Skip to main content
Login | Suomeksi | På svenska | In English

Browsing by department "Opettajankoulutuslaitos"

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Saarinen, Jade Luna (2018)
    Aims. The aim of my research was to study the use of social media of 15–17 year old Finnish teenagers and what effects social media has on them. Earlier studies have shown that an average Finnish teenager uses social media approximately 15 hours during a week. It has also been studied that the social media has an effect on self-esteem. I chose social media and it’s effects on teenagers as my research subject because as a phenomenom the social media is rather young, which is why there has not been done many Finnish studies focusing on the teenagers’ social media use. My research assignment is to find out what kind of social media users teenagers are and what kind of effects social media has on their self experiences. Methods. The study was qualitative and 45 teenagers from age 15 to 17 participated in it. The data was collected with an internet questionnaire which was shared through social media, and it contained mainly open questions. The data was analysed by using qualitative data-based content analysis. Results and conclusions. Most of the teenagers used social media 3–4 hours daily or more. It was used for entertainment, for finding information, communication, current affairs, sharing one’s own life experiences and for finding inspiration, among other things. Almost half of the teenagers were bullied over social media. Appearance was also essential in the social media. Social media created ideals for appearance for teenagers and set them under critique, gave them false image of reality and made the teenagers look for the acceptance through outlooks. 31 of them had gotten positive comments on their appearance from social media and 13 had gotten negative comments. Those comments had an impact on the teenagers’ self-esteem, mood and feelings. Teenagers had also objects of identification and admiration in social media, such as videobloggers, artists, models and their own friends, and they were influenced by them. They felt that social media had many positive and negative effects on their lives. Positive effects were the rise of self-esteem, being more brave in expressing one’s own opinion, the possibilities of keeping in touch with other people and being the source of inspiration, motivation and information, among other things. The negative effects were the social media taking too much time and creating pressure, its bad effect on physical condition and sleep, distortion of self-image, the mean people and the need to be always within reach, among other things. The results of this study implicate that the social media has a comprehensive effect on the lives of the teenagers and their self experiences.
  • Peuhkuri, Ulla (2017)
    The focus in recent research related to household work has been the allocation of time. The results suggest that the overall time spent in household chores has dropped especially amongst the youth and that the work is shared unevenly between genders. Household cleaning is generally regarded as the least pleasant chore despite its necessity in a functional household. Reducing the burden of routine household work has been attempted through rationalization with varying degrees of success. Inspired by this, the major goal of this study is to find out whether understanding the motivation of individuals will provide means for developing more effective methods of rationalization. The focus in this study is the cleaning motivation of young people and, in particular, measuring the motivation through Job Characteristics Model. The research gives insight what factors explain the changes in the cleaning motivation amongst the youth. The motivation is quantified using the so-called motivation potential score. The research data was gathered through a questionnaire based on Job Diagnostic Survey. The answers (N=140) were collected mainly through two Finnish Facebook groups (HC-partiolaiset and Kopeda) although the questionnaire was open to anyone with the correct hyperlink. The answers were analyzed using SPSS statistical analysis software using explorative factor analysis and regression analysis. The results suggest that Job Characteristic Model may work for describing the motivation of household cleaning. The measured mean motivation potential score of the youth was 50.5 with minimum and maximum values 17.5 and 109.6, respectively. Out of the measured factors, only the cleaning frequency clearly explains the changes in the motivation potential score. The results cannot be generalized to the population level due to a small sample size and missing repeated study. More research is required in order to adapt the used models to household cleaning motivation.
  • Penttinen, Kaarina (2013)
    Aims. The post-war time in Finland was a golden era of reconstruction and the baby boomers were born. Earlier the 1950's have been a subject of studies in architecture, suburban studies, home technology and social politics. The following research questions arose from the ageing of the baby boomers: what actually occurred in everyday life in Finnish families during the 50's and how well-being manifested itself in demanding circumstances? The aim of this research was to let the contemporaries themselves tell the story of the 50 s, in the context of home economics. The themes and the questions of the research are as follows: 1.Well-being in families: Which factors contribute to well-being in families? 2.Connections between everyday life, built environment and surrounding nature: Which factors connect the everyday life to environment? 3.Functionality in families and the technological development at homes: Which technological innovations are utilized by families? Data and methods. The research approach was narrative. The data for this qualitative research consists of 15 narrative stories from informants (n=16) in different age groups from different parts of Finland. Informants were invited through the organization Marttaliitto and via the researcher's own interest groups. The theoretical framework lies in the interpretive oral history. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results and conclusions. There were five themes which contributed to well-being in families. Functional housing and development of the built environment were important contributing factors. Target-oriented action to achieve a good life and responsible human agency to increase solicitude both between the family members and in community. Everyday life was connected to the environment on many levels, through economical and emotional factors. There was a wide variety of the artifacts that families used. They can be categorized whether they were used in housekeeping, if they promoted functionality at homes or were used during the leisure time. Societal factors have a great impact on forming the relationship between everyday life and environment. To raise the standard of living through target-oriented action is dependent on the development of the infrastructure. Political actions to promote the welfare state have been a carrying force of development of the 50 s, having a positive effect on households activity. Societal factors to promote welfare improve health and increase equality in education.
  • Asmala, Laura (2017)
    This research focuses on the children's clothing of the 1950's. Especially this research has its focus on the meanings of children's clothes. Children's clothes had not been researched widely before, and there was no research of Finnish children's clothes from the 1950's. The decade was remarkable in the lives of families and children, there was some big changes in society, which had a direct effect on both families and children. Costume research has proven that people use clothes to communicate to one another. This is why it is interesting to research how we can see the changed position of the children in her clothes. I studied 12 clothes from Satakunnan Museo's collections. My aim was to choose clothes that would represent as good as possible the children's fashion of the 1950's. I chose not to research underwear, pyjamas, or accessories like shoes or hats. I created an analyse for this research, where I utilized semiotics, artefacts studies and earlier costume research. Children's position could be seen in many ways in her clothes. Urbanization, school systems generalization, could be seen as formality in the clothes. Also the conservative perspective on families and gender could be seen as differences in the clothes of boys and girls. As medicine and psychology as well as behavioural sciences, developed their theories, started the emphasizing of outdoor activities and playing for children's health. These matters could be seen as loose clothes and material choices. On the other hand no elastic materials were used in the clothes of matter, even though the guide books of raising children up, did recommend elastic materials. This research indicated that the society's and adult's aspects on children, could be seen in her clothes in the 1950's.
  • Vaajoki, Vicky (2016)
    Change is often viewed as the essence of fashion, but many who operate in the field have observed that certain features and events recur either in a linear, cyclical, swinging or fragmented matter. The purpose of my thesis is to forecast the next 1950s revival by developing and testing a new tool for forecasting. To achieve my goal I examined, if the revivals show common always recurring features and what the similarities and differences are like. I studied the two most recent recurrences in the years 1996 and 2012 by focusing on two retrotrends, apparel and Zeitgeist. The perspective of my thesis was a qualitative and hermeneutic future study. I examined the apparel features with photographs of Chanel's and Dior's collections. For the interpretation of the Zeitgeist factors I used Mitä, missä, milloin -books and collected the research material from the section on culture, news and international politics. For the analysis I employed the hermeneutic circle and two types of qualitative content analysis. On the first round I expanded my pre-understanding and defined the factors with which I grouped, measured and interpreted the material in the content analyses. On rounds two, three and four I analyzed the photographs by applying content analysis of visual images, and examined the text with inductive content analysis. On the fifth and final round I formed the base for my forecast by comparing my expanded understanding and the results of the previous rounds with one another. According to the results the most common characteristic features of the dresses and jackets, in Chanel's and Dior's collections from the years 1996 and 2012, resembled the features of the 1950s. The greatest differences where in the lengths of the sleeves and skirts. All of the Zeitgeist factors recurred in each revival, except for the "racial riots", youth culture and the buy now pay later -mentality. Based on my findings I predict that the common characteristic features of the 1950s apparel and Zeitgeist will recur in the next revival.
  • Naskali, Tuomo (2014)
    In the past few decades, Western countries have evolved from industrial societies to information societies. Skills that are useful in life and work are not the same as before. Schools as an institution have been criticized for lagging behind in change. For this reason,21st Century Skills have been developed to work as a model of skills useful in the future. The aim of this study is to observe the ICT projects of some first-graders in one school through the lens of 21st Century Skills. My goal is to study which 21st Century Skills were learned in the projects and how. iPads were used in the projects; two classes made multimedia books of themselves and one made video interviews about different professions. The pupils also used Edmodo, which is a social media and learning environment aimed at schools. Their activity in Edmodo is also studied from the viewpoint of 21st Century Skills. Social media has changed the way people live and work in a global level, but it has not been used or studied much in elementary schools. My study is a case study whose subjects were pupils from three 1st grade classes (age ~7) in an elementary school in Helsinki metropolitan area. The school has a pedagogical ICT support person who planned and carried out the projects together with the class teachers. The projects took place in April-May 2013 and I was present at the school to observe the lessons. The data of my study comprises of my own observation notes, the video material I filmed and the content the pupils produced in Edmodo. The data is analyzed with theorybased themes as per a model of 21st Century Skills. All three classes were analyzed together. The data reflects the future challenges of teaching. Many contents of 21st Century Skills were learned in the projects. Especially, skills related to social interaction, technology, creativity and problem solving were learned. The pupils shared ideas and solved problems together. Their actions were creative and target-oriented. By using iPads the pupils worked on their ICT skills and learned to use new apps and services quickly. Edmodo supported social and technological learning goals. Some pupils uploaded a lot of content to Edmodo, some only a little. Although social media was used only briefly by the students, they learned vital skills for upcoming years in school.
  • Vesalainen, Elina (2013)
    The purpose of this study was to examine what type of sleep pedagogy is used in kindergarten groups consisting of 3- to 5-year-old children. The term sleep pedagogy, in this content, means such pedagogical practices, which enhance falling asleep and gaining restfulness. The goal was to increase information about attitudes and pedagogical practices regarding naptime. At the same time the intention was to learn more about how children's needs for rest and sleep are catered to and on whose conditions naps and rest time is organised. There is very little prior research done on kindergarten children's naps and rest time. Most of the existing knowledge is about toddlers sleep or is focused on sleep disturbances. The study was conducted in April 2012. It included 14 kindergarten groups from one municipal day care area. The data was collected by interviewing the kindergarten teachers and by observing the groups. The observations were based on a semi-structured observation sheet, which focused on the physical environment as well as on the events and the atmosphere. The observations were carried out so that they began when the activity prior to naptime was ended (typically lunch). They lasted until most of the children were peaceful and the adult stopped the activity (for example reading a story) in the nap room. The study was performed during one day in each group. Besides the interviews and observations, kindergarten teachers filled in a background form and the nap rooms were photographed. The analysis method was phenomenological, which means that the subject was examined as a phenomenon entity. The interviews were analysed following the stages of the phenomenological analysis method. For analysing the observations a specific scale was created. The scale consisted of four parts, which measured 1) the structure of the activity, 2) the quality of the adults interaction, 3) the adults essence in the nap room and 4) the physical distance between the adult and the children. These four areas were measured, and compared to the tranquillity of the children. The results of this study show that the groups of 3- to 5-year-old children are balancing between different sleep needs. Besides the different needs, the attitudes of the pedagogues, the whole system of kindergarten tasks, the physical environment and children's' parents all have their impact on the way how nap time is arranged. The interviews indicate that kindergarten teachers value highly the naptime, but they underline the difference in napping and resting. The study shows clear connections between children's' restfulness and the pedagogical acts. According to this study, factors that increase children's' tranquillity are a tranquil essence and a child-oriented interaction of the adult as well as the clear structure of the transition activities and naptime. The study offers valuable information on kindergartens naps and rest time. This information can directly be utilized in planning naptime and especially in situations were naptime is considered challenging.
  • Koivumäki, Anu (2015)
    The purpose of this thesis is to find out how five to six year old boys' need for support with their gross motor skills is associated with their other skills, such as cognitive and social skills. The scope of the material also allowed to study the associations between gross motor skills and daily functions of early childhood education. I study these other functions in my third research problem; how does the need for support with gross motor skills impact the daily activities of the child in his early childhood education. Based on earlier research, it is known that motor skills have an impact on the development of the child. My assumption was that my research data would support earlier research. The data used in this thesis was part of the University of Helsinki "Orientaation lähteillä" research project material. The data had been collected from 45 day cares, including both kindergartens and childminders in Central Uusimaa and Hämeenlinna. The material had been collected by interviewing and observing the children, and having the teachers evaluate the children's different skills. Background information and information about the learning environment was also collected. This thesis is based on the material's Needs plenty of support with gross motor skills claim, which had been evaluated on a five point scale. The data was delimited to boys aged five to six (N=243). The data was analysed using cross tabulation and correlations from child observations and skills assessments. This thesis is quantitative, and the SPSS software was used to study the associations between gross motor skills and other skills and functions. The results of this thesis show that children who needed support with their gross motor skills, often also needed support with their cognitive and social skills. The need for support with gross motor skills also impacted the child's everyday activities. A child who had a need for support with their gross motor skills played less imaginary games, spent less time in guided outdoor activities, and focused his attention more frequently on non-social targets than other children. The children who needed plenty of support where physically less active and less committed during the kindergarten day. In conclusion, motor development influences many other areas of a child's development, and therefore special attention needs to be paid to promoting motor development in early childhood education.
  • Aalto, Severi (2017)
    Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine the motivation of 7th to 9th graders in secular ethics and the factors related to that. The study also examined the connections between the factors behind motivation and connections related to pupils background information. Pupils' interest in different contents of secular ethics was also explored. Method. This study was a quantitative survey, but it also included a qualitative section. The motivation scale of the questionnaire is based on Pintrich's (1988) MSLQ ((Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) and Ruohotie's (1993) APLQ (Abilities for Professional Learning Questionnaire). The data was collected in April 2015. 75 pupils from four schools in Helsinki answered the questionnaire. The quantitative data was analyzed by using PASW Statistics 18. The answers from qualitative section were analyzed by using content analysis. Results and conclusions. The study showed that pupils were motivated by and interested in secular ethics. Secular ethics was also regarded as an important and useful subject. Several correlating factors affected to pupils' motivation. The intrinsic orientation correlated with many motivation factors. One of the crucial findings was the strong correlation between intrinsic orientation and the way teachers interacted with the pupils. There were no differences between boys and girls in their motivation factors except (in relation to) teaching material and methods. Good grades were connected between expectations of success and beliefs of intrinsic succeeding. The study also revealed that pupils were motivated by several contents of the secular ethics but moral and ethics were the most important. The results of this study can be utilized in the teaching of secular ethics in increasing pupils' motivation.
  • Repo, Oskari (2018)
    In this research I analyzed how music is described in Tove Jansson's moomin books. I also analyzed descriptions of music as an element of characterization. Many researches concerning moomin books have been done earlier. Earlier research points out that music has a significant role in the world of moomins and in the life of moomin characters. Analyzing music as an element in characterization was however recent opening to the field of research. I chose four moomin books to be my main material because there were clearly most of descriptions of music in these books. My material were Comet in Moominland, Moominland Midwinter, Tales from Moominvalley and Moominvalley in November. Most of descriptions of music played role in characterizations of Snufkin, Fillyjonk and Too-ticky, so I focused on these characters. I used content analysis based thematic approach as my method when finding answer to the question how music is described in moomin books. With the help of close reading, I tried to find out how characters are constructed with music. In this research it found out that music is described in Tove Jansson's moomin books with songs and lyrics, with descriptions of instruments and with descriptions of tunes and notes. Songs and lyrics constructed character of Too-ticky by telling Too-ticky's accepting attitude towards the uncertainty that exists in the world. Songs and lyrics didn't significantly construct character of Snufkin. There were lots of different instruments in moomin books but the only instrument which constructed characters in a significant way was the mouth-organ. The mouth-organ constructed character of Snufkin by showing his features and emotions. The mouth-organ constructed character of Fillyjonk by acting as the symbol of creativity and balance. In this research also the nature was considered as an instrument. Snufkin heard his longing of freedom and loneliness in the sound of the nature. Tunes and notes told about Snufkin's inner conflict between loneliness and communality. Tunes and notes also described Snufkin's process of composing. That process of composing personificated as a little creature called Teety-woo in The Spring Tune- short story. Tunes and notes constructed character of Fillyjonk in the way that they took her to the new levels of her identity.
  • Suomalainen, Heidi (2017)
    The purpose of this study is to find out how boys are portrayed in the Finnish ABC books through different decades. The data of the study consist of ABC books from the 1950s, 1970s, 1990s, 2000 and 2010s. The newest ABC book is published in 2016, and it follows the Finnish study plan of 2014. The ABC books chosen for this study have been published during the last 60 years. With 10 or 20 years' time difference between each book, it is possible study the changes in the portrayal of boy characters. The study focuses on the texts and pictures where the boy characters are shown. Special attention is paid to the looks and action of the boys in the ABC books. The boy characters are compared to the girl characters presented in the ABC books, in order to analyze whether the way the boys are being described differs from the way the girls are being described. The assumption is that there are some remarkable differences in this portrayal, especially when comparing the oldest ABC book from the 1950s to that of 2010s. Previous research has shown that the great changes taking place during the 1960s has also had its effect on the ABC books of that time; there should be a considerable decrease in stories and pictures related to national identity. As a new feature after the 1960s, the equality in friendships between the boy and girl characters has emerged. However, a gendered portrayal of the characters is still to some extent visible in ABC books until end of 1990s. The method of the study was content analysis. Each ABC book was first analyzed in detail after which the results were compared with each other. Special research questions were used to find out how the boys were shown during different times and to what extent the portrayal of boys and girls differed from each other. A context analytical approach is visible in the way that the norms and values of each ABC book were mirrored in relation to their own time. The results of the study show that even if the way boys are described has changed a lot from 1950s to 2010s, some features have remained the same. In the ABC books from 1950s and 1970s boys are shown as brave and active actors. Starting 1990s there is more sensitiveness in the way boys are described than in the earlier ABC books. Starting from the 2000s the boy and girl characters do not differ remarkably from each other. In the ABC book of 2016 the boys are clearly portrayed as background characters, being more quiet than the girls.
  • Tuomala, Anniina (2017)
    Goals. The objective of this thesis is to study if poor language proficiency can be differentiated from reading disability by underlying cognitive processes. According to previous studies it is challenging for teachers to differentiate reading disability from poor language proficiency, and there are no tests for that in schools. The specific interest in this study is to examine if there are statistically significant relations between working memory, attentional capacity and reading skills among S1- (finnish as a first language) and S2-groups (finnish as a second language), and compare the groups' results for statistical differences. The native language teachers' assessments of S2-students' language skills are also examined. The hypothesis is that there is no statistical difference in attentional capacity between the S1- and S2-groups, but there is a difference in finnish reading skills between the groups. Methods. The participants consisted of 3rd graders from nine classes and four schools (N=159). Attentional capacity was measured by Attention Concentration Test and working memory by a computer-based test. Native language teachers' assessments were collected by a questionnaire. The results of ALLU-test, which measures reading skills, were received from the schools. The data was analysed by crosstabs, correlation and multivariate methods. Results and conclusions. According to the hypothesis, S1-group had statistically significantly higher results in reading skills than S2-group. S2-boys had the poorest results in ACT and working memory. S2-boys' ACT-results correlated positively with reading comprehension and S1-boys ACT-results correlated negatively with reading skills, so ACT-results aren't unambiguously related to reading skills. The varying results may imply the importance of process speed to reading skills. S2-boys seemed to benefit from slower working pace: the slower they were in Attention Concentration Test, the better reading comprehension results they got. S1-boys' high speed on the other hand related to higher results in decoding skills and high accuracy to higher reading comprehension results. In further studies the test measuring working memory should be more challenging for 3rd graders: in this study it wasn't difficult enough to separate pupils' working memory skills. S2-boys' native language correlated with working memory results and S2-girls' native language speaking skills correlated with finnish decoding skills. According to the regression analysis the variables predicting reading comprehension were ACT1, ACT2, native language and decoding skills.
  • Laitala, Maria (2017)
    Attention is an essential part of learning and academical performance. At the moment attention is being assessed mainly by subjective evaluations. Attention Concentration Test pursues to measure attention objectively on the basis of Inhibition Theory. The aim of this thesis was to examine the connection between success in Attention Concentration test and success in visuospatial working memory task. Previous studies imply that functions of attention and working memory are tightly connected. In this thesis, visuospatial working memory test worked as a reference meter to attention. The thesis is a part of a broader Helsinki University Centre for Educational Assessments study which examined ACT-tests usability and ability to identify pupils with significant attentional problems. The thesis studied also genders, mother tongue and receiving intensified and special supports connections with attention and working memory. In addition, the thesis researched what factors predict success in Attention Concentration Test. The study was attended by 159 third grade pupils from four different schools located in Helsinki region. The data was collected between November 2016 and January 2017 at the schools. The tests were completed by computer over one session. The data was analysed by quantitative methods examining correlations and using One-Way Analysis of Variance and Mann-Whitney tests on purpose of finding distinctions between different groups. Furthermore, it was endeavored to create a model that would explain success in Attention Concentration Test using Regression Analysis. Examining the whole material only a weak connection was found between success in Attention Concentration test and success in visuospatial working memory task. Examining the data by gender a medium connection was found with boys. With girls, a connection wasn't found. Girls were more accurate than boys in Attention Concentration Test, but boys were faster than girls in working memory task. Non-Finnish-speaking boys and students receiving intensified and special support succeeded more poorly than other students in both tests. Due to small correlations, a model explaining success in Attention Concentration Test could not be formed.
  • Sandberg, Erja (2012)
    The purpose of this study was to find out what kind of status siblings have in a family in which one child has ADHD. In the background, there was a doubt regarding sibling equality in a family in which one child needs substantially more parental time and attention. In Finland, no similar studies have been made. The study used Brofenbrenner's ecological systems theory. The study involved five families with elementary school age children with ADHD. The families had a total of fifteen children. The parents and the siblings of these families were interviewed. The study was divided into four themes: (1) everyday family life, (2) feelings, (3) family roles and interpersonal skills of the family members, and (4) the importance of siblings in an ADHD child's life. The interviews were analyzed by content analysis. The research problems were: 1) How do parents and siblings perceive sibling status in their family? and 2) What is the significance of siblings in the life of a child with ADHD as assessed by the parents and the siblings themselves? Parents felt that the most significant factors as regards the status of siblings were the way the siblings take responsibly for the family's daily life, the siblings' own understanding of their family, family transparency, taking the siblings into consideration and dealing with their feelings in everyday life. A tight feeling of cohesion was a factor in empowering the family. Parents considered ADHD medication an important element of their family. The meaning of the siblings for an ADHD child's life was very significant. The siblings described their families as positive and lively. They had got used to the qualities and characteristics of the child with the diagnosis. They did not perceive the ADHD child as being a different child in their family. The siblings recognized their parents' fatigue and thought that the parents did not have enough time for them. However, they did not feel that the parents treated them unequally. The siblings reported that they looked after the ADHD child to some degree, but they thought that this was part of family life. The siblings described cooperation as strength of their family. As compared to international studies, converging factors concerning sibling position, sibling relationships and the ideal family functioning came up in the interviews in this study. Siblings' mental problems, which this investigation did not reveal, were an exception. Consistent with previous studies, parents' assumptions about sibling relationships were more positive than the siblings' descriptions. According to the study, an ADHD child's family relationships were a challenge, but with appropriate internal measures the position of siblings in a family can be good.
  • Hjerppe, Hanna (2016)
    The Finnish National Core Curriculum 2014 sets a demand that schools should create a culture that supports student participation. This is based on, among others, the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which guarantees children the right to participate in issues related to their lives. The right to participate, however, does not by itself lead children to actually participate in a meaningful way. Participation skills can and should be learned. Therefore, as these also are significant concepts in the curriculum, we would assume to find them represented in the educational material also. Teaching and learning has been driven by the educational materials such as books and teacher's materials for decades. This study focuses on examining how much and in what ways these educational materials in Finnish and literature include the students' expression of their opinion. More specifically, in this study it is analyzed what kind development of participation skills the examined material is aimed at. The data consisted of the grade 3 and 4 Finnish and literature students' books and teacher's materials for from the two biggest publishers Sanoma Pro and Otava, based on the 2014 core curriculum. The analysis followed standard procedures of qualitative content analysis and contained some quantification of data. As the analytical concepts there were used, among others, the concepts of argumentation skills and agency. The results indicate the educational material examined were very conservative in using tasks and assignments that include the students own opinions. The tasks did contain some autonomy but were most often on a close-ended scope and included trivial topics with respect to the students' lives. As the scope of the topics was controlled, these kinds of tasks were not considered to be optimal in developing skills of participation. Also, the tasks did not guide the students in constructing an argument, even though it was required in many tasks. The results of this study should encourage schools into reflecting on how choosing the right materials could support students building of expressing their opinions, and thus, developing their participation skills. The authors of the materials, as well as the publishers, should also reflect on how to incorporate more tasks designed at building participation skills in various ways, as it is truly a crucial skill in the changing world.
  • Herva, Eszter (2014)
    Aims The first aim of the research was to analyze conflictsituations in the comprehensive school. In the process of the analyzing I focused into conflicts in the multiprofessional teamwork. The second aim belongs to the multiprofessional teamwork: descript the building process of the multiprofessional teamwork and the special teachers attitude in the prosess of development a multiprofessional teamwork. Methods The material of the research is a document written by special teachers. In the analyzing the material I used qualitative methods. Results and conclusions I found four groups of conflict situations in the material: conflicts in own professionalism, in the multi-professional teamwork, in the contact with the pupils and in the contact with the pupils family. Group of conflict situations in the multi-professional teamwork was the biggest group. The multi-professional teamwork is built in three steps: step before multi-professional teamwork, meeting the members of the team and adaptation to the team. Before the multi-professional teamwork special teachers reflect the own role and the members responsibility in the teamwork, the own development as a member of the team and the own opinions about other members and about members way to do the teamwork. In this step special teachers want to develop the own skills of communication, and the teamwork. In the step of meeting the other members of the team special teachers reflect the other members opinion and way to work in the team and the differences between the own and the others opinion and way to work. The special teachers reflect too how much they want to do teamwork now and in the future. In the step of adaptation to the team special teachers reflect the goals of teamwork, the ways to work in the team, the polarization of the commitment and the responsibility in the teamwork. The special teachers opinions about the teamwork and the team members are getting better in the process of the building the teamwork from the step before teamwork to the step adaptation to the teamwork. But first, the special teachers opinion is getting worse in the step of meeting the members. Special teachers wants a lot to develop the teamwork in all steps of building the multi-professional teamwork, and it is getting better in all steps. My conclusion in this research is that it is possible to develop the attitude in the multi-professional teamwork by talking about the goals, the values and the ways to work in the team, by getting know each other and by focusing to the facts in our teamwork.
  • Värtö, Saara (2015)
    Aims. The aim of my research was to study those teachers who have not undergone any teacher education and their thinking about teacher's work. This phenomenon was chosen as the research subject because it has been studied very little compared to the research on regular teachers in Finnish schools. My research task was to study the thoughts on and experiences of working as a teacher and formal qualifications of teachers without teacher education. Moreover, the aim was to outline the teaching career of these teachers as well as their thoughts on and experiences of teacher education and professional development. Methods. The research was conducted through literature and through the narratives of six people who either are working or have been working as teachers without any teacher education. Three of these people worked as teachers without any teacher education at the time of the research whereas the other three had applied and been accepted into teacher education after having already worked as teachers. One of the latter had also already graduated with a certificate of education. This was a qualitative study and the data was gathered by doing theme interviews and analysed by using inductive qualitative analysis. Results and conclusions. Many similarities were found in the narratives of the interviewees and a more detailed examination of the themes revealed some outliers. The ways the interviewees had ended up working as teachers were very similar but their plans for the future differed. The thoughts on and experiences of working as a teacher were quite similar whereas formal qualifications elicited contradictory thoughts among the interviewees. Teacher education also divided their opinions. The interviewees who had undergone teacher education evaluated the effectiveness of the education in a similar manner. Nearly all the interviewees also criticised teacher education widely. The interviewees felt they had progressed in different areas during their career, even though most of them had not actively sought personal or professional development. Overall, the research elucidated a phenomenon that had been studied very little beforehand. It also revealed some important themes in education policy, which merit further study.
  • Harkoma, Sivi (2016)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel pedagogical intervention (PedaSens) to increase adult emotional availability and to support adult–child interaction in toddler day care groups. The research questions are: 1) How did the emotional availability appear in adult-child interaction of the group? 2) How did the emotional availability of the adult-child interaction change in relation to the control group before and after the measurement? 3) What are the effects of adult educational background and children group size to the emotional availability of the adults and children? Most research on children's attachment and interactions has focused solely on dyadic parent-child contexts. However, according to interaction and neurobiology research there is accumulating evidence about the importance of sensitive interactions in multiple relationships on child's biological brain plasticity and stress response regulation. Previous research has demonstrated that a child seems to benefit from a number of day care-group relationships that are fostered in co-operation with other children and adults. Positive relationships are formed when the adults stay in interaction and respond sensitively to the needs of the child as well as to the whole group. A total of 45 kindergarten professionals and 15 public day care centers from southern Finland participated in the study. The total number of toddler groups was 17, with children 1–4 years of age. The data was collected by videotaping and observing the interaction between the adults and the children as part of the normal daily activities in the group. The first EA assessment between the intervention and control groups was conducted before the intervention and the second one six months after the beginning of the intervention. During the study period participants had five supervision sessions with the trainer. Non-parametric statistical analysis revealed a significant effect between the first and the second measurement on the adult interaction non-intrusiveness in the research group. This effect was not visible in the control group assessments which suggests that emotional availability of the intervention group seems to have increased during the EA intervention. In other ways, effects of the intervention were not significant in repeated measurements between intervention and control group (One-way ANOVA). Teacher's emotional availability in the dimension of non-hostility was significantly higher compared to other professional groups in the first measurement. These differences seemed to level off during the intervention and after the six month's study period differences between the professional groups were not significant. The study revealed the benefits of the pedagogical interventions to the development of early childhood education quality. It also enables critical conversation concerning the measurements used in pedagogical interventions.
  • Jäppinen, Petra (2018)
    The aim of this study is to find out how much teachers’ and parents’ perceptions of student affect the students’ mathematical and verbal self-concept. The study examines how parents’ and teachers’ perceptions differ and how much impact students support for learning has. In addition to teachers’ and parents’ perceptions the study also takes into account students’ actual performance in math and reading, to see their effect on students’ self-concepts. Self-concept refers to all concepts that one has about oneself as a subject and an object. Because of self- concepts multidimensionality, this study examines verbal self-concept and math self-concept separately. The participants of this study are 1247 sixth graders from Finland, their parents and teachers. Measures in this study were teachers’ and parents’ perceptions of student as a learner, students self-concepts from math and reading, the support that student had for learning, and the actual achievement in math and reading. The methods used in this study are paired sample t-test, linear regression and multivariate. The results showed that parents had more positive perceptions about their child than teachers had, and child’s support had negative impact on both adults’ perceptions. Teachers’ and parents’ perceptions had an impact both on child’s math self-concept and verbal self-concept, when child’s actual achievement was taken in consideration. However, adding the other academic self-concept both in math and verbal removed adults’ perceptions impact in regression analysis. When multivariate analysis was used mathematical self-concept, actual achievement in reading, parents’ perception and intensified support had an effect on child’s verbal self-concept. Special support and teachers’ perception had no effect. In multivariate analysis about math self-concept all but intensified support had an effect. In conclusion, this study proved that parents’ and teachers’ perceptions have an effect both on students’ math and verbal self-concept although students themselves have the biggest impact. Also, unlike other studies, this study found positive correlation between verbal and math self-concept.
  • Ranta, Marjo (2016)
    Aim. Several study claim that the childhood eating habits have effect until adultery. Increasing the knowledge of nutrition information in Finland has not provided wanted results. To address this problem new methods to implement food education is under development. Recent study evaluating food education method called "taste lessons" (org. "clases du gout") has showed results that show positive effects on children eating habits. The method focuses mainly on inquiry learning and sensory education. During fall 2015 Ruukku ry. implemented a tour called "Makumestarikiertue" that offered knowledge about nutrition in positive fashion by using taste lessons. The basis of this study was to obtain information from Makumestarikiertue. One central aspect of the tour was a track called "aistirata". (transl. sensory track) This track included various food oriented tasks. The study focused on reviewing children and their parent's experiences, interaction created during various tasks, reception of the event and practical functionality of the track itself. Methods. Target audience of the study was event participants (n=1574, in which k=367 were observed). Study material was obtained by observing group k. The material consisted of observational material and notes created during the events. Overall material was acquired from six different events that took place between August and November. Method used for content analysis was qualitative. Grounded method approach was also used during the analysis. Results and conclusions. The results of the study show that the event described in the thesis is capable of inspire participants to express and interpret their experience of senses and create positive experiences with food. The participants were interested of laying thought to their experience towards food and express and describe their reactions. However, this requires that the participants are guided and encouraged enough during the event as the track can otherwise be passed without much reasoning. In addition, the participants require information and tools to connect "aistirata" tasks to their personal behavior towards nutrition. Connection helps the participants to utilize newly acquired information at their own surroundings after the event has taken place.