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Browsing by study line "Yleinen ja aikuiskasvatustiede"

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  • Aalto, Sanna (2022)
    Language skills are an important asset in the global world, so it is important to promote language learning. Music and language learning have been shown to be interconnected. However, most of the studies have been conducted with adult language learners and in laboratories. This study is an experimental study carried out in natural learning context with intervention paradigm. The aim of the study is to explore whether using a song as a tool in learning second language vocabulary in a bilingual preschool differs from using a nursery rhyme or prose. The null hypothesis is that children in bilingual preschool learn second language vocabulary as well with song as with nursery rhyme or prose. The alternative hypothesis is that children in bilingual preschool learn second language vocabulary better with song than with nursery rhyme or prose. Seven foreign language children from the preschool took part in the study. In study paradigm children were presented in learning phase a Finnish version of a well-known nursery rhyme Simple Simon as continuous stimuli in the form of a nursery rhyme, a song and prose. In EEG test phase they were presented same stimuli with some changes in vowels and syllables and their EEG was recorded. Event-related potentials to those changes were then compared between a nursery rhyme, a song and prose situation. In behavioral testing, children were presented words from the learning material and pseudowords formed from those words. We compared how well the children recognized words in the nursery rhyme (poem), the song and the prose situation. The data were analyzed in both research methods using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The null hypothesis could not be rejected. So, it cannot be stated that second language vocabulary is learned better with song than with nursery rhyme or prose. We detected a difference between the prose and the nursery rhyme stimuli in favor of the prose option measured with EEG. However, the sample size was too small to generalize the results. In discussion the results and used research methods are primarily examined on theoretical level considering previous studies. In conclusion, based on the previous studies, it is feasible to recommend using music in education especially in language learning but also in every phase of life due to music’s positive effects on motivation and togetherness to name but a few.
  • Ikäheimonen, Ada (2020)
    Constantly changing work life has placed new demands and challenges on the Finnish education system. The respond to these demands and challenges is a General Upper Secondary reform, which was launched in 2017. The General Upper Secondary reform includes renewal of curriculum, a new Act on General Upper Secondary Education and amending the regulations for the matriculation examination. The reform challenges the traditionally strong autonomous position of teachers as teachers are expected to adopt new ways of working. According to previous studies, the change in teacher work towards a team work culture requires new professional skills from teachers. The purpose of my study was to find out what possible changes and challenges the renewal of curriculum (LOPS) might have on the LOPS-tutors work. Furthermore, I wanted to map out whether the competencies of teachers need to be updated after possible changes in competency requirements. I studied the phenomenon qualitatively by interviewing six LOPS- tutors who, in addition to their teacher work, are working closely on reform of General Upper Secondary Education. The material of this study was collected by semi-structured theme interviews. As a theoretical part, I defined the General Upper Secondary Education in the Finnish context, the history of school development, teachership and teachers work. In addition, I presented the key themes of the reform, the new Act on General Upper Secondary Education and renewal of curriculum. The method of analysis in this study was theory-guided content analysis. According to the results of my study, the teacher work life will change due to the new curriculum (2019). The most essential changes affecting to teachers’ work were increasing amount of team work and interaction, multidisciplinary study modules and the expansion of supervision. Lack of time, concern for well-being of teachers, as well as the structural challenges and bureaucracy emerged as key challenges in the implementation of the reform. Interviewees did not agree on whether teachers would need in-service training. My study supports the view that teachers have a contradictory attitude towards school changes. Although school development was seen as an important and necessary factor, the changes did not appear to be realistic taking into account the everyday reality of the school.
  • Salonen, Jaana (2020)
    Aims. In this study it was examined what kind of identity profiles are found in the high school data. The theory background was Luyckx's and colleagues' (2008) theory of identity development through five dimensions. These dimensions were exploration in breadth, commitment making, exploration in depth, identification with commitment and ruminative exploration. In this study it was expected that different combinations of the dimensions form different identity profiles. In earlier studies five or six profiles have been found. Furthermore, the second objective of the study was to investigate if the identity profiles differ from each other in relation to school burnout. A previous study showed the troubled diffusion identity profile scored highest on school burnout. Methods. The survey data analysed in this study was collected in 2019. The data consisted of 932 respondents of whom 605 (65%) were girls, 306 (33%) were boys and 18 (2%) were non-binary. The respondents were third year high school students in the Helsinki area who participated in an electric questionnaire. To find the identity profiles, cluster analysis was performed to the sum variables of identity dimensions. The connection of the identity to school burnout was analysed with a one-way variance analysis. Results and conclusions. The high school students were divided into five profiles based on the contents of the cluster analysis. The profiles were named as follows: troubled diffusion, ruminative moratorium, achievement, carefree diffusion and searching while committed. A fifth of the students had found their identity. Identity was unclear for about the 60 % of the students. The students had a lot of ruminative exploration. The identity profiles were connected to school burnout. The school burnout averages were significantly different between the identity profiles. The achievement profile scored lowest on school burnout and the troubled diffusion scored highest on school burnout.
  • Lyden, Hanna (2020)
    According to the self-determination theory, motivation consists of top of three innate psychological needs; need of autonomy, competence and relatedness. If these needs are fully satisfied we experience intrinsic motivation. If not, motivation is extrinsic and externally regulated. Intrinsic motivation should be strived for because it leads to a better performance, learning and well-being. This study compares the motivation of high school students between their study situations and free time situations in the context of self-determination theory. The participants were Finnish second year high-school students from the Helsinki metropolitan area. Within the context of self-determination theory, this study explored external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation and intrinsic regulation. The research data consisted of the answers from 150 students and 3431 completed questionnaires. The data was collected using an experience sampling method by the Bridging the Gaps study. The data survey lasted from 11 to 12 days and it was collected in different schools in sequential order. The data was collected from March till May in 2018. The first point of this research was to examine if there is difference in the motivation between studying and free-time and how much variation there is in the motivation. The method used for this was a linear regression. The study found that the smallest coefficient of determination was within the identified regulation. Studying and free time managed to explain 8.6% of the variation in the motivation when it comes to the identified regulation. The largest coefficient of determination was with the introjected regulation. Studying and free time explained 42.5% of the variation in the motivation when it comes to the extrinsic regulation. The second goal of this research was to examine if there is variation in the motivation between students when study time and free time are not taken into consideration. The method used for this was a multilevel modeling approach on level zero. The smallest variation between the students was within the intrinsic motivation. The variation in motivation was then 6.79% between the students. The largest variation in motivation was within the introjected regulation. The variation in motivation was 23.01%. The third focal point of the research was to examine how the motivation is correlated with study situations and free time situations with a multilevel modeling approach (mixed linear model). The study found that the studying situations were positively correlated with the extrinsic regulation and the introjected regulation. The study situations were negatively correlated with the intrinsic regulation. The free time situations were positively correlated with the intrinsic regulation and negatively correlated with the extrinsic regulation and the introjected regulation. The results indicated that the participants experienced more intrinsic motivation during their free time than during their studies. The benefits of the intrinsic motivation are evident when it comes to the school performance and well-being of the students. For this reason, it would be beneficial to see if the intrinsic motivation experienced at free time could be transferred and explored also in the studying situations.
  • Kuusi-Naumanen, Anna (2020)
    Multidimensional perfectionism is characterised by a combination of two individual tendencies: perfectionistic strivings, which refer to striving for excessively high personal standards, and perfectionistic concerns, which refer to evaluating overly critically one’s own accomplishments. Achievement goal orientations refer to individuals generalized tendencies to favour certain types of goals in achievement settings. Together these frameworks address both the level and the quality of goals students set for themselves. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between perfectionism and achievement goal orientations among upper secondary school students. This study ultilized a group-based approach and classified students based on their patterns of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. In previous studies, subgroups of perfectionists have differed in their achievement goal orientations. Here, it was further investigated whether these subgroups show meaningful differences also in their subject-specific (i.e., mathematics and English) achievement goal orien-tations. The participants in the present study were 434 general upper secondary school students from Southern Finland, who completed online questionnaires. Students were classified by using TwoStep cluster analysis, and group differences in achievement goal orientations in two different school subjects were examined through analyses of variance. Four distinct perfectionism profiles (perfectionists 21,3%, ambitious 23,8%, concerned 35,6% and non-perfectionists 19,2%) were identified. The ambitious students highlighted mastery-intrinsic, mastery-extrinsic, and performance-approach orientations, while the concerned highlighted relatively more performance-avoidance and avoidance orientations. The perfectionists displayed high values in all orientations, while the non-perfectionists had relatively low value in all orientations, except for the avoidance orientation. Differences in subject-specific orientations were rather similar in both subjects, yet small differences were found. High concerns seemed to be linked with performance- and avoidance orientations. Especially the perfectionists, but also the concerned, are at the risk of adopting maladaptive goals and it might be useful to consider this in teaching and student counselling.
  • Eira, Emma (2020)
    Goals. The purpose of this study was to find out what kind of social media groups can be identified among high school students and what kind of gender differences exist in the use of social media. This study also examined whether the social media user groups differ in self-esteem and how gender and socioeconomic background are related to the relationship between social media use and self-esteem. It is important to examine adolescents’ social media user habits in order to gain more detailed information about the association between adolescents’ social media use and self-esteem. Methods. The data (N = 1203) was collected from high school students in 34 Helsinki schools in spring 2018. Participants filled in questionnaires that measured social media use, self-esteem and questions regarding family background. Gender differences in social media usage were evaluated with Independent Samples t-Test and the relationship between with the preliminary variables were analyzed using Pearsons’ correlation factors. Respondents were divided into groups based on participation in social media by using the Two Step Cluster analysis. One-way analysis of variance examined whether groups differed in self-esteem. The one-way analysis of variance also examined whether socioeconomic background and gender influence how user groups differ in self-esteem. Results and conclusions. Four distinct groups were identified from the data: socially networked, knowledge-oriented, academically oriented, and active users. Differences in the use of social media by girls and boys were observed. Girls were found to use more social media for social networking compared to boys. Boys, in turn, were found to use more social media for knowledge-oriented and academically oriented purposes than girls. In addition, gender differences in the distribution of social media user groups were examined. The group of active users and socially networked were more popular among girls, while the knowledge-oriented and academically oriented groups were more popular among boys than girls. The group of active users was the largest group in the material and the most popular user group among girls and boys. Based on this, it can be stated that most girls and boys use digital media in a very diverse way. Social media user groups were not found to differ significantly in self-esteem, and gender or socioeconomic background did not explain the differences in user groups in self-esteem.
  • Korhonen, Julia (2021)
    Objective of the study. Assessment is a central part of academic teacher education studies and supporting the development of professional agency a key objective of assessment in tertiary education. Therefore, understanding students’ experiences of being assessed and the development of professional agency in assessment situations is important. Teachers’ professional agency is an integrative concept consisting of three dimensions: motivation, self-efficacy and classroom strategies. Previous studies have shown that the teaching practice periods and social interaction situations during teacher education are important in the development of student teachers’ professional agency. Furthermore, previous studies have suggested that assessment practices are related to students’ motivation, self-efficacy and learning. Previous studies have not explored students’ assessment experiences in relation to the development of their professional agency. The purpose of the present study is to find out what kind of assessment situations student teachers identify as important, and how these assessment situations are related to the development of teachers’ professional agency. Methods. The data consisted of eight individual interviews, collected from student teachers who were at the final phase of their studies. The Critical Incident method was applied when carrying out the interviews. The participants were asked to recall assessment situations during their teacher education studies which they found important for their professional development. The interview data were analyzed using the abductive content analysis approach. Results and conclusions. The results suggested that assessment situations were related to the development of student teachers’ professional agency. The clearest relation was found between assessment situations and students’ self-efficacy. The students considered formative, timely, dialogical and well-founded assessment as the most beneficial in supporting the development of their professional agency. Assessment as its best can enhance students’ experiences of being on the right track, capability for teacher profession and having the sufficient skills for teacher’s work in the future. Poorly executed assessment can impede the development of professional agency. Based on the results the use of dialogical feedback practices and interactive peer assessment practices can be particularly beneficial in supporting the development of students’ motivation, self-efficacy and classroom strategies. It is important to consider the development of students’ professional agency in developing the assessment practices of the academic teacher education.
  • Manninen, Mari (2022)
    The transition from teacher education to working life can be a very demanding time. Early career teachers often experience uncertainty about their own skills and an inability to carry out teaching in accordance with their goals. Previous research has shown that teachers’ perceptions of their own ability to deliver teaching affects, among other things, the quality of teaching and student learning. The aim of this master's thesis is to increase the understanding of the practices of the induction in the school community that support the building of the professional self-efficacy of early career teachers. The research questions were: What kind of key experiences of the construction of the concept of self-efficacy are described by class teachers in the induction phase? What factors in everyday school life have strengthened the self-efficacy? What factors in everyday school life have impaired the self-efficacy? The data consisted of interviews with 9 class teachers at the beginning of their careers. The Journey Plot interview method was used to collect the interview data. The data for my study were collected as part of a larger joint research project of the Universities of Helsinki, Tampere and Eastern Finland entitled “Early career Teachers’ Professional Agency across four European countries -Key for Sustainable Educational Change?” funded by the Academy of Finland. The interview data were qualitatively content analyzed by applying an abductive strategy. The key experiences of professional self-efficacy were both positive and negative. The key experiences were especially related to the teaching and the challenges and changes in work. According to the results, the support of colleagues and the principal strengthened the professional self-efficacy of classroom teachers. Correspondingly, the lack of support and guidance in the induction phase weakened the professional self-efficacy experienced by class teachers. The lack of support especially in challenging situations and changes in work had a detrimental effect on teachers' professional self-efficacy. The results reinforce the notion that the professional self-efficacy of class teachers can be strengthened in everyday school life through diverse support and guidance.
  • Weckman, Elvi (2022)
    Previous research shows that multicultural and multilinguistic organizations can be more effective and creative than other organizations. Building trust in workplace strengthens commitment to work and eliminates conflicts and disagreements between colleagues. Organizational culture is partly impacted by how trust building materializes in practice in work community. The purpose of the study was to discover how international experts experience trust building and work commitment in a multicultural organization. The study was conducted in the IT organization that is part of a bigger Finnish organization. The study answered two research questions: (1) What should an organization guarantee to its employees to build trust and commitment? (2) What informal factors contribute to building trust in a multicultural work community? This study was conducted qualitatively, and semi-structured interview was used as a method to collect research material. In total, six people were interviewed for the study. They all work for the IT organization and do not speak Finnish as their mother tongue. Three of the interviewees had moved to Finland when they started working for the organization and three others work from their home countries as consultants for the organization. Theoretical content analysis was used as the analysis method. The results of the study suggest that international professional’s benefit from clear goals, roadmaps, and strategies that guide their work. These should be available in English. In addition, multicultural teams’ benefit from being able to build their own ways of working that takes multiculturalism and language barriers into account. Informal acquaintance is also useful in building trust. International colleagues had positive experiences of colleagues and supervisors who had helped them when they moved to Finland, for example. In addition, it has been important for the international experts to learn Finnish and learn about the Finnish culture. In order to build trust and commitment, it is important that the organizational culture supports the needs of multiculturalism and multilingualism, and the employees implements the culture in everyday life. The results of the study can be applied in building trust and commitment of multicultural teams.
  • Koskinen, Pekka (2020)
    In this thesis I inquire into young people’s stories about disability activism. This thesis aims to contribute to current discussions in the field of disability studies and youth studies concerning young disabled people’s societal influencing and participation. As it has been acknowledged in youth studies, young peoples’ political agency shouldn’t be seen only as an involvement in official politics, but more diversified and concerning also the different aspects of everyday life. In this thesis I ask how and in which ways young disability activists aim to influence societal practices and what opportunities for agency are available in these processes. I draw my analysis from five semi-structured interviews which I conducted with young disability activists aged between 22–26. The purpose of the interview was to produce accounts and descriptions about the research topic. I analysed the data using qualitative narrative method. Different disability and human rights organisations had an important role in enabling interviewees’ political agency. The organisations had opened a way to influence for many young people, nevertheless there were different contradictions attached to their narration. These contradictions were connected to the organisational practices effecting the limits and possibilities to be heard. Also the themes and topics young people consider important can be interpreted as apolitical from the organisational perspective. Some interviewees stated that for example sexual diversity was often bypassed. For some young people the political agency took the form of more mundane practices. These involved blogging and different social media activities, doing music with a disability politics twist and taking part in different demonstrations and marches. I interpreted these practices to be more spontaneous and not limited by organisational practices and thus they have the possibility to bring new topics and themes to the sphere of political. This thesis suggests that instead of seeing young people as politically passive, we should pay attention to their political agency and the different forms it might take.
  • Vainonen, Milla (2019)
    The aim of this master’s dissertation was to look into the affective practices that took place and affected the work in the equality work groups at the university. In this study I will explain how through affective practices and layers the affects become entangled into the patterns of equality work shaped historically and culturally. In my theoretical approach I follow Sara Ahmed’s and Margaret Wetherell’s work and their understanding of affect, affective practice and emotion. I was working in an equality project at the University of Helsinki, and it seemed that certain regularities were affecting the equality work. I started to ask how to get a closer look of those regularities and patterns. I noticed that looking for affective practices could be the key to get a closer look into those patterns. I wanted to find out what possibilities the concept of affect could bring into the current research of equality work. I implemented my research by ethnographic observation and interviews in different groups that were working with the themes of equality and diversity in the faculty. I collected data during the semester 2018–2019, and interviewed three university employees. My methodological approach was post structural nomadic ethnography, which first and foremost meant constantly moving in the thought process. Uncertainty was present not only in the observation and interviews but also in the written report. I found that affective practices were present in all those places where equality was promoted. Especially the themes of individual-based expertise, silences, appreciation and goals of equality work collected several affective layers. Those layers had material consequences which I will further explain in this study. Based on my research equality work is rich in affective practices. Affects can be a force of change, but affective layers can also hinder the work with the regularities and patterns that follow affective practices. I have identified and named four affective layers, and studied the effects of those layers in the equality work groups of the university. The results of this study can be utilized in the further research and development of equality work.
  • Helminen, Tiina (2021)
    In a varied working environment, individuals are expected to have an increasingly strong ability to tolerate change and adversity. Several research findings point out that a motivated person performs better in challenges, which enables them to succeed in their changing tasks. Therefore, it is important to understand how the factors that influence motivation are un-derstood on the individual level. Quantitative research has widely studied areas of work moti-vation, often using self-determination theory. In this research the theory of self-determination was used to pursue to give structure to the individual’s perception of factors influencing work motivation, and individual’s perceptions and experiences were emphasized rather than their generalizations and connections. The purpose of this qualitative research was to describe and understand media workers` per-ceptions of their motivation and how environment appears as part of perceptions. This research was carried out in collaboration with one media company. The data was collected with semi-structured interviews, where ten employees of the media company were interviewed. Educa-tional background of the interviewees was at least a bachelor’s degree, and all of them were currently working in various media positions. Among the interviewees were digital salespeople, product developers and a journalist manager. The data was analyzed with thematic analysis. As motivating factors media workers emphasized the possibility of influencing their own work, freedom, and responsibility, as well as internal rewards from work. Interviewees perceived as internal rewards the meaning of the work, self-development, and social support, and these were perceived as more significant than the value of the external rewards. The expectations to the organization were centered around development-friendly and equality-oriented work com-munity, where people work together but individual operating models are allowed. Based on this research, organizations would benefit from focusing on designing operating models and prac-tices which would allow for more flexible opportunities in considering individual wishes and goals in future decision making.
  • Perttu, Annina (2019)
    The purpose of my Master’s Thesis was to study how gender is presented in secondary school textbooks. I’ve studied both the quantity of masculine and feminine characters presented in secondary school textbooks as well as the roles the characters of each gender are assigned. Prior studies in this field of study (eg. Blumberg 2007; Tainio & Teräs 2010; Ohlander 2010) have indicated that feminine characters are underrepresented in school textbooks and gender is presented stereotypically. This is an important subject to study because gender segregation in Finnish labour force is extremely high. Based on prior studies it is my assumption that school textbooks still portray gender stereotypically. The research material contained 12 secondary school textbooks; six mathematics and six native Finnish language textbooks. The studied textbooks were from two separate publishers. The other publishers’ books were fully digital. Mathematics and native Finnish language textbooks were chosen due to these subjects being studied the most based on hours in the secondary school curriculum. These subjects have also previously been noted to be gendered. The study was done as a qualitative content analysis. A decision to examine the material through a theory-based content analysis was made, because the study material´s categorization is based on a previously established framework. A calculation was made on the quantity of both masculine and feminine characters, as well as characters whose gender could not be identified, based either on the images or text provided in the textbooks. The characters found were placed in predetermined groups, feminine, masculine and neutral characters. The results show, that on average, the studied textbooks contained more masculine than feminine characters. The study showed an attempt to place the characters in gender atypical roles. However, this was found to be the case only for feminine characters. Both feminine and masculine characters were still assigned to mostly traditional gender roles and occupations, and the fluidity of gender was not considered. It can be concluded that secondary school textbooks still portray gender very traditionally and present gender as an inborn identity.
  • Halsas, Ada (2021)
    The purpose of this study was to describe how job demands, job resources, and work engagement are presented in ICT-enabled mobile work in the health technology sector. There are previous studies on job resources, job demands and work engagement in mobile work and this research aims to bring new knowledge to the topic from the perspective of mobile workers in the field of health technology. This study was conducted as a qualitative case study in the field of health technology. The interviewees in the study were all mobile work employees in the same health technology company. All interviewees had several years of mobile work experience. The material was collected through semi-structured thematic interviews and a total of eight interviews were conducted. The interview material was analyzed through theory-guided content analysis. According to this study, mobile work in the field of health technology is associated with demands and resources that are in line with previous research on mobile work, as well as industry-specific factors. According to this study, in the field of health technology, experienced meaningfulness of work, good customer relationships, trust in employees, clear goals and work autonomy were emphasized as work resources. The job demands were poor working conditions, flexibility of working hours, loneliness at work, low feedback, social pressure experienced in client premises, travel for work, communication, variability of work and language skills required at work. Some of the demands of work, such as variability in work and working hours were also perceived as job resources. According to this study, work engagement was enabled best at customer premises. At customer premises were strong feelings of vigor and absorption present. Work in the healthcare sector was perceived as meaningful and the interviewees were proud of their work.
  • Malinen, Rosa (2020)
    Aims. The present research examines care workers’ motivation and work commitment in a Finnish social and health care organization. The aim of the study was to investigate the current state of the employees’ motivation, work commitment and the self-determination theory’s basic psychological needs, and their relation to effort in work and to the intention of leaving the organization. Moreover, the study also examined the relationships between motivation, commitment and basic psychological needs. Motivation was divided to intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation based on intangible rewards. Work commitment included affective and normative professional commitment, colleague commitment, customer commitment and affective, normative and continuance organizational commitment. Method. This investigation was carried out with a survey which was composed using several former inquiries developed to measure motivation and dimensions of work commitment. The voluntary survey was sent to the target group employees by email. In total, the survey collected 600 answers which meant that the response rate was 30%. The data was analyzed using correlation, cluster analyses and structural equation modeling. Results. The care workers intrinsic motivation and professional commitment, colleague commitment and customer commitment were quite strong. All the dimensions of the organizational commitment and extrinsic motivation were in turn quite weak. The effort on work was evaluated to be strong and especially the sense of competence, intrinsic motivation, affective professional commitment as well as customer commitment played a meaningful role in it. In addition, there was some intention to leave the organization among the employees and according to the results the sense of autonomy, affective professional commitment and affective and normative organizational commitment reduced the intention to leave. The study clarified that the basic psychological needs of the self-determination theory are interconnected, not only to intrinsic motivation, but also to affective work commitment. The sense of autonomy was quite strong but because it had a direct as well as an indirect effect on the intention to leave, it was suggested that the organization should work on strengthening it more. Furthermore, the sense of competence can explain the conclusion made from the analyses of the study that extrinsic motivation based on intangible rewards supports intrinsic motivation. The results showed that care workers’ motivation and work commitment can be strengthened with diverse possibilities to influence and with positive feedback.
  • Torpo, Hanna (2021)
    Aims. The purpose of this thesis was to examine what kind of achievement goal orientation groups can be found in the context of non-formal, job-related online learning, and how the discovered groups differ from each other in perceived costs of online learning and in assessment of work organization’s supportive learning culture. The study’s context offered a unique application to the goal orientation profile research, as the examined type of learning was non-formal learning, or more specifically, non-formal online learning related to work. This study contributes to building an understanding of motivational processes among people in working life and presents practical implications for the development of online learning practices and materials so that those would be more encouraging and supportive to a wider audience of learners. Methods. The research data was collected by an online questionnaire during January and February 2021. Altogether, 170 individuals from Europe and North America, working in different roles and fields, participated in the study. The participants were classified into goal orientation groups by utilizing a person-oriented approach and Two-Step cluster analysis. To examine in-between group differences, analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed. Results and Conclusions. Four distinct goal orientation profiles were identified: learning-oriented, success-oriented, performance-avoidance-oriented, and avoidance-oriented. Learning-oriented differed from the other groups in perceived costs, as they assessed the online learning costs to be significantly lower. In organizational learning culture, avoidance-oriented evaluated their work organization to have a less supportive learning culture than the rest of the groups. After further examination of the study results, it was found that performance and avoidance goals seem to be connected to higher perceived online learning cost, while mastery goals seem to be related to an assessment of a more supportive organizational learning culture. Based on these findings, this study also presents practical implications in the latter part of the paper. All in all, the results indicate that understanding and knowledge of different motivational patterns is crucial for the development and expansion of non-formal, job-related online education.
  • Rönn, Kaisa-Maria (2021)
    Objectives. The aim of this study has been to gain insight into change management and change experiences in the Corona pandemic. The effects of the coronavirus brought a whole new situation in the field of change management and organizational change: the sudden, unexpected, and global need for change. The previous studies of change management have largely examined only the management from a planned view, in which case change management has been seen as a predicted situation in which their intention is to move from one point to another. In the corona situation, this view has not been possible. The change has to have be made in the constant change of security, the world change and new regulations. The aim of this thesis has been to find out what change management has looked like in the Corona period in one store in the field of trade and how change has been experienced in this new and very different change situation. Methods. This study has been carried out as a case study on one trade store located in the Helsinki metropolitan area. For the study, five employees of the store were interviewed: a department store manager, supervisor and three employees of the cash register department. The interviews were conducted as individual interviews in order to access the change situation through the stories experienced by the individuals. The interviews were analyzed by narrative means and the aim was to find stories about the change situation and its experience in the interviewees´ speeches. Results and conclusions. The study found that the change management in Corona pandemic highlighted changes in attitudes to work and feelings, changes in work habits, changes in customer behavior, and various challenges and opportunities. The results highlighted how management and employees perceived the change in different ways and how, especially during the corona, the communication of change and its challenges emerged. At the same time, however, it was noticed how the value of the trade sector has risen and the work was seen as important for society.
  • Pöyry, Vilma (2021)
    The aim of this master’s thesis was to describe, analyze and interpret the perceptions of women who have progressed to the management level about their own success and the factors that have positively or negatively influenced their career path. In addition, the purpose of the study was to understand at a more general level their perceptions of the relatively small number of female leaders compared to men and their ideas of ways to increase that number. This dissertation is made at a time when equality matters have been on the table for a long time. My qualitative research consisted of seven semi-structured thematic interviews and they were analyzed by data-driven content analysis. The interviewees were currently or formerly in leadership positions, all women over 40 and under 70 years of age. All interviewees worked or had worked in medium-sized or large listed companies. Results of the study show that women leaders described their own success and the positive and negative factors that influenced their career, as well as the relative scarcity of women leaders and ways to increase the number with societal and organizational, social, and personal factors. Both their own success and the relative scarcity of female leaders were justified in particular by the importance of their own attitude and personality. Other important criteria for one’s own success were given, such as networks and contacts. The relative scarcity of female leaders was seen to be resulted from for example gender inequality in parental leave, segregated gender networks, and the different upbringing styles of boys and girls. Equalizing parental leave, having gender-neutral networks, raising children in the same way, and examining one’s own attitude were some of the solutions given by the interviewees. Overall, the results revealed that many explanations were given for one’s own success and for the lack of female leaders in general, and the interviewees did not name just a few decisive factors that determine a person’s success, but it is a sum of many different factors.
  • Mannonen, Oona (2021)
    The aim of this thesis was to examine what kind of achievement orientation goal profiles can be identified among employees, and how the employees belonging in different profiles differ in work burnout and engagement. The topic was viewed in the context of transition from studies to working life. Achievement goal orientations describe individual and generalized ways of dealing with achievement situations and preferring certain types of goals. Work burnout consists of exhaustion, inefficacy and cynicism, and work engagement consists of vigor, dedication and absorption. Connections between achievement goal orientations and well-being have been found in the study context, so it is meaningful to study this topic in the work context as well. The first hypothesis was that three or four achievement goal profiles can be found among the employees. According to the second hypothesis, learning- and success-oriented employees will experience high work engagement, but success-orientation is connected to higher burnout. Avoidance-orientation and being uncommitted is most likely connected to lower engagement and higher burnout. The data of this thesis was a part of a data collected for the FinEdu-study in the fall 2016 and spring 2017. The participants (n = 535) were 28- to 30-year-old employees who were at the beginning of their professional careers, and they filled in a questionnaire that measured achievement goal orientations, work burnout and work engagement. A person-centered approach was used, so the participants were first divided into achievement goal profiles using a cluster analysis. The differences between the profiles concerning work burnout and engagement were analyzed with analysis of variance. Four different achievement goal orientation profiles were identified in the data: mastery-oriented, success-oriented, indifferent and disengaged. Mastery-oriented employees experienced quite a lot of work engagement and only a bit of burnout. Success-oriented employees were also engaged, but they experienced more burnout than mastery-oriented employees. The indifferent and disengaged employees weren’t as engaged, indifferent employees experienced efficacy and cynicism, whereas burnout of the disengaged employees was average. Overall, however, the employees experienced more work engagement than work burnout. The results can be applied for example when there is a will to help employees set their personal goals, improve work environment and tasks and enhance well-being at work.
  • Kauppila, Sanna (2019)
    Aims. This study investigated what kind of emotions work-life evokes in young adults. The aim of the study was to get a full picture on young adults’ emotions that were focused on their work-life. Theory of psychological construction of emotions and emotions circumplex- model was used as the main theoretical framework. Complexity in the concept of emotions makes it challenging subject to study. Emotions in the area of work-life have been studied in the field of organizational psychology, and in these studies the research has focused on examining emotions connected to work engagement or burnout. However, no previous studies exist concerning young adults’ emotions towards work or work-life. Methods. This study is a part of longitudinal FinEdu (Finnish Educational Transitions) study. Young adults’ emotions were examined with an open question which was presented to the research subjects (N=551). The participants were 27-28 years old young adults. The responses were categorized and merged to the circumplex- model of emotions. Results and conclusions. Thirty emotion categories were formed based on young adults’ responses (e.g. joy, anxiety, hope), and 27 of them ended up to the final analysis and as a part of circumplex- model of emotions. In addition, 4 upper categories formed the circumplex- model, which was further divided into 11 lower categories. Work-life raised more positive activating emotions in young adults’ that any other upper categories. The most common emotions that young adults reported were positive activating emotions, such as general positive emotions, joy and excitement. However, young adults also experienced negative activating emotions, such as stress, anxiety and fear. Concerning deactivating emotions, the most common were tiredness or feelings of burnout/exhaustion. As a conclusion, todays’ work-life raised mostly positive activating emotions, and some negative and/or mixed emotions. Negative and mixed emotions can result from todays’ uncertain and demanding work culture. In the future, organizations should invest to the health and wellbeing of young employees.