted of eight individual interviews, collected from student teachers who were at the final phase of their studies. The Critical Incident method was applied when carrying out the interviews. The participants were asked to recall assessment situations during their teacher education studies which they found important for their professional development. The interview data were analyzed using the abductive content analysis approach. Results and conclusions. The results suggested that assessment situations were related to the development of student teachers’ professional agency. The clearest relation was found between assessment situations and students’ self-efficacy. The students considered formative, timely, dialogical and well-founded assessment as the most beneficial in supporting the development of their professional agency. Assessment as its best can enhance students’ experiences of being on the right track, capability for teacher profession and having the sufficient skills for teacher’s work in the future. Poorly executed assessment can impede the development of professional agency. Based on the results the use of dialogical feedback practices and interactive peer assessment practices can be particularly beneficial in supporting the development of students’ motivation, self-efficacy and classroom strategies. It is important to consider the development of students’ professional agency in developing the assessment practices of the academic teacher education.
  • Manninen, Mari (2022)
    The transition from teacher education to working life can be a very demanding time. Early career teachers often experience uncertainty about their own skills and an inability to carry out teaching in accordance with their goals. Previous research has shown that teachers’ perceptions of their own ability to deliver teaching affects, among other things, the quality of teaching and student learning. The aim of this master's thesis is to increase the understanding of the practices of the induction in the school community that support the building of the professional self-efficacy of early career teachers. The research questions were: What kind of key experiences of the construction of the concept of self-efficacy are described by class teachers in the induction phase? What factors in everyday school life have strengthened the self-efficacy? What factors in everyday school life have impaired the self-efficacy? The data consisted of interviews with 9 class teachers at the beginning of their careers. The Journey Plot interview method was used to collect the interview data. The data for my study were collected as part of a larger joint research project of the Universities of Helsinki, Tampere and Eastern Finland entitled “Early career Teachers’ Professional Agency across four European countries -Key for Sustainable Educational Change?” funded by the Academy of Finland. The interview data were qualitatively content analyzed by applying an abductive strategy. The key experiences of professional self-efficacy were both positive and negative. The key experiences were especially related to the teaching and the challenges and changes in work. According to the results, the support of colleagues and the principal strengthened the professional self-efficacy of classroom teachers. Correspondingly, the lack of support and guidance in the induction phase weakened the professional self-efficacy experienced by class teachers. The lack of support especially in challenging situations and changes in work had a detrimental effect on teachers' professional self-efficacy. The results reinforce the notion that the professional self-efficacy of class teachers can be strengthened in everyday school life through diverse support and guidance.
  • Weckman, Elvi (2022)
    Previous research shows that multicultural and multilinguistic organizations can be more effective and creative than other organizations. Building trust in workplace strengthens commitment to work and eliminates conflicts and disagreements between colleagues. Organizational culture is partly impacted by how trust building materializes in practice in work community. The purpose of the study was to discover how international experts experience trust building and work commitment in a multicultural organization. The study was conducted in the IT organization that is part of a bigger Finnish organization. The study answered two research questions: (1) What should an organization guarantee to its employees to build trust and commitment? (2) What informal factors contribute to building trust in a multicultural work community? This study was conducted qualitatively, and semi-structured interview was used as a method to collect research material. In total, six people were interviewed for the study. They all work for the IT organization and do not speak Finnish as their mother tongue. Three of the interviewees had moved to Finland when they started working for the organization and three others work from their home countries as consultants for the organization. Theoretical content analysis was used as the analysis method. The results of the study suggest that international professional’s benefit from clear goals, roadmaps, and strategies that guide their work. These should be available in English. In addition, multicultural teams’ benefit from being able to build their own ways of working that takes multiculturalism and language barriers into account. Informal acquaintance is also useful in building trust. International colleagues had positive experiences of colleagues and supervisors who had helped them when they moved to Finland, for example. In addition, it has been important for the international experts to learn Finnish and learn about the Finnish culture. In order to build trust and commitment, it is important that the organizational culture supports the needs of multiculturalism and multilingualism, and the employees implements the culture in everyday life. The results of the study can be applied in building trust and commitment of multicultural teams.
  • Koskinen, Pekka (2020)
    In this thesis I inquire into young people’s stories about disability activism. This thesis aims to contribute to current discussions in the field of disability studies and youth studies concerning young disabled people’s societal influencing and participation. As it has been acknowledged in youth studies, young peoples’ political agency shouldn’t be seen only as an involvement in official politics, but more diversified and concerning also the different aspects of everyday life. In this thesis I ask how and in which ways young disability activists aim to influence societal practices and what opportunities for agency are available in these processes. I draw my analysis from five semi-structured interviews which I conducted with young disability activists aged between 22–26. The purpose of the interview was to produce accounts and descriptions about the research topic. I analysed the data using qualitative narrative method. Different disability and human rights organisations had an important role in enabling interviewees’ political agency. The organisations had opened a way to influence for many young people, nevertheless there were different contradictions attached to their narration. These contradictions were connected to the organisational practices effecting the limits and possibilities to be heard. Also the themes and topics young people consider important can be interpreted as apolitical from the organisational perspective. Some interviewees stated that for example sexual diversity was often bypassed. For some young people the political agency took the form of more mundane practices. These involved blogging and different social media activities, doing music with a disability politics twist and taking part in different demonstrations and marches. I interpreted these practices to be more spontaneous and not limited by organisational practices and thus they have the possibility to bring new topics and themes to the sphere of political. This thesis suggests that instead of seeing young people as politically passive, we should pay attention to their political agency and the different forms it might take.
  • Vainonen, Milla (2019)
    The aim of this master’s dissertation was to look into the affective practices that took place and affected the work in the equality work groups at the university. In this study I will explain how through affective practices and layers the affects become entangled into the patterns of equality work shaped historically and culturally. In my theoretical approach I follow Sara Ahmed’s and Margaret Wetherell’s work and their understanding of affect, affective practice and emotion. I was working in an equality project at the University of Helsinki, and it seemed that certain regularities were affecting the equality work. I started to ask how to get a closer look of those regularities and patterns. I noticed that looking for affective practices could be the key to get a closer look into those patterns. I wanted to find out what possibilities the concept of affect could bring into the current research of equality work. I implemented my research by ethnographic observation and interviews in different groups that were working with the themes of equality and diversity in the faculty. I collected data during the semester 2018–2019, and interviewed three university employees. My methodological approach was post structural nomadic ethnography, which first and foremost meant constantly moving in the thought process. Uncertainty was present not only in the observation and interviews but also in the written report. I found that affective practices were present in all those places where equality was promoted. Especially the themes of individual-based expertise, silences, appreciation and goals of equality work collected several affective layers. Those layers had material consequences which I will further explain in this study. Based on my research equality work is rich in affective practices. Affects can be a force of change, but affective layers can also hinder the work with the regularities and patterns that follow affective practices. I have identified and named four affective layers, and studied the effects of those layers in the equality work groups of the university. The results of this study can be utilized in the further research and development of equality work.
  • Helminen, Tiina (2021)
    In a varied working environment, individuals are expected to have an increasingly strong ability to tolerate change and adversity. Several research findings point out that a motivated person performs better in challenges, which enables them to succeed in their changing tasks. Therefore, it is important to understand how the factors that influence motivation are un-derstood on the individual level. Quantitative research has widely studied areas of work moti-vation, often using self-determination theory. In this research the theory of self-determination was used to pursue to give structure to the individual’s perception of factors influencing work motivation, and individual’s perceptions and experiences were emphasized rather than their generalizations and connections. The purpose of this qualitative research was to describe and understand media workers` per-ceptions of their motivation and how environment appears as part of perceptions. This research was carried out in collaboration with one media company. The data was collected with semi-structured interviews, where ten employees of the media company were interviewed. Educa-tional background of the interviewees was at least a bachelor’s degree, and all of them were currently working in various media positions. Among the interviewees were digital salespeople, product developers and a journalist manager. The data was analyzed with thematic analysis. As motivating factors media workers emphasized the possibility of influencing their own work, freedom, and responsibility, as well as internal rewards from work. Interviewees perceived as internal rewards the meaning of the work, self-development, and social support, and these were perceived as more significant than the value of the external rewards. The expectations to the organization were centered around development-friendly and equality-oriented work com-munity, where people work together but individual operating models are allowed. Based on this research, organizations would benefit from focusing on designing operating models and prac-tices which would allow for more flexible opportunities in considering individual wishes and goals in future decision making.