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Browsing by department "Institutionen för beteendevetenskaper"

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  • Inkeroinen, Tiia (2016)
    The purpose of this study was to research patients with Type 1 diabetes and (of) their experiences and perceptions of supportive communication, as well as (and) social support received from the diabetes doctor and the diabetes nurse. The aim was to understand supportive communication at doctor or diabetes nurse's office, (as well as) what kind of social support for Type 1 diabetes was typically received from doctor or nurse, and (as well as) what kind of support would be desired. In the field of speech communication, interest has been a particular aspect of interaction. Supportive communication is described as verbal or nonverbal communication, which aims to provide assistance or support to another person. At it(')s best, supportive communication can have positive effects on both the physical and psychological well-being of a person. In this study the subjects of the review have been instrumental in regards to emotional support for self-esteem and informational support. In this research, the data was collected interviewing nine people with Type 1 diabetes, five of whom were men and four women. Based on the results of this study, a number of Type 1 diabetes patients have experienced supportive communication and social support from their diabetes doctor and nurse. There are many factors that influence of the possibility to get support. These factors are related to sender, message, recipient or context. This study shows that doctor offers most of the instrumental and informational support. From the nurse, in some situations, it is possible to get the emotional support. Support that patients have been receiving from their doctor or nurse has help related to blood sugar values and in terms of writing a referral to another specialist. Support has also been defined as listening and comforting, or encouragement with disease-related problems. One of the major factors related to social support and supportive communication is that the doctor and the nurse has to be aware of the patient's individuality and the fact that patients want and need different types of support. When interacting with a patient, it is important for the doctor and the nurse to use person-centered messages as much as possible. When person-centered messages are used, the support seems more real and focused. Supportive communication and social support needs from doctor and nurse also vary depending on (related to that) how much support is obtained from elsewhere. Peer group support is important for many Type 1 diabetics and it has at least partly replaced the need for support from diabetes doctor and a nurse. Despite this, many still consider that help from doctor and nurse could be useful.
  • Joki, Johanna (2019)
    The aim of this study was to research the prosocial behavior of children from three to four years old during their playtime at daycare. This subject has links with some current questions concerning the early education. The theoretical background is based on the theories of moral development and play. The earlier research has given different views on young childrens capability to behave prosocially. The latest studies have shown that some forms of prosocial behavior are possible for children during their first year of life. The purpose of this study is to research the forms of childrens prosocial behavior and to find out the most frequent form. The connections between the prosocial behavior and different plays are also considered. The qualitative methods were used in this study. The material was collected through ethnographic observation at a daycare center in Espoo. 13 children were participated in the observation. In the addition of ethnographic methods also conversation analysis was used. The data was litterated and analysed by conversation analysis. The ethnographic notebook based on the observation was utilised over the analysis. Four main classes of prosocial behaviour were found out. They are helping, comforting, pleasing and sharing. The new sub class of prosocial behaviour was composed and named as “predicting one’s desires”. Sharing turned out to be the most frequent form of prosocial behaviour among the observated children. Prosocial behaviour was more frequent during home play compared to other playing situations. All the children were capable to behave prosocially at least in some situations. Based on these results is possible to think that children from 3 to 4 years old already have some capacities to perspective taking and empathy. The connection between home play and prosocial behaviour can be explained partially by the nature of home play. At this age home play includes a lot of features of role play. The information concerning childrens prosocial behaviour can be utilised in the early education and specially in positive pedagogy.
  • Vihavainen, Tiina (2016)
    The aim of this master's thesis was to find out what kind of promoting and hindering supervisory experiences doctors who have graduated from Aalto University School of Engineering had during their doctoral studies and what kind of differences were found between those experiences. Based on previous research literature it can be stated that the quality of supervision of doctoral studies has an effect on the experiences of doctoral students, their well-being and their graduation. My data consists of 10 theme interviews of doctors who have graduated from Aalto University School of Engineering in 2012-2014. I used qualitative content analysis to analyse my data. Based on my research results, the promoting factors of doctoral studies include high-quality and sufficient supervisory relationships and supervision of the research process. The most significant supervisory relationship was the one with the personal supervisor. Competence, pedagogical know-how, enthusiasm, prioritizing supervising and regularity of the supervisory meetings were valued when the personal supervisor is concerned. Supervision of the research process had promoted doctoral studies if supervision and feedback were received regularly; supervision was supportive and motivating; and it was focused on the content of the doctoral thesis, usage of research methods and the study processes of the doctoral student. Poor-quality and insufficient supervisory relationships and supervision of the research process were experienced as hindering factors of doctoral studies. Personal supervisor who lacked competence, interest and time on academic supervising was a significant hindering factor in doctoral studies. Research group activities did not promote student's own research if the research agenda of the group was remarkably different from the research topic of the student. The lack of peer group activities was also experienced as a hindering factor. Supervision of the research process was experienced hindering one's doctoral studies if the student did not receive enough support on the contents of the doctoral thesis, usage of research methods, planning his or her studies and research, academic writing and publishing or applying for finances. Based on the differences of the supervisory experiences I split the interviewees into four groups: 1) satisfied with supervision, 2) those who described contradictory supervisory experiences, 3) unsatisfied with supervision and, 4) those who extended their supervisory network. Based on my results it can be stated that there were remarkable differences between supervisory experiences of the interviewees. The quantity of supervision varied from daily supervisory discussions to years of lonely work and the quality of supervision varied from productive collaboration with supervisor and other researchers to indifferent and insufficient supervision. To improve the supervisory experiences of doctoral students it is recommended in this master's thesis that supervisory teams could be used, peer group activities could be organized, supervision could be increased especially in the planning stage of studies and research, more research method courses could be organized and postgraduates could be given support in applying for finances.
  • Pääkkönen, Siiri (2015)
    Aim of the study. The fundamental frequency of speech (f0), the fundamental frequency minimum and maximum (f0min-f0max) and the vowel formant frequencies (F1-F3) are acoustical elements that make the difference between the voice of a man and a woman. Making a solid judgment of ones gender based on his/hers voice is not easy, but based on the acoustical elements mentioned above it can be judged quite reliably. F0 is considered to be the best acoustical element in making gender judgments, but also F1-F3 and f0max-f0min have been proven to be important. No Finnish research has been made. The aim of this study was to gather data about acoustical properties (f0, f0min-f0max, F1-F3) of voice and investigate the correlation between the acoustical properties and perceived gender and voice femininity or masculinity. This study investigated also did the subjective evaluations and the listeners evaluations differ from each other. Methods. Ten female, nine men, three male-to-female transgender people and two female-to-male transgender people participated as speakers in this study. They evaluated subjectively did their voice sound like male or female and how feminine or masculine it sounded on a VAS scale. They also gave prolonged vowel, reading and spontaneous speech samples that were acoustically analysed. The vowels /a/, /i/ and /u/ and two read sentences were collected into a listening test that was held for 25 people performing as listeners. They evaluated on a separate forms did the voice sound like male or female and how feminine or masculine it sounded on a VAS scale. Results. The men of this research had the lowest and the women the highest acoustical properties of voice (f0, f0min-max, F1-F3). Between all of the acoustical properties (except /i/ F2) of voice and evaluation of gender and voice masculinity or femininity there were statistically significant or very significant strong or very strong correlation. When the fundamental frequency was 153–244 Hz, the fundamental frequency minimum was 68–137 Hz and maximum was 233–359 Hz the voice was evaluated more often (over 50 % of the evaluations) as female voice and feminine. Also the higher the vowel formant frequencies were the more often the voice was evaluated as female and feminine. The listeners evaluated the reading speech very differently than the speakers evaluated their own speech. With the women's and men's gender judgments there was almost a 100 % agreement, but this was not the case with the transgender people. The listeners evaluations of the voice femininity or masculinity differed most of the time (75 %) statistically significantly from the speakers own evaluations.
  • Örmä, Ida-Lotta (2016)
    Objectives. The aim of the current study was to explore whether there is an association between phonological processing and neural auditory discrimination in 5–6-years-old children. Phonological processing is defined by the ability to recognize and modulate small units of words, like phonemes. Neural auditory discrimination is defined by brain's automatic and preconscious ability to discriminate changes in auditory stimuli. Both phonological processing and neural auditory discrimination are important factors in the language development and deficits in those factors are known to be related to many language impairments. Single studies have reported an association between phonological processing and neural auditory discrimination but this theme is not well studied. In addition to group differences, we also studied differences in the ability to discriminate different sound deviants. Methods. The sample consisted of 38 children, whose mean age was 5 years and 10 months. The study was executed by dividing children into two groups by Nepsy-II phonological processing scores and comparing these two groups with the amplitudes of the brain's mismatch negativities (MMN) and late discriminative negativities (LDN). The comparison was made with repeated measures analysis of variance. Brain's event-related potentials were recorded with multifeature-paradigm in which the stimuli were modulated by vowel, consonant, duration of the vowel, intensity and frequency. Results and conclusions. The results of this current study demonstrate that differences in the phonological processing can be seen in the neural auditory discrimination. Both MMN- and LDN-potentials were stronger in those children, whose ability to process phonemes was better. In MMN-potentials the group difference was only seen in frequency, vowel and consonant deviants, whereas in LDN-potentials group differences were seen across all deviant types. In this study the phonological processing seems to be associated particularly to stronger LDN-potentials, which can provide information about the cognitive processes related to LDN-potentials. No previous studies about the association between phonological processing and LDN-potentials are known to be done.
  • Kirjanen, Svetlana (2013)
    The hypnotic phenomena have long been debated. In scientific research, disagreements on the conceptual and methodological approach have led to controversial results and interpretations which heat up the debate. Additionally, hypnotic suggestibility is often measured only behaviourally, subjects are studied in masses and the role of individual responders is largely neglected. One way to reach beyond mere behaviour to the level of experience without losing the individual variability is by combining posthypnotic suggestions, self-reports, psychophysiological measurement techniques and a case study approach. The present study examined the effects of suggested changes in the visual colour perception of simple geometric shapes in the posthypnotic and the simulation condition as measured by self-reports, reaction times, error rates and event-related potentials (ERPs). The case study approach was chosen and the focus was set on two highly suggestible hypnotic responders. The comparative data for simulation were also obtained from a set of control subjects. Results indicated differences in processing between the posthypnotic and simulation condition seen in the behavioural performance and to a lesser extent in the posterior N2 and P3 peaks of the ERP waves. Evident dissimilarities were found also among highly suggestible hypnotic responders. These results support the occurrence of inimitable hypnotic modulations in some individuals and point out the need to examine hypnotic responders on a more individual basis.
  • Söderholm, Tiina (2015)
    Aphasia is often a chronic impairment. Regaining the premorbid language function is rare. Anomia is the most common residual disorder once the aphasia has stabilized. Earlier studies indicate that transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS, repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation) together with intensive speech therapy improves the outcome of the language rehabilitation. The aim of the current study was to find out what kinds of quantitative and qualitative changes occur in the participants' ability to name noun and verb pictures that were shown during the rTMS/sham-rTMS protocol. All of the participants received two weeks of either rTMS or sham-rTMS treatment and after a one-week break another two weeks of either rTMS or sham- rTMS treatment together with intensive group speech therapy (ILAT, Intensive Language Action Therapy). This is a multiple case study with six participants that have chronic expressive aphasia. The first two groups of a larger study were selected into this study. Group 1 (n=3) received 1Hz- rTMS therapy and group 2 (n=3) received sham-rTMS. rTMS was given to the right hemisphere on the pars triangularis area. Every participant named the same amount of action and object pictures during the rTMS/sham-rTMS treatment. Namings were analysed with a rating system derived for the current study. Each participant received intensive group speech therapy in the latter two-week part of the intervention. Language testing was conducted before, during and three months after the intervention. The naming abilities in all participants seemed to improve in both noun and verb series during the rTMS/sham-rTMS treatment and language tests. Results of the follow-up testing suggest that the positive results are long lasting. The results of this study are promising, even though the amount of participants is too small to draw further conclusions. This study brings positive evidence and reason for further research on the effectiveness of aphasia therapy.
  • Suni, Mari (2016)
    Background and aims: Aphasia is commonly associated with deficits in all linguistic modalities.In mild, chronic aphasia syndromes difficulties in reading can interfere with tasks of everyday life. The rehabilitation of reading difficulties caused by a general linguistic deficit is closely related to the rehabilitation of spoken language, especially in the early stages. Partly due to the limited resources granted to speech therapy, rehabilitation seldom proceeds to reading in its own right. Research has shown that rehabilitation of reading as such can however be beneficial to more general linguistic abilities. In this study, the quality and responsiveness to treatment of a sublexical reading deficit related to mild, chronic conduction aphasia were examined. The aim was to investigate, whether a sublexical therapy method and in particular text-level reading practice were effective in enhancing the fluency of reading or more general linguistic abilities. Methods: A 37-year-old man with mild, chronic conduction aphasia and resulting phonological alexia participated in the study. The intervention consisted of 17 training sessions (total of40 hours) of speech therapy, during which independent practice of repetitive reading that lasted for 11 weeks was started. Therapy consisted of phonological and word-level repetition and naming tasks combining the auditive and written modalities. Data consisted of linguistic tasks collected before, during and after the practice period. The effects of the intervention were evaluated by examining oral reading speed and accuracy of connected text and nonwords. More general phonological and linguistic abilities were examined through auditive repetition and auditive memory tasks. Results and discussion: The reading deficit reflected a more general linguistic difficulty that seemed to originate in auditive processing. Difficulties in reading seemed to arise from weakened phonological activation of word forms. No clinically significant changes were observed after the rehabilitation period. Still, positive changes were noted that imply the rehabilitation can be efficient when carried out through a longer period. Reading speed increased in nonword reading task, but speed of reading connected text increased steadily through the whole study period. A positive change in oral reading speed was observed in first readings of practice texts that might imply a more consistent enhancement during a longer training interval. No rehabilitative effect was apparent in auditive repetition or auditive memory, even though individual tasks improved. The results of this case study imply that repetitive reading ought to be further investigated as a reading rehabilitation method for persons with mild phonological reading deficits. Considering more general phonological rehabilitation, systematic methods could enhance the effectiveness of practice.
  • Pihlainen, Jepa (2016)
    Goals: This Master's thesis described emotion and mood regulation during university studies. It used models both from emotion regulation and learning related emotions literature. It is established in literature that different study goals are connected to different emotions. However, this theme has not been linked with questions of emotion regulation strategies: How the choice between them affects experienced learning related emotions, and how strategies and goals of emotion regulation are linked to study goals. This thesis addressed those questions. Research questions were: Which affects and strategies of affect regulation did Finnish university students from Faculty of Arts describe when talking about their university studies? Were there differing affect regulation profiles? Which affect regulation strategies were preferred in different profiles? What were affect regulation goals of different profiles? How did preferred regulation strategies and regulation goals interact with study goals? Methods: These questions were addressed by a qualitative inductive content analysis. The data consisted of eight semi-structured individual interview texts in which students of Faculty of Arts told about their paths as university students. These interviews were selected from a bigger interview database, using the results of a questionnaire on learning related emotions. Results and conclusions: The main results were the affect regulation profiles that were extracted from the data. Students of each profile had similar affect regulation goals and preferences and similar study goals. Following earlier studies, cognitive change was adaptive emotion regulation strategy and rumination was maladaptive emotion regulation strategy. However, many other emotion regulation strategies were used both in adaptive and maladaptive ways. The students whose affect regulation strategies did combine both a goal to feel good and a study goal of acquiring needed knowledge and skills, were the ones who experienced studying to be more pleasant and recovered more quickly from adverse events. When affect regulation goals and study goals are aligned, affects get regulated well and the studies proceed even in the face of adversities. When a student's affect regulation goals and study goals are incompatible, affect regulation is more difficult and the studies might not progress as smoothly. Therefore, affect regulation goals might be more important than regulation strategies in making regulation adaptive.
  • Ala-Lipasti, Minna (2016)
    Goals. Inflammation has been found to be associated with psychological symptoms. Especially in regard to depression, there is broad evidence that depressed people have higher levels of inflammation. Higher inflammation has also been linked to poorer response to SSRI-medication. Anxiety has been found to have stronger association to experienced pain than depression and in earlier studies references to an independent association between anxiety and inflammation has emerged. The purpose of this study was to explore if a connection between anxiety and inflammation can be found and what factors are possibly contributing to that connection. Goal was to find factors that can help maintain and improve individual's quality of life and ability to work. Methods. Data used in this study belonged to the biomarker project (project 4), which was part of the second stage of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) longitudinal study. The mean age of participants was 57.32 (sd. 11.55) years. As a measure of inflammation serum levels of cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) were collected from the blood of participants. Anxiety was measured by Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The association between anxiety and inflammation was explored by a linear regression analysis. Sociodemographic factors and also a broad range of other factors related to inflammation and anxiety were controlled in the models. In addition the possible moderating role of inner self-control was studied by a hierarchical linear regression analysis. The sub factor cognition control of the self-control scale was used as a measure of inner self-control. Results and conclusions. When inflammation was predicted only by anxiety, anxiety was a statistically significant predictor and this association remained significant after sociodemographic factors were controlled. When broad range of other controlled variables was included in the model a connection between anxiety and inflammation could not be found. It seems that the association between anxiety and inflammation is mainly due to other factors. Especially the amount of chronic conditions attenuated the association. Inner self-control did not have a statistically significant effect to the connection between anxiety and inflammation. The best predictor for inflammation in this study was body mass index and also other health behavior related factors had a significant role. In regard to the wellbeing of an individual and individual's ability to work, weight control and healthy lifestyle choices are crucial.
  • Kaarela, Jenni (2016)
    Goals. The purpose of this study is to look at the association between binge eating disorder and functional impairment. Binge eating disorder is the most prevalent eating disorder and a new addition to the DSM 5. Functional impairment is an important factor in determining the damage caused by mental health disorders. Is there functional impairment in binge eating disorder and how much was examined in this study. The effect of sociodemographic factors (age, sex, work status and marital status) on the risk of binge eating disorder and the effect of sociodemographic factors and age of onset on the functional impairment caused by binge eating disorder were subsequently examined. Methods. The data was derived from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, which is freely available and includes the prevalences and correlates of mental health disorders. The diagnosis of binge eating disorder was defined by the DSM-IV criteria based CIDI-interview. Functional impairment was measured by modified WHODAS-II-questionnaire and SDS-questionnaire meant specifically for the measurement of eating disorders. The association of sociodemographic factors and binge eating disorder was examined using the logistic regression. The association of sociodemographic factors and age of onset and the functional impairment caused by binge eating disorder was examined using the ordinal regression. Results and conclusions. There was functional impairment in binge eating disorder compared to general population but this functional impairment was mild. The disorder was more common in women, it affected people in every age category but not the older age cohorts and it was not linked to marital status. However it was associated to unemployment. The functional impairment caused by binge eating disorder was only explained by unemployment in the area of work and education. Otherwise, age, sex, age of onset and marital status was not associated to the functional impairment caused by binge eating disorder. The functional impairment present in binge eating disorder seems to be caused by other factors than sociodemographic factors or age of onset. The potential candidates might be other coexisting psychopathology.
  • Paumola, Heidi (2016)
    Aims: Many factors during pregnancy, including mother's diet, can affect mental health of the developing child. Preliminary studies have shown that being exposed to glycyrrhizin in licorice during pregnancy is associated with shorter duration of gestation and externalizing symptoms and lower cognitive performance in children. The evidence is still scarce and more research is needed. This study investigated the associations between maternal licorice consumption during pregnancy and externalizing and internalizing symptoms and social competence in children at the age of 5 and 8. Study also investigated whether exposure to glycyrrhizin during pregnancy is associated with change in symptoms or in social competence from 5 to 8 years. Methods: This study is part of Glycyrrhizin in Licorice (Glaku) cohort study. This study sample consists of 232 mothers, 128 fathers and their children born in 1998. Mothers reported their licorice consumption during pregnancy in maternity wards. Follow-up studies were carried when children were 5 and 8 years old, and both parents were asked to fill the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation –questionnaire (SCBE). SCBE gives information about child's behavior and functioning. Results and conclusions: Those 8-year olds, who were exposed to high amounts of glycyrrhizin (≥ 500 mg / week) during pregnancy, had higher risk for externalizing symptoms and lower social competence compared to those children, who were exposed to small amounts (0-249 mg / week) of glycyrrhizin during pregnancy. The heightened risk was not confounded by parental or neonatal parameters. Licorice consumption during pregnancy was not associated with mental health in 5-year old children. These results support the earlier findings that maternal licorice consumption during pregnancy has harmful effects on child's development. This evidence shows that avoiding licorice use during pregnancy could be of significant value when considering primary prevention of mental health problems.
  • Poutanen, Johanna (2014)
    Prenatal conditions alter fetal development in ways that may have long-term effects on the child's later physical and psychological development and health. According to the fetal programming hypothesis, the environment of the uterus may permanently affect the structure and operation of the organs of the fetus as well as its phenotype. One explanation for the disturbance in fetal development is the glucocorticoid hypothesis, which assumes that the increased glucocorticoid content in the mother's system during pregnancy has a negative effect on fetal development. According to research, early exposure to glucocorticoids may have a lasting effect on the offspring's neural development, and these effects may manifest in various ways in the child's development. The hypothesis states that one adverse factor to fetal development is the mother's prenatal depression, as depression is associated with increased amounts of glucocorticoid. Prenatal depression is a relatively common condition, but its effects on fetal development have not been widely studied and are not very thoroughly known. Research has indicated that prenatal depression has a connection to various developmental problems in the child, such as psychological disorders and impaired cognitive development. Prenatal depression has also been found to have a connection to a more negative (e.g. more timid) temperament in the child. The goal of this thesis is to study the connections between the mother's prenatal depression and the child's temperamental traits. The research material consists of 2 445 mothers, whose symptoms were charted a total of 14 times during the entire pregnancy and afterwards. In addition, the mothers assessed their child's temperament at the age of approximately six months. Based on the results obtained, a higher incidence of symptoms of depression strongly predicts a more negative affectivity in the child. In addition, symptoms of prenatal depression predict a lower orienting/regulation and a lower surgency/extraversion. The reasons for these links have not so far been explained, but a possible explanation is the damage in the early development of the central nervous system of the fetus caused by the mother's high prenatal glucocorticoid content. Especially damage in the hippocampus and amygdala could explain the child's elevated negative affectivity and, conversely, lower surgency/extraversion.
  • Tiainen, Outi (2015)
    Study goal: The goal of this study was to examine the association between psychopathic traits in juvenile delinquents and developmental factors. In previous studies the focus has been mainly on neurobiological etiological factors predicting psychopathic traits. Based on the limited amount of developmental research it was adequate to examine the impact of the affective tone in the parental-child relationship and especially mother's hostile parenting style to psychopathic traits. Additionally it was examined if socio-emotional development linking to early states of psychological development and affection, and emotional reactivity were linking to psychopathy. Methods: The original sample consisted of North American juvenile delinquents boys aged 14-19 years (k=1354) which was part of large a Pathways to Desistance survey. In this study the sample consisted of 1123 boys. Associations between psychopathic traits and other variables were first examined through correlational study and univariate analysis of variance. Secondly stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted and finally discrimination analysis. For the discrimination analysis the sample was divided in two based on persons scored low and high in psychopathic traits (low<25, high=>25) for testing the strength of predictive variables emerged with regression analysis to discriminate persons accurately into classes low or high in psychopathy. Results and conclusions: Results showed that mother's hostile parenting style was significantly associated with psychopathic traits. Additionally socio-emotional development was significantly associated with psychopathic traits. Findings highlight that the more hostile is the mother-child relationship the higher will psychopathic traits be. Additionally low temperance with problems in impulse control and suppression of aggression predicted prevalence of high psychopathic traits. The hypothesis based on previous studies about associations between emotional reactivity and psychopathy didn't gain any significant relevance based on present study. Neither did emotional self-regulation connect to psychopathy with this sample in this study.
  • Söderman, Johanna (2018)
    Aim. Intercultural relations have been studied in multiple fields in different ways, but intercultural encounters are often seen as self-evident and not requiring deeper investigation. Studying intercultural encounters can, however, help us understand better the relations and equality between groups. The aim of this study is to recognize how, in the context of homework clubs, genuine encounters form between people and how these encounters create belonging. Methods. I used ethnography as my research method and collected the data in two different homework clubs organized by Finnish Red Cross in the Greater Helsinki Area. I observed the two clubs twelve times and interviewed eleven of the homework club tutors during Spring 2016. My ethnographic analysis was triangulative, and it was influenced by narrative and thematic analysis methods. Conclusion. According to my study results, a desire to see the cultural other favorably is necessary in genuine encounters where the other is recognized and acknowledged as similar to oneself despite differences. The desire to see the other favorably appears in my data as the ability to receive the differences of others in such a way that they are considered a normal part of the interaction. Receiving differences seems to be the most significant feature in genuine encounters, according to my study results. Generating belonging, on the other hand, can be seen as inclusive and considerate conversations in my data. As an indirect result, I was able to deduct that homework clubs are natural spaces for intercultural interaction, which means mutual learning can happen and thus a third culture, which is not just your or my culture but our culture, is created together.
  • Väisänen, Anna (2016)
    Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has detrimental effects on one's course of life. Educational underachievement can be identified as one of the most salient disparities over time, and therefore studying the mediating mechanisms is crucial. In previous studies, comorbidities and above-average positive bias in self-evaluations have been demonstrated to be associated with poorer prognosis. However, there are only a few longitudinal studies extending over decades. This master's thesis investigates psychiatric symptoms and social competence reported by parents and youths themselves at 16 years of age. The study also examined how these and the bias in their reporting predict educational level at thirty years of age. The data consisted of persons born in Kätilöopisto (1971–1974) who experienced pre- and perinatal risks. In childhood, part of them (n=122) had diagnostic criteria fulfilling symptoms of attention deficits and hyperactivity. In the follow-up, a non-ADHD (n=738) and a healthy control group born in the same hospital during the same period of time (n=194) were also assessed and compared to an ADHD group (N=1054). Psychiatric symptoms and social competence were measured by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self-Report. Information regarding educational level in adulthood was available from 570 participants. The ADHD-group had more psychiatric symptoms and lower social competence in adolescence than other groups, according to self-reports and parental reports. Additionally, educational level in adulthood was lower. In this study, an ADHD-associated above-average positive bias was not found. The size of a bias predicted educational level when the effects of covariants were taken into account. However, the predictive power was weaker than for self-reports or parent reports only. Psychiatric symptoms and social competence explained 13–18 % of variance in educational level in the data. Investing in psychosocial interventions with adolescents suffering from ADHD could prevent underachievement in adulthood.
  • Åberg, Jaana-Mari (2014)
    Goals. This master's thesis research was aiming at discovering from interaction between the employee and supervisor, the kind of information that will increase the use of protective equipment (PPE) and improve safety in the construction site. The study examined the meanings that the supervisors associate with PPE, as well as situations in which a manager should point out the employee to use protective equipment. Methods. This qualitative research belongs to socio-cultural communication research tradition. This speech communication study was carried out from the perspective of ethnography of communication. The study included five semi-structured interviews, 8 video recordings from construction sites, an online discussion, observation notes from 16 different construction work situations, as well as 10 journal articles, including photographs. The method of analysis was the cultural discourse analysis (CUDA). It was used to study how managers produce meanings related to the use of protective equipment in interaction. The concept of relational work was used to study the interaction between the supervisor and the employee from the supervisor's point of view. Results and conclusions. The study showed that employee's objections to the use of protective equipment carry a strong cultural message. The study also showed two different cultural ways of speech, "getting involved" and "taking notice". The main differences were with the meanings related to the use of protective equipment and the interaction with employees. "Getting involved": managers linked the PPE with a lot of different meanings, many of which were negative. For example, PPE prevented working or the use of PPE was considered unmanly. They perceived that reminding about the use of PPE was negatively marked, impolite and inappropriate. "Taking notice" managers related the PPE with professionalism and safety. They also perceived that reminding about the use of PPE was unmarked or positively marked, polite and appropriate. The results can be utilized in helping the interaction between the manager and the employee associated with the PPE.
  • Karlsson, Kati (2015)
    The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of the mentors of adult practical nurse students. The focus was on "how the mentors experience the process of on-the-job learning" and "how the mentors can support student's professional growth during the on-the-job learning period". The data of this study consist of 12 semi-structured interviews of mentors of adult practical nurse students. The interviews were first tape recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Mentors described mentoring of students' as a process, that consist of elements such as mentor's own perceptions of her role as a mentor, adult learner's attitude towards learning, support of professional growth and the meaning of environment and support. The mentoring was seen as a process. Mentoring of an adult student was seen as a challenge but also as a chance because the adult learners do have plenty of experiences. Mentors pointed out various factors that have an effect on success of mentoring. Such factors were: mentors experience of their own role, students' attitude towards learning and guidance, supporting professional growth and importance of working environment as well co-operation with educational institution. Mentors experience of being an expert of their own work was important as well to be able to adjust guidance in benefit of a student's individual needs and goals. Adult learners were expected to take an active role of their own learning and to take benefit of their own experiences. Mentors did feel that they were responsible for students' professional growth. Working environment end co-operation with educational institution had important role in successful guidance. Mentors opinion was that guidance during the work-place learning should be mainly emphasized on mentor and workplace. Co-operation with educational institution was considered important but mentors also felt that they are best experts of their own work. Mentors hoped and expected support, resources and respect to their mentoring. .
  • Fager, Tuomas (2015)
    The meaning of this research is to describe how growth mindset and fixed mindset are connected to unemployed adult learners' agency and how these mindsets occur in their narrations. The research problem and question layout in this research are based on Carol Dwecks theory of growth and fixed mindset and on Albert Banduras theory on self-efficacy. In these theories of growth and fixed mindset seem to affect learners actions in different life sectors. Earlier research findings have shown that growth mindset affect on the state of performance and develop in turn one's fixed mindset seem to lead to fail. Aim of this research was to find how either one mindset behind the action would occur in learners' narrations. Research was carried out qualitatively. The material was gathered using individual interview and was analyzed using content analysis. Ten interviewees that studied in a Liberal education institution where participated. Age distribution of the examinees varied between 33 and 58. Findings indicated that mindsets occurred when students described their agency. The following phenomenon's were found in analysis on growth mindset: self-developing, effort adoring and self-efficacy. Instead fear of failure, lack of self-efficacy and lack of effort were significant in narrations of fixed mindset. Self-efficacy and growth mindset occurred together. Mindsets were bound by the situation in different contexts and occurrences. Self-efficacy and growth mindset appeared often together.
  • Heikkilä, Emilia (2018)
    This is a narrative research about the career paths of adult immigrants in Finland. The study is conducted in the context of a course that prepares immigrants to study in higher education in Finnish. Based on earlier research immigrants’ paths to work life are often complex and include overlapping studies. Different kinds of transitional courses and trainings have emerged to support educational transitions. There is little research of preparatory courses that focuses on the narratives of students taking part on a preparatory course. This research aims to describe career paths of the students studying in a preparatory course, and the most defining factors of the career paths progress. This phenomenon is specifically examined from a theoretic point of view based on agency of the students. 10 interviews were conducted with different students studying in a preparatory course. The course focused on the field of social and health services. The data was collected and analysed through the means of narrative methods. The interviews were semi-structured theme interviews that included questions about the students’ backgrounds, study experiences in the preparatory course and their visions for the future. The approach contains features of the life-course research branch in the narrative methodology. The results of the study illustrate the different factors on individual-, community- and society levels that affected the students’ career paths either progressively or restrictively. Different factors from individual attitudes and ways of action to policies of educational organizations affected the progression of career paths in the students´ stories. For example, motivation and Finnish language skills, the preparatory course and good studying opportunities in Finland appeared to be progressive factors for career paths. On the other hand, as restricting factors were described for example challenging life situation for studying, lack of high skill level Finnish teaching and bureaucratic obstacles in the education system. The different factors are put into perspective in type stories that describe the most typical career paths of the students in the preparatory course. For the highly educated the preparatory course seemed to be a secondary choice in their career paths and an adjustment to the current situation. The one’s with children described studying as motivating but challenging in their busy phase of life. The young adults who were the closest to the typical studying phase of life appeared to be very committed to their career choice and seemed to experience the least contradiction related to studying.